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No Student of Indian Literature, whether he has studied 
it in its ancient classic tongue, the Sanskrit, in which its 
earliest and most original works are written ; or has derived 
his acquaintance with it from the scantier range of some 
modern Indian vernacular, but has felt the difficulties that 
arise from the frequent mention of mythical personages, 
places, and objects, whose very names are so utterly 
unknown to him that he often even fails to recognise that 
thej are proper names (oriental characters having no capital 
letters to indicate this) while of the facts concerning them 
he has little or no means of information. Hence he has to 
trust to such information as he can obtain from his Munshi 
— information mostly very imperfect and often quite 
incorrect. The course of many years' reading gives the 
desired knowledge, but it is acquired at the cost of much 
time, labour, and research — nearly all of which might be 
saved did any such work exist for the Indian student, as 
the classical learner has long had in his " Lempriere," and 
now has in the well-known and far superior Dictionaries of 
Dr. William Smith. 

The Universities in India have placed the Sanskrit and 
some of the vernacular languages, in the same position a?; 


Professor Max Muller's History of Ancient Sanskrit 
Literature, and his Chips from a German Workshop, have 
supplied much information, and many extracts of great 
value have been taken from those works. The articles on 
Hinduism contributed by Professor GoLDSTUCKER to the 
English Cyclopaedia, and more especially to Chambers' 
Encyclopaedia, and the few parts of the Sanskrit Dictionary 
issued by the same learned author, have given to the world 
the fruits of great research, and the writer has availed 
himself of much new matter in the above publications. 

Many other works might be specified which have added 
to the interest and utility of the present volume. Among 
others the following should not be omitted. Ancient and 
Mediaeval India, by Mrs. Manning. Indian Epic Poetry, 
by Professor MoNiER Williams. Handbook of Sanskrit 
Literature, by G. Small, M. A. Ziegenbalg's Manual 
of the Mythology of Southern India. Tod's Annals and 
Antiquities of Rajasthan. Colebrooke's Essays, &;c., &c. 
A complete list of the editions used will be found on another 

In the Prospectus of this work published a year ago, the 
writer, in acknowledging that the Mythological legends of 
India had never commanded the attention accorded to those 
of Greece and Rome, expressed an opinion that this has arisen 
not only from the extravagant oriental imagination by 
which they are characterized, but chiefly from the fact that 
they have never yet been studied by Europeans in youth. 
There is no doubt that much of the charm of early Greek 


and Roman story belongs to the associations in the midst of 
which a knowledge of it was first acquired. The interest 
that educated Europeans feel in the classic tales of Greece 
and Rome may be traced to the familiarity acquired with 
them in the enthusiasm of youth, amid scenes and circum- 
stances which stand out through life as bright phases of their 

The beauty, however, as well as the value, of the two 
great Epics of India, is now acknowledged. They are no 
longer regarded as worthless fictions or mere idle flights of 
imagination.* It is now admitted that these two heroic 
poems, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, contain "all 
that we can ever know of India's early history ;" and that 
notwithstanding their exaggerations, they bring before us a 
state of society, and a condition of thought and feeling, 
through which mankind has had to pass in pre- historic 
times. The people who figured in these early tales were 
men and women ' of like passions with ourselves' — animated 
by the same joys and hopes — depressed by the same sorrows 
and disappointments. It is consequently interesting to 
observe the traces they have left behind them — " their foot- 

* " In the E^mayana all is pure measureless raving. An imagination 
which seems to combine the advantages of mania, superstition, and drunken- 
ness, is put a-going, makes a set of what it names worlds, of its own, and 
fills them with all sorts of agents ; gods, sages, demi-gods, monkeys, and a 
numberless diversity of fantastic entities, at once magnified and distorted 
to the last transcendent madness of extravagance, — some additional monster 
still striding and bellowing into the hurly-burly, whenever the poet thinks it 
not suflficiently turbulent' and chaotic."— John Foster, Eclectic Jleview, 
Sept. 1810. 


prints on the sands of time" — to glean all we can from the 
records they have left us of what people used to think and 
say and do at a period so remote as to take our thoughts to 
the very infancy of the human race. 

" Greatly as our times are distinguished by discovery and 
progress, we are yet continually reminded, amidst its changes, 
of that world of the Past out of which the Present is born. 
The century which has witnessed such onward strides of 
physical and political science, has also unlocked the secrets 
of the hieroglyphics of Egypt. Major Rawlinson is now 
giving a voice to dumb inscriptions upon Persian rocks ; and 
in the same way, in India's mythic poetry, we become con- 
temporaries with Greece's earliest history. The heroic times 
and youth of the race thus rise up in earth's later days, in 
startling contrast with our science and commerce, as if nature 
would expressly teach us that there lies a romance in the 
past which can never grow obsolete to man ; and howsoever 
our civilization may change us, and under all the new develop- 
ments of the human race, the memories of old ages will still 
survive and come back to us, like the stories of childhood 
among the sterner realities of manhood."* 

Bangalore, ^ j GARRETT. 

August 15, 1871. | 

• Westminster Review, Vol. L, p, 62. 




Adelung's Historical Sketch of Sanskrit Literature, Oxford, 1832. 

Asiatic Researches, 11 vols,, London, 1812. 

Ainslie's Materia Indica, 2 vols., London, 1826. 

Balfour's Cyclopajdia of India, Madras, 1862. -^ 

Ballantyne's Aphorisms of the Sankya Philosophy. \ Benares and 

Ballantyne's Aphorisms of the Nyaya Philosophy. y Allahabad, 

Ballantyne's Lecture on the Vedanta. j 1849 to 1852. 

Ballantyne's Tarka Sangraha. J 

Ballantyne's Christianity and Hindu Philosophy, London, 1859. 

Benares Magazine, 1851. 

Buchanan's (F.) Journey through Mysore, &c., 3 vols., London, 1807. 

Brande's Dictionary of Science, Literature and Art, 3 vols., London, 1 867 

Bernier's Travels in India, 2 vols., 8 vo., London, 1826. 

Bower's Chintamani, Madras, 1868. 

Colebrooke's (H. T.) Miscellaneous Essays, 2 vols., 8vo., London, 1837. 

Carey's Ramayana, Serampore, 1806. 

Cox's Mythology of the Arj^an Nations, 2 vols., 8vo., London, 1870. 

Calcutta Review, 35 volumes. 

Cudworth's Intellectual System of the Universe, 3 vols., 8vo., London. 

Chambers' Encyclopasdia, 10 vols. 

Dubois' Manners and Customs of People of India, quarto, London, 1817. 

Duff's India and Indian Missions, Edinburgh, 1841. 

Elliot's (H. M.) Memoir of the History, &c., of the Races of N. W. P. 

of India, by Beames, 2 vols., 1869. 
Elphinstone's History of India, 2 vols., London, 1843. 
Erskine's History of India, 2 vols., 1854. 
Elphinstone's Caubul, Account of, quarto, London, 1815. 
English Cyclopaedia. 

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, 2 vols., 8vo., London, 1834. 
Frere's Old Deccan Days, London, 1870„ 
Goldstucker's Sanf*krit Dictionary, 6 parts. 
Grote's History of (Heece, 12 vols., 8vo., London, 1846-56. 
Griffith's Idylls fr(/ta tlie Sanskrit, London, 1866. 
Griffith's Scenes from ti'e Ramayan, Benares, 1870. 
Griffith's Ramay.'ui of VaUniki, vols. 1 and 11, Benares, 1870-71. 


Hauq's, Dr. Aitareya Brahmanam of the Rig Veda, 2 vols., Bombay, 1 863. 

Halhed's Code of Gentoo Laws, London^ J 777. 

Hardy'3 (Spence) Eastern Monachism, London, 1850. 

Hardt's (Spence) Manual of Buddhism. 

IIeber's Journey through the Upper Provinces of India, 3 vols., 8vo., 

London, 1828. 
Hunter's Comparative Dictionary of the Non-Aryan Languages of 

India, quarto, 1869. 
Hunter's Annals of Rural Bengal, London, 1868. 
Jones', (Sir W.) Works, 13 vols., 8vo., London, 1807. 
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, 1835-45. 
Kennedy, Vans, Col., Researches into the Nature and Affinity of Ancient 

and Hindu Mythology, London, 1831. 
Marshman's History of India, 3 vols., London, 1867. 
Mill's History of India, by AVilson, 9 vols., London, 1858. 
Manning's, Mrs., Ancient and Mediaeval India, 2 vols., London, 1869. 
Moor's Hindu Pantheon, London, 1810. 
Muir's Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and History of the 

People of India, their Religion and Institutions, London, 1868, 

vol. i, 2d edition, vol. iii, 2d edition, 1868, vol. iv, 1863, vol. v, 1870. 
Muller's (Max) History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 1859. 
Muller's (Max) Chips from a German Workshop, 3 vols., 1868-70. 
Muller's (Max) Lectures on the Science of Language, 2 vols., 1866. 
Muller's (Max) Rig Veda Sanhita, London, 1869. 
Oriental Astronomer, a complete System of Hindu Astronomy, 

Jaffna, 1848. 
Sherring's Sacred City of the Hindus, London, 1868. 
Small's Handbook of Sanskrit Literature, London, 1866. 
Thomson's Translation of the Bhagavad-Gita, Hertford, 1855. 
Ward's View of the History, Literature and Mythology of the Hindus, 

3 vols., London, 1822. 
Wheeler's History of India from the Earliest Times, 2 vols., London, 

Wilson's (II. II.) Vishnu Purana, quarto, London, 1840. 
Wilson's Works, by Dr. Rost and others, 10 vols., London, 1862-70. 
Wilson's Select Specimens of the Theatre of the Hindus, 2 vols,, 

London, 1835. 
Wilson's Sanskrit and English Dictionary, Calcutta, 1840. 
Williams' Indian Epic Poetry, London, 1863. 
Williams' English and Sanskrit Dictionary, London, 1851. 


A. S. L. MuUer's Ancient Sanskrit Literature. 

A. 8^ M, L Mrs. Manning's Ancient and Mediaeval India- 

H. P. Moor's Hindu Pantheon. 

H. S. L, Handbook of Sanskrit Literature. 

I. E, P, Williams' Indian Epic Poetry. 

O. S. T. Muir's Original Sanskrit Texts. 

F. P, Wilson's Vishnu Purana, the quarto edition 

unless where the-Svo, edition is specified. 


At page 218, line 19, for Glendoveefs read Glendoveers, 

At page 688, line 13, for assist read assert. 

At page 518, line 6, for Griffiths', read Griffith's. 

This mistake has occurred several times in connection 
with this name. 



«5j Akara — The first letter in the Sanskrit and all Indian Alphabets. 
A name claimed by Krishna as the Supreme Being, (Bhagavat 
Gita, Chapter X, verse 33) similar to the name Alpha given in the 
Book of Revelation to the Lord Jesus Clirist. 

Abhasara — The name of the thirteenth heaven of Buddhism. 

Abhaya — (Fearlessness) one of the sons of Dharma, see Vishnu 
Puruna, p. 55. 

Abhidhana Chintamani— A vocabulary of the Jain doctrines 
written by Hemachandra, and described by Professor Wilson as 
one of great utility that may be relied on. 

Abhidharmma. — The third class of the sacred books of the 
Buddhists, which are called in Pali, the language in which they are 
written, Pittakattyan, from Pittakan, a basket or chest, and layo, 
three, the text being divided into three great classes. The Abhi- 
darmma contain instructions which the Buddhists imagine to be 
addressed to the inhabitants of the celestial worlds. This is 
accordingly accounted the highest class of sacred books, and the 
expounders of it are to be held in the highest honor, for it contains 
'pre-eminent truths, as the word itself implies. The books of which 
it consists are not in the form of sermons, but specify terms and 
doctrines, with definitions and explanations. The work contains 
seven sections. — Gardiner, 

Abhijit— A Yadava Chief, V. P., p. 436. 

AbhilXiani — The eldest sou of Brahma : he was an Agni, and 
by his wife Swaba had three sons of surpassing brilliancy, Pavaka, 
Pavamana, and Siichi. They had forty-five sons, who, with them- 
selves and Abhimani, constitute the forty-nine fires. V. P. 


Abhimana — lu Hindu philosophy means * selfish conviction.' 
See Colebrooke's Essays, Vol. I, p. 2-^2. 

Abhimanyu — l, A sou of Arjuua and Subhadra, renowned 
for his strength and valour. He was married to Uttara, the 
daughter of Raja Virata. He fought with distinguished valour 
on the first day of the great war ; cutting down the ensign in 
Bhishma's chariot. On the second day he slew a son of Duryod- 
haua, and when attacked by the latter was rescued by Arjuna. On 
the thirteenth day of the war, he was commanded by Yudhishthira 
to charge the Kauravas who were drawn up in the form of a 
spider's web; he drove his chariot into the enemy's ranks and per- 
formed prodigies of valour, but was finally overpowered by six 
warriors and slain. His posterity through the line of his son 
Tankshit^ were the royal race of the lunar line at Hastiu^pura, 
(old Delhi) ; 2, A son of Chdkshusha. V. P., 98. 

Abhiras — l, An ancient race of people inhabiting the North- 
West of India : they are mentioned in the Maha Bharata, the 
R^mayana, and in the V. P., but nothing is known of their history ; 
2, The name of a dynasty referred to in the V. P. supposed to 
liave reigned in Magadha, b. c. 200. 

Abhutarajasas — A class of gods of the fifth Mauwantara. 

Abhyudaya — Offerings to the progenitors of an individual and 
of mankind, which form part of a religious ceremony on an occasion 
of rejoicing or an accession of prosperity. See Vriddi Sradda. 

Abja — The father of Visala who became incarnate as Narayana. 

Aborigines — In all the large jungles and hilly tracts of country 
tliroughout India there exist thousands of human beings in a state 
not very different from that of the Germans as described by Tacitus 
nearly two thousand years ago. These primitive races are the 
ancient heritors of the whole soil, from all the rich and open parts 
of wliich they were expelled by the Hindu. 

These non- Aryan races have always been misrepresented and 
oppressed. The early Sanscrit writers depicted " the forest tribes 
ns black noseless demons, of small stature and inarticulate speech." 
In tbo two great epics and in the Puruuas they are termed 

ABO 3 

" During the struggle between the woru-out Sanscrit civilization 
and the impetuous prime of Islam, the Hindus discovered the value 
of the aboriginal races. Many chiefs of noble Aryan blood main- 
tained their independence by such alliances ; others founded new 
kingdoms amongst the forest peoples. To this day some of the 
tribes exhibit a black original section living side by side with a fair- 
skinned composite kindred, sprung from the refugees ; and the most 
exalted Hindu princes have to submit to a curious aboriginal rite 
on their accession to the throne. It was stated before the Royal 
Asiatic Society in 1852 that the investiture of the Rajput Rajah of 
Nerwar is not complete till one of his purely aboriginal subjects, 
a Mina, paints a round spot on his forehead with blood freshly 
drawn from the toe of another Mina. Without this formal recog- 
nition his non- Aryan subjects could not be depended upon ; when 
once it has been performed their fidelity has never been known to 
waver. They form the treasury and palace guards, hold the per- 
sonal safety of the prince entirely in their hands, and supply the 
sole escort to whom he entrusts the honor of his daughters when 
they go abroad. The Ranah of Udayapur, cited by General 
Briggs as the highest in rank of all the sovereigns in India, renders 
the same homage, however ill it may comport with his caste and 
personal dignity, to the traditions of his aboriginal subjects. 
Before he ascends the throne his forehead must first be marked 
with the blood of a Bhil. The Hiuduized chieftains of Central 
India, receive investiture by the blood of a pure Kol ; and so 
strong a hold has this ceremony on the minds of the people, that 
amongst the Cheris — once a great tribe, who defended themselves 
with honor against Shere Shah and the imperial army, now reduced 
to five or six families, — the head of the little community is still 
installed under the title of Rajah, with the token of the round spot 
of warm aboriginal blood. 

" But it is not the Hindus alone that have proved the loyalty of 
these neglected races. Scarcely a single administrator has ruled 
over them for any length of time, without finding his prejudices 
conquered, and his heart softened, and leaving on record his sorrow 
for their present condition, and his belief in their capabilities for 


good. * * * # *They 

are faithful, truthful and attached to their superiors, writes 
General Briggs, ready at all times to lay down their lives for 
those they serve, and remarkable for their indomitable courage. 
These qualities have been always displayed in our service. The 
aborigines of the Carnatic were the sepoys of Clive and of Coote. 
A few companies of the same stock joined the former great Captain 
from Bombay, fought the battle of Plassey in Bengal, and laid the 
foundation of our Indian empire. They have since distinguished 
themselves in the corps of Pioneers and Engineers, not only in 
India, but in Ava and Afghanistan, and in the celebrated defence 
of Jelalabad. An unjust prejudice has grown up against them in 
the armies of Madras and Bombay, where they have done best 
service, produced by the feelings of contempt for them, existing 
among the Hindu and Mahomedan troops. They have no pre- 
judices themselves, are always ready to serve abroad, and embark 
on board ship, and I believe no instance of mutiny has ever occur- 
red among them." '* Other testimonies are quoted by the same 
writer from equally high authorities all showing that the truth- 
fulness and fidelity of these despised races are most satisfactorily 

Their condition, after many centuries of suffering, is now likely 
to be improved. Their character and claims are beginning to be 
understood. It is seen too how they may be utilized by being 
made to take the place of English soldiers. " In interest, in race, 
in religion, in habits of life, they are cut off" from the Hindus and 
Mussulmans by a gulf of whoso breadth the people of Christian 
►•)tate8 can form no idea ; and their ethnical repugnance is kept in a 
constant glow by the remembrance of ancient wars and recent 
wrongs." By extensively employing these tribes as a military 
police and "as soldiers, we should not only relievo the English popu- 
lation of a burden, but we should offer a livelihood to brave 
predatory peoples wliora the stern order of British rule has 
deprived of an important source of subsistence."* See Bhils, 
Bhdteeas, Gonds, Ghtirkas, etc. 

• W. W. Hunter, Preface to Non-Aryan Dictionary. 


Achara — A name of Siva. A name of Vishnu. BrahxM, the 
Supreme Being, (in this sense it is sometimes Mas.) The word 
also means eternal beatitude, or exemption from further transmi- 
gration. Also religious austerity or moral merit. 

AcharaS — Observances of caste and order. The V. P. con- 
tains a complete and systematic description of the Acharas, or 
personal and social customs and obligations of the Hindus. See 
Chapter VIII et seq. 

Acharya — The term Acharya sometimes means a priest ; but 
its most usual meaning is a spiritual guide or preceptor, one who 
invests the student with the sacred thread, and who instructs him 
in the law of sacrifices, and the mysteries of religion. 

Achyuta — A common name of Vishnu : meaning " the 

Achyuta — Krishnananda Nithi, author of a commentary on 
the Siddhanta Kalpataru, called Krishualankara. 

Adbhuta — The Indra of the ninth Manwantara. 

Adharma — A son of Brahma — the husband of Falsehood 
(Mrisha) and the father of Hypocrisy and Deceit ; (Dambha and 
Maya). From them descended Covetousness, Wrath, Slander, 
Fear, &c. 

Adharma — l. Unrighteousness ; all behaviour contrary to 
the Sruti and Smriti, or religious and legal institutions. 

2. In philosophy, according to the Nyaya and Vaiseshika : 
moral demerit, the result of doing what is forbidden, the peculiar 
cause of pain, one of the twenty-four qualities united with sub- 
stance. According to the Sankhya, one of the changeable dispo- 
sitions of the mind, which being the efficient cause, makes the 
soul migrate into an animal, a deer, a bird, a reptile, a vegetable, a 
mineral. According to the Buddhistic doctrine it is the conse- 
quence of upadana or exertion of body or speech. According to 
the Jains it is that which causes the soul in general to continue 
embarrassed with body, notwithstanding its capacity for ascent and 
natural tendency to soar. 

3. As a personification, Adharma occurs in the Puranas as one 
of the Prajupatis or mind-born sons of Brahma ; his wife is 


Hins4 (mischief) on whom he begot Anrita (falsehood) and Nik- 
riti (immorality) or according to others, Mrisha (falsehood) and 
his children Dambha (hypocrisy) and Maya (deceit) who were 
adopted by Nirriti (misfortune). Adharma is also mentioned as one 
of the eighteen servants of the sun. V. P. 

1. Adhidaiwata — " The Supreme Being in his personality, 
considered as a deity, and therefore the Supreme Being in his 
relation to the gods. This includes the two parts, the essence of 
spirit, and matter, called 

(a) Adhydtma, the essence of spirit, the origin of souls, 
and the Supreme Being in his relation to man or individual soul ; 

(h) Adhibhuta, the material essence, or the Supreme Being 
in his relation to matter. 

2. The one indivisible (akshara) ; that is, the universal energy 
called indivisible, as contrasted with individual souls {kshard). 

3. Adhiyajnay the Supreme Being as Vishnu or Krishna, a 
manifest object of worship, and therefore the Supreme Being in 
his relation to religion." — J. C. Thomson. 

Adhipurusha— The presiding spirit of the Universe — descend- 
ed from Vishnu. 

Adhiratha— A son of Satyakarman, one of the kings of Anga. 
He found Kama in a basket on the banks of the Ganges, where he 
had been exposed by his mother Pritha. 

Adhogati — The Jains believe that below this world there is a 
world called Adhogati^ the Abyss, the nethermost hell, above 
which there are seven infernal worlds ; and above these again are 
ten PavanalokaSf purifying worlds, (Purgatories) above which is 
this world of earth . 

Adhosiras—Oue of the divisions of the Hindu Hell (or Nara- 
ka) in which persons are punished for bribery. V. P. 

Adhyaropa — A technical term used in the Veddnta system of 
Hindu Philosophy, meaning " erroneous imputation" — an allega- 
tion that the Unreal is the Real. One of the four Requisites to 
the study of the Vcdauta is, *' the discrimination of the eternal 
substance from the transient." This is the discerning that God is 


the eternal substance, and that all else is non-eternal. To under- 
stand this fully the Adhyaropa or erroneous imputation must be 

Adhyatma — The ministers of the Soul. A technical phrase 
in the Sankhya philosophy. Thirteen instruments or ministers of 
the soul are enumerated, each of which has a " province" and 
" presiding deity," viz : — 

1- — Intellect is a minister of the soul, 

*' Whatever is to be understood" is its proviace ; 
Brahma is its presiding deity. 

2 — Self-consciousness is a minister of soul ; 
Whatever is to be believed is its province, 
Rudra is its presiding deity. 

3 — Mind is a minister of soul ; 

Whatever is to be resolved on is its province, 
The moon is its presiding deity. 

4 — The hearing is a minister of soul, 

Whatever is to be heard is its province ; 

The Ether is its supernatural presiding power. 

5 — The touch is a minister of soul. 

Whatever is to be touched is its province ; 
The air is its supernatural presiding power. 

6 — The sight is a minister of soul. 

Whatever is to be seen is its province ; 
The sun is its presiding deity. 

7 — The taste is a minister of soul. 

Whatever is to be tasted is its province ; 
Varuna (the god of waters) is its presiding deity. 

8 — The smell is a minister of soul, 

Whatever is to be smelled is its province ; 

The earth is its supernatural presiding power. 
9 — The voice is a minister of soul, 

Whatever is to be uttered is its province ; 

Saraswati (or Fire) is its presiding deity. 


10 — The hands are ministers of soul, 

Whatever is to be grasped is their province ; 
Indra is their presiding deity. 

1 1 — The feet are ministers of soul, 

Whatever is to be gone over is their province ; 
Vishnu is their presiding deity. 

1 2 — The organ of excretion is a minister of soul. 
Whatever is to be excreted is its province ; 
Mitra is its presiding deity. 

13 — The organ of generation is a minister of soul, 
What is to be enjoyed is its province ; 
Prajapati is its presiding deity. — Ballantyne. 

Adhyatma Ramayana — A spiritualized version of the Rama- 
yaua, being an abridgment of the story, the authorship of which 
is attributed to the mythical Vyasa, in which the whole has been 
s^piritualized, and every conflicting incident either explained or 
omitted, whilst the greatest stress has been laid upon the character 
of Rama as a — " saviour and deliverer." — Wheeler. 

Adhyatmika — In the Sankhya philosophy. The pain which from any of the Adhyatma or instruments of soul. 

Adhvarya priests — The third class of priests at sacrifices, 
who had to prepare the sacrificial ground, to adjust the vessels, to 
procure the animals, and other sacrificial oblations, to light the fire, 
to kill the animal, and do all the manual labor. 

Adi— The first. A name given to the Bramha Purana, con- 
taining ten thousand stanzas. 

Adina — The son of Sahadeva, celebrated in the wars between 
the demons and the gods. 

Aditi— A daughter of Daksha, wife of Kasyapa, and mother 
of the gods. At the churning of the ocean, Aditi received 
the car-rings then produced, which were given her by Krishna. 
Her history, with that of the other daughters of Daksha, 
is regarded by Professor Wilson as an allegorical personifi- 
cation of AstronomicHl phenomena. ** The thoughts of primitive 
humaniry were not only dillcrent from our thought!?, l)ut 

ADI 9 

different also from what we think their thoughts ought to have 
been. The poets of the Veda indulged freely in theogonic specula- 
tions without being frightened by any contradictions. They knew 
of Indra as the greatest of gods, they knew of Agni as the god of 
gods, they knew of Varuna as the ruler of all ; but they were by 
no means startled at the idea that their Indra had a mother, or that 
their Agni was born like a babe from the friction of two fire-sticks, 
or^that Varuna and his brother Mitra were nursed in the lap of 
Aditi." (Max Muller). " Aditi is an object of frequent celebra- 
tion in the Rig-veda, where she is supplicated for blessings on. 
children and cattle, for protection and for forgiveness." (Muir.) 
*' Aditi, an ancient god or goddess, is in reality the earliest name 
invented to express the Infinite ; not the Infinite as the result of a 
long process of abstract reasoning, but the visible Infinite, visible 
by the naked eye, the endless expanse, beyond the earth, beyond 
the clouds, beyond the sky. If we keep this original conception of 
Aditi clearly before us, the various forms which Aditi assumes, 
even in the hymns of the Veda, will not seem incoherent." — 

Dr. Muir, in an elaborate article, discusses the following points : 
" Aditi as the mother of the Adityas." " Is Aditi ever identified 
with the sky ?" " Aditi seems to be distinguished from the earth." 
" Aditi may be a personification of universal nature." " Aditi as a 
forgiver of sin." "Aditi's position sometimes subordinate." 

In the two epics, and in the Bhagavata Purana, Aditi is 
described as the wife of Kasyapa, and the mother of Vishnu in his 
dwarf incarnation : " An older authority however, the Vaj- 
sanhita, gives quite a different account of the relation of Aditi to 
Vishnu, as it represents her to be his wife. In the following 
passage of the Tattiriya-sanhita also she is similarly described. 
<' Supporter of the sky, sustainer of the earth, sovereign of this 
w^orld, wife of Vishnu, may the all-embracing and powerful Aditi, 
filling us with vigour, be auspicious to us (abiding) in her lap."— 
3Iuir, 0. S. T., Vol. F, p. 53. 

Aditya— The Sun, called also Surya, (and Vivaswat) the chief 
of the gods at a very early period. The twelve solar dynasties, or 


10 ADO— ADR 

persouificatious of the sun under a different name and sign of the 
zodiac in each month of the year, are called Adityas. They belong 
to a period before the time of the Vedas, when the worship of the 
elements, particularly of the sun, was first enriched and extended 
by fancy. The name, Adityas, is a matronymic from Aditi. The 
various stories related of the sun, or of the Adityas, will be given 
in connection with the histories of the demi-gods to which they 
refer. Vishnu is called chief of the Adityas. — See Appendix. 

Adoption — If a married brahman is without male issue he 
.is required to procure a son by means of adoption. He must have 
a son to perform his obsequies, or believes he would be excluded 
from happiness after death. So prevalent is this notion amongst 
the Hindus that women who have only daughters will themselves 
find their husbands a second wife, notwithstanding all the incon- 
veniences involved. " The adopted son wholly renounces all claim 
on the property of his natural father, and acquires an unlimited 
right of succession to all that belongs to his adopted father. From 
him he is entitled to maintenance and education, as if he were his 
own son ; and to receive, through his means, the advantages of the 
Triple cord, and of being settled in marriage. The adopted son is 
obliged, on his part, to take care of his acquired parents in their 
old age, and attend to their funeral when they die. He farther 
enters into the Gotra or lineage of him by whom he is adopted ; 
and is considered as descended from the same ancient stock. When 
the ceremonies of adoption commence the new parents perform one 
which is held to be the most important and essential of any, by 
tying round the loins of the youth that little string which every 
male child in India (not an outcast) is ceremoniously invested with 
at the age of two or three years. If the ceremony has been pre- 
viously performed by the natural parents, the adopting ones break 
tlie cord, in token of dissolving the Gotra from which the child 
descended ; and put in a new one in sign of being called to theirs. 
On tliis, as in all other solemn occasions, their first care is to select 
an auspicious day, by the help of astrology. The child adopted 
in.'iy be a lelative or not, but must be of the same caste." — Dubois. 

Adrika — TIjo moliier of \\f/(isn. " The mmii Patdsara, hav- 
in<f occasion to cross over i'K»ni one side oi' ihe Ganjics to the olbcr 

ADR— AD V 11 

bank, employed a ferry boat, rowed by a fisherman's daughter, 
towards whom he felt an attraction ; the consequence of which was 
the birth of a son. A Tamil version of the Bhdratam enif]jmatizes 
the matter, by stating that Vydsa was born from a fish ; but the 
Sanskrit original, not remarkable for fastidiousness, states the case 
with all simplicity." — Taylor. 

Adrisyanti — The wife of Sakti, and mother of Pardsara, 
which see. 

Advaita — Tlie name of a school of philosophy and theology, 
established by Sankaruchurya, founder of the monasterium of Srin- 
geri, near the Tumbiidra river. The system regards the Supreme 
spirit and the human spirit as one ; in degradation through ignor- 
ance, and re-absorbed on obtaining true wisdom. It regards the 
world as an illusion ; all external objects as different forms of the 
one deity, besides whom there exists nothing else. As gold is one, 
though in various forms, as money, ear-rings and other ornaments, 
so the one sole existent deity is found in all the various forms that 
appear to exist around us. " The Veddiita of Vydsa, which con- 
sidered all existing beings and things to be an evolution of deity, 
and the deity in and throughout all beings and things, was, by 
Saiikardchdrya, drawn out to the full consequence ; which is, that 
the soul of man is a part of deity, not different ; the body is a tem- 
porary prison ; on its decease the soul flows into deity, as air in a 
closed earthen vessel, when this is broken, flows into the common 
atmosphere. It does not, however, appear that the idea of deity, 
on this system, philosophically includes personality ; but means the 
supreme universe. It leans towards the female energy system ; of 
matter (or nature) being the great spontaneous mother. Sankard- 
clidrya discoursed freely of Siva and Pdrvati, and wrote hymns to 
both ; maintaining, besides, the oneness of Bramha, Vishnu and 
Sivar There are many treatises in Tamil, Telugu and Canarese, 
on the Adwaita philosophy, which seems to have been made a 
special study in the south more than the north of India. 

Advaitananda — The author of a commentary on the Vedanta; 
and preceptor of Sadanauda who wrote the Vedanta Siii-a. Nothing 
ccrluin i« known as to the time when he lived. 

12 ADY— AGA 

Adyas — One of the five classes of gods prevailing in the sixth 
Manwantara, of which period Chakshusha was the Manu. 

Agada — One of the eight branches into which medical science 
is divided by the Hindus. Agada treats of the best antidotes to 

Agama — A divine system of doctrine. 

Agastya — A great sage whose hermitage was situated in a 
beautiful locality, on the borders of a forest near the Viudhya 
mountains. Rama, with his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana, 
paid the sage a visit, which is thus narrated in the Ramayana ; " As 
they went they beheld the trees of the forest in full flower, sur- 
rounded by climbing plants, broken by the trunks of sportive 
elephants, enlivened with playful monkeys, and vocal with joyous 
birds. Rama, as he viewed the beautiful wilderness, said to his 
brother Lakshmana : — " The hermitage of Agastya appears in 
view ; this is the abode of that sage who freed the southern 
quarter from the Rakshasas ; at whose command the Vindhya 
mountain forbore to rise higher in the sky ; who drank up the sea 
abounding in crocodiles and great fishes ; who was entreated by 
the gods, with Indra at their head, to destroy the Danavas : O 
Lakshmana, here will I spend the remainder of my exile : Here 
the perfect men, the great sages, cast off their old bodies, and 
ascend in new bodies to heaven on chariots as resplendent as the 

Agastya presented Rama with the bow of Vishnu, the arrow of 
Brahma, two inexhaustible quivers and a scimitar ; also with a 
superb coat of mail which had been given to the sage by Indra. 

The Ramdyana gives the following legend of Vatapi and llwala 
who were destroyed by Agastya : — " In former times, two cruel 
Rakshasas, the devourers of Brahmans, resided here, and their 
names were Vatapi and llwala, and llwala was accustomed to 
assume the form of a Brahman, and speak the sacred tongue, and 
invite the Brahmans under pretence of solemnizing a Sraddha : 
Tlicu his broHicr Vatapi assumed the form of a ram, and was con- 
secrated for the liacrificc by llwala ; and when the Brahmans had 

AGA— AGH 13 

eaten the ram, Ihvala called to his brother to come forth, and 
Vatupi came forth out of the stomachs of the Brahmans, bleating 
like a sheep, and tearing his way through their bodies. Thousands 
of Brahmans were thus destroyed, when Agastya came to this 
spot, and accepted the invitation to a Sraddha ; and Agastya had 
not eaten for many years, and he devoured the whole of Vatapi in 
the form of a ram, and then prayed to Gauga ; and the goddess 
appeared in his aims dish, and he touched the water, and pro- 
nounced her divine name : Then when Ilwala called on his brother 
to come forth, Agastya laughed and said : — ' Your brother has 
been eaten by me in* the form of a ram and has now gone to the 
abode of Yama, and for him there is no coming forth :' Ilwala in a 
rage began to assail Agastya, but was immediately consumed by 
the fire which flashed from the eyes of the sage : Tliis hermitage, 
which formerly belonged to the two Rakshasas, is now inhabited 
by the brother of Agastya." Goldstucker writes, " Agastya was 
the reputed author of several hymns of the Rig Veda. He is 
represented as of short stature, and is said by some to have been 
born in a water jar. He is also mentioned as one of the oldest 
medical authors, considered as the civilizer of the south and as the 
regent of the star Canopus." 

Agastya — A celebrated Tamil author, who is considered by 
Dr. Caldwell to have lived in the 6th century, b. c, but the 
Tamuliaus assign a much earlier date. 

Agathamma — One of the tutelary goddesses of Madras. 

Aghorahanta — The Priest of Chdnumdd, a terrific goddess' 
in the drama of Malati and Madhava. 

Aghori, or Aghorapanthi— The original Aghori woiship 
seems to have been that of Bevi in some of her terrific forms, and 
to have required even human victims for its performance. In 
imitation of the formidable aspect under which the goddess was 
worshipped, the appearance of her votary was rendered as hideous 
as possible, and his wand and water-pot were a staff set with bones 
and the upper half of a skull: the practices were of a similar 
nature, and flesh and spirituous liquors constituted, jit will, the 
diet of the adept. 


" The regular worship of this sect has long since been suppressed, 
and the only traces of it now left are presented by a few disgust- 
ing wretches, who, whilst they profess to have adopted its tenets, 
make them a mere plea for extorting alms. In proof of their indif- 
ference to worldly objects, they eat and drink whatever is given to 
them, even ordure and carrion. They smear their bodies also with 
excrement, and carry it about with them in a wooden cup, or skull, 
either to swallow it, if by so doing they can get a few pice ; or to 
throw it upon the persons, or into the houses of those who refuse 
to comply with their demands. They also for the same purpose 
inflict gashes on their limbs, that the crime of blood may rest upon 
the head of the recusants ; and they have a variety of similar dis- 
gusting devices to extort money from the timid and credulous 
Hindu. They are fortunately not numerous, and are universally 
detested and feared." — Wilsoii, Vol. /, p. 234. 

Agneya — The name of one of the eighteen Purdnas. [See 
Agni Purana.] 

Agneyastram — The name of the fiery weapon given by Aurva 
to Sagara, and with which he conquered the barbarians who had 
invaded his patrimonial possessions. 

Agneyi — The wife of Uru, a descendant of Dhruva, and mother 
of six excellent sons, Anga, Sumanas, Swati, Kratu, Angiras and 

Agni—" The deity of Fire, one of the most ancient and most 
sacred objects of Hindu worship. As such, Agni is considered as 
the mediator between men and gods, as protector of mankind and 
their home, and as witness of their actions ; hence his invocation 
in all solemn occasions, at the nuptial ceremony, &c. He is one of 
the eight Lokapalas, or guardians of the world, and especially the 
Lord of the south-east quarter. He appears in the progress of 
mythological personification as a son of Angiras, as a king of the 
Pitris or Manes, as a Marut, as a grandson of Sandila, as one of the 
seven sages during the reign of Tamasa, or the fourth Manu, as a 
star, and as a Rishi or inspired autlior of several Vaidic hymns."* 

* GoldstUcker. 

AGNI 15 

He is generally described as having two faces, three legs and 
seven arms, of a red or flame color, and riding on a ram. Before 
him is a swallow-tailed banner on which a ram is also represented. 
He is described by others as a corpulent man of a red complexion, 
with eyes, eyebrows, head and hair, of a tawny color, riding on a 
goat. From his body issue seven streams of glory, and in his right 
hand he holds a spear. Agni is the son of Kusyapa and Aditi. His 
consort or Sakti is Swaha, a daughter of Kasyapa. Brahman priests 
are ordered to maintain a perpetual fire ; and in the numerous 
religious ceremonies of the Hindus Agni is commonly invoked. 
The god is sometimes figured with a forked representation of fire 
issuing from his mouth ; and sometimes with seven tongues of fire. 
(See Colebrooke's Essays.) 

Agni, like ludra, is sometimes addressed as the one great god 
who makes all things, sometimes as the light which fills the heavens, 
sometimes as the blazing lightning, or as the clear flame of earthly 
fire. The poets pass from one application of the word to another 
with perfect ease, as conscious that in each case they are using a 
mere name which may denote similar qualities in many objects. 
There is no rivalry or antagonism between these deities. Agni is 
greatest, Varuua is greatest, and Indra is greatest : but when the 
one is so described, the others are for the time unnoticed, or else 
are placed in a subordinate position. Thus Agni is said to com- 
prehend all other gods within himself, as the circumference of a 
wheel embraces its spokes ;* and not unfrequeutly Indra is said to 
be Agni, and Agni is said to be Indra ; while both alike are Skam- 
bha, the supporter of the world. 

Hence the character of the god is almost wholly physical. The 
blessings which his worshippers pray for are commonly temporal. 
In the earlier hymns he is generally addressed as the fire, which to 
mortal men is an indispensable boon ; in the more developed cere- 
monialism of later times he is chiefly concerned with the ordering 
of the sacrifice. 

***** "As the special guardian and regulator of sacrifices 
Agni assumes the character of the Hellenic Ilestra, and almost 

* Mxiir. 


attaius the majesty of the Latin Vesta. He is the lord aud protector 
of every house, and the father, mother, brother aud son of every 
one of the worshippers. Duriug life he shields men from harm, 
aud at death he becomes the Psycho ponipos, as conveying the 
* unborn part' of the dead to the unseen world."* 

2. Agni is also the name of a star in the tail of the planetary 

Ag"!!! Purana — This Purana derives its name from its having 
been communicated originally by Agni, the god of Fire, to the 
Muni Yasishtha, for the purpose of instructing him in the two-fold 
knowledge of Brahma. By him it was taught to Vytisa, who 
imparted it to Siita ; and the latter is represented as repeating it to 
the Rishis at Naimisharanj-a. The contents of different copies vary 
from fourteen to sixteen thousand stanzas. The early chapters of 
the work describe the Avataras, and in those of Rama and Krishna 
avowedly follow the Ramayana and Mahabharata. Other portions 
contain instructions for the performance of religious ceremonies — 
chiefly mystical forms of Saiva worship. There are also chapters 
descriptive of the earth and the universe, the duties of kings, &c., 
much of which has obviously been taken from the Vishnu and other 
Puranas. On these accounts Professor Wilson regards it as a com- 
paratively modern work, without " legitimate claims to be regarded 
as a Purana," and only " valuable as embodying and preserving 
relics of antiquity." 

Ag^nibahu — One of the ten sons of Priyavrata and Kamya, 
famous for strength and prowess. It is said of him in the V. P., 
that when he adopted a religious life, he remembered the occur- 
rences of a prior exlRtence, and did not covet dominion, but dili- 
gently practised the rites of devotion, wholly disinterested, and 
looking for no reward. 

Agnidhra— The brother of the above, was made by his father 
king of Jambudwipa, and had nine sons who are enumerated and 
more or less celebrated in the Puranas. 

Agnihotra — A burnt offering, or libation of clarified butter on 
sacred fire. 

♦ Cox, Mythology of Aryan Natioui. 


Agnishtoma — l, A son of the Manu Chakshusha ; 2, the 
name of a sacrifice produced from the eastern mouth of Brahma, 
along with the Gayatri, and the Rig Veda. V. P., 42. 

Agnishwattas — A class of Pitris, a divine race inhabiting 
celestial regions of their own. This class consists of those house- 
holders who when alive did not maintain their domestic fires, nor 
offer burnt sacrifices. Some of the Puranas identify the Agnishwat- 
tas with the seasons. V. P., p, 239. 

Agnivarchas — One of Suta's scholars, who became a celebrated 
teacher of the Puranas. 

Agnivarna — A prince whose name occurs in various Puranas ; 
but little more is known of him beyond his being a descendant of 

Agrahara— A village granted tobrahmans by government free, 
or at a favorable assessment ; there are three kinds, viz : — 

1 . Sarvamanya — rent free. 

2. Jodi — partially rent free. 

3. Trishvega — one-third part of the produce is given for rent. 

Agrahayana — The name of one of the lunar months. 

Agrasya — The first day of the Hindu year which falls on the 
new moon in March. A feast goes on for three days at this period 
— the new year's day festival. 

Ahalya — The wife of the rishi Gautama, of whom the following 
legend is related : One day when the sage was absent from his dwell- 
ing, the mighty Indra passed by, and burned with an impure passion 
for the wife of Gautama ; he entered the hut in the disguise of 
the sage, and began to enti-eat Ahalya ; and Ahalya, knowing him 
to be the Raja of the celestials, in the wantonness of her heart 
yielded to his desires. Then the sovereign of the gods left the 
hermitage, but at that moment Gautama entered, and he was invin- 
cible even to the gods, through the power of his austerities. Perceiv- 
ing him, Indra was overwhelmed with sadness ; and the sage, 
beholding the profligate lord of gods in his disguise, thus addressed 
him in words of dreadful anger : — ' O depraved wretch, assuming 
my foi-m you ha^ e perpetrated this greal crime ! Therefore from 


this momcut do you become a eunuch !' The great sage then: pro- 
nounced this curse upon his wife Ahalya : — ' sinful wretch, for 
thousands of years shall you remain in the forest, abandoned by all' 
and invisible to all, until Rama, the son of Dasaratha, shall enter 
here, and you from beholding him shall be cleansed from all sin,, 
and again approach me without fear/ With these words the illus- 
trious Gautama abandoned this hermitage, and performed religious 
austerities on the summit of the Himalaya mountains. 

Having heard this holy legend, Rama entered the hermitage^ 
preceded by Viswamitra ; and at that moment, Ahalya was released' 
fiom her curse, and became visible to all ; smU a shower of flowers 
fell from heaven, and divine music was heard ia the sky. Then 
the illustrious Gautama, beholding with divine eye that his consorfe 
was cleansed from all sin, repaired again to his hermitage ; and 
haviug paid d-ue honors to Rama, he engaged in sacred austerities 
with his purified spouse. And Rama proceeded to Mithila with his 
brother and Viswamitra. — It is said that Indira means the sun, and 
Ahalya, the night ; and as the night is seduced and ruined by the 
gun of the nwraing therefore is Indra called the paramour of Ahalya. 

Ahankara — Consciousness, or Egotism. The sense of Ahau- 
kara, says Professor Wilson, cannot be very well rendered by any 
European term. It means the principle of individual existence^ 
*hat which appropriates perceptions, and on whii*h depend the 
Motions, I think, I feel, I axa. It might be expressed by the pro- 
prositiou of Descartes reversed. ' Sum, ergo cotigo, sentio,' &c. The 
equivalent emtpLoyed by Mr. Colebrooke, egotism, has the advantage 
ef an analogous etymology. In the S4nky» Karika three varieties 
ef Ahankara are described. From the first kind proceed the senses ^ 
from the third the unconscious elements ; both kinds being equally 
inert of themBelves, are rendered productive by the co-operation of 
the second, the energetic modification of Ahankara, which is there- 
fore said to be the origin both of the sentics and the elements. 
Colloquially ^ Ahankira" is still in common use throughout India 
in the sense of pride, or great conceit. 

Ahar — Day. One of the fornii: of Bramha during the work of 
Cicatiou. V. P., p. 10. 

AHI -AJA 19 

Ahikshetra — The capital of the northern portion of Pancbala, 
«upposed to be the same as Adis&thi-«s in Ptolemy. 

Airavata — The king of elephants, pt'oduced fi'om the churning 
of the ocean, and taken by Iitdra, who subsequently used it as his 
vehicle. The name has been derived from Iravat " watery," and 
supposed to allude to the north, as the quarter whence rain comes, or 
to the original idea of a cloud, in which Indm as the king of clouds, 
is mounted, and thei'efoi-e caUed his elephant. Professor Wilsoii 
refers it to the fact of his being produced from the watery ocean ; 
2, Airavata is also the name of tlie north portion of the sun*s path 
^raong the lunar asterisms ; 3, The ijame of a celebrated serpent 
with many heads, one of the progeny of Kadt'u* 

Aitareya BrahmaBam of the Rig Veda : this wwk contains 
the earliest speculations of the Brahma«s on the meaning of the 
Sacrificial Prayei'S, and on the origin, performance, and meaning of 
the Rites of the Vedic Religion. It consists of forty Adyhayas. 
Translated and edited by Dr. Martin Haug, 2 ^^ols. \2 mo., Bom- 
bay, 1863. 

Aitareya -^r any aka — A commentaiy ow th-e begiuHing of the 
Eig Veda. It is ascribed to Mahidasu the son of Itara. 

Aja — The unbonu A name of Bramha ; of Siva ; of Vishnu ; 
also of Kama, or Capid. Aja is also the proper name of a mythical 
|)rince, the sou of Raghu, and father of Dasaratha. This prince 
forms the subject of the first and longest of Mr. Griffiths' beautiful 
Idylls from the Sanscrit. The story is taken from the Raghu- 
vansa of Kalidasa. (See Raghu.) The childhood and youth of 
Aja are described in glowing terms, and in due course he was sent 
by his father to the Swayamvara of the princess Indumati Devi, 
daughter of the Raja of Vidarblia. On his way thither while 
resting in the heat of the day, the encampment was disturbed by a 
wild elephant which Aja ordered to be shot. Oa beiag pierced 
by an arrow a figure of great splendour issued from the body of 
the elephant ; and standing in mid-air thus spoke : " Aja Maharaya, 
I was formerly a gandharva, but for mocking a holy rishi was 
ourBed to be born in an insane elephant; but on my begging for 


mercy was told I should be released by the son of Raghu Maharaja, 
called Aja, when on his way to be married." He then gave Aja 
the arrows used by the gandharvas and instructed him in the use 
of them. 

On arriving at the capital of Yidarbharaya he was treated with 
great respect, and was selected from amongst all the assembled 
princes by the fair Indumati Devi, who intimated her choice by 
herself placing the garland on the neck of Aja. In the contests 
that ensued with the other disappointed suitors Aja obtained a com- 
plete victory by means of the arrows received from the gandharva. 
He then returned to his father's kingdom, with his lovely bride ; 
succeeded to the throne, and reigned wisely and well for many 

After the birth of his distinguished son Dasaratha (father of 
Rama) his beloved wife Indumati Devi was killed by the fall of 
Narada's garland, when asleep in an arbor of the summer palace. 
On Dasaratha's attaining his majority Aja is said to have ascended 
to Indra's paradise, leaving his body between the rivers Ganges 
and Sarayu. 

Ajagava — The bow of Mahadeva which fell from the sky, at 
the birth of Prithu, with celestial arrows and panoply from heaven. 

Ajaka — l, A descendant of Pururavas, the son of Sumanta 
(or according to others of Sunaha) and grandson of Jahnu ; 2, A 
king of Magadha of the line of Pradyota. 

Ajamadha — l, A son of Suhotra and author of vaidic hymns ; 
2, The twenty-sixth king of the lunar dynasty ; 3, A surname 
of Yudhishthira, the friend of Aja. 

Ajamidha — A son of Hastiu, the founder of the celebrated 
city of Hastiuapura, finally ruined by the encroachments of the 
Ganges, but vestiges of which were lately to be traced along the 
river nearly in a line with Delhi, about 60 miles to the east. 

Ajanta — A river in the hills below the river Tapti, to the 
north of Bombay. *' In this ravine, somewhere about the first 
century of our era, Buddhists began to excavate architectural 

AJA— AJI 21 

caves. There are twenty-six in all, and of these twenty-two are 
conventual abodes, whilst the remaining four are Chaitya halls or 
places of worship," A. and M. I., p. 401. A full description of 
these caves is given in Fergusson's History of Architecture. It is 
seen from the costume carefully represented in the pictures at 
Ajanta, that the Hindus still dress in the fashion that then pre- 
vailed ; and which was described by the Greeks who accompanied 
Alexander the Great to India, as consisting of two cloths, one 
reaching to the middle of the leg, whilst another is folded around 
the shoulders. The cloth is described as being made from wool 
which grows in trees. 

AjapaS— Sons of Kardama, Pitris of the Vaisyas, called also 
Kavyas and Suswadhas. 

Ajapashya — A surname of Bajivalochana, the son of Swefa- 
karna ; his sides were black like the skin of certain goats, when he 
was drawn out of the water, after having been found exposed by 
his mother and purified by two sons of Sravishta. 

Ajavithi— A division of the lunar mansions; 

Ajigarta — A Rishi mentioned in the Aitareya Brahmana. He 
lived in the forests with his three sons Sunapuchha, Sunahsepha 
and Sunolangula. He sold his son Sunahsepha to be offered as a 
sacrifice, showing that the Brahmans at that early period were 
familiar with the idea of human sacrifices. " If we accept the 
Aryan origin of Ajigarta, the seller and butcher of his own son, it 
is important to remark how great a difference there must have been 
between the various Aryan settlers in India * * * *. 
Yet there remains the fact that, with all the vaunted civilization 
of the higher Aryan classes, there were Aryan people in India to 
whom not only a young prince could make the offer of buying their 
children, but where the father offered himself to bind and kill the 
son whom he had sold for a hundred cows,"* 

Ajita — A form of Vishnu. " The unequalled energy of Vishnu 
combining with the quality of goodness, and effecting the preserva- 
tion of created things, presides over all the Manwantaras, in the 
form of a divinity." V. P., p. 264. 

* Max MUller, A. S. L., p. 415. 

22 AJI— AKR 

Ajita — Unconquered ; unexcelled. — 1, The proper name, of 
several gods and persons, viz., Vishnu, Siva ; 2, Oae of the seven 
Eishis who preside during the reign of the fourteenth Manu ; 
S, A name of Maitreya or a future Buddha ; 4, The second of 
the Arhats or Jaina saints of the present Avasarpini ; 5, The 
attendant of the ninth Jaina Arhat ; 6, A descendant of Iksh- 
waku and a son of Jiiasatru by Vijaya. 

Ajitas — A class of deities whose history is thus given. In the 
beginning of the Kalpa twelve gods named Jayas were created by 
Brahma, as his deputies and assistants in the creation. They, lost 
in meditation, neglected his commands ; on which he cursed them 
to be repeatedly born in each Manwantara till the seventh. In 
the first they became Ajitas, 

Ajnana— A technical term used in the Veddnta system, 
meaning " ignorance," which the Vedantists declare is a somewhat 
that is not to be called positively either entity or non-entity — 
not a mere negation but the opponent of knowledge, consisting of 
the three fetters. According to the Naiy&yikas ajnana is merely 
the non-existence, or negation, {abhdva) of j nana. To deny this 
the writer calls it bJdva, implying that it is not abhdva. 

Akali — (Immortals). Zealots of the Sikh religion, soldiers of 
God, who with their blue dress and bracelets of steel, claimed for 
themselves a direct institution by Govindh Singh. They combined 
warlike activity with the relinquishment of the world, and became 
the armed guardians of Amritsir. It cost Ranjit Singh much time 
and trouble to reduce them to order. 

Akanithaka — The name of the twenty-second heaven of 

Akasa — Ether, the medium of sound. A very important 
* element' in the philosophy of the Puranas. See V. P,, p. 16, 17. 

Akasavani — A divine manifestation, in which the deity is 
heard but not seen. 

Akrura— The son of Swaphalka and Gandini who took charge 
of the celebrated Syamantaka jewel from Satadhanwan, when he 

AKS— AKU 23 

was pursued by Krishna ; aud' through the virtue of that gem 
there was no dearth nor pestilence in the whole country. When 
Krishna discovered that the precious jewel was in Akrura's pos- 
session he desired him to retain it ; Akrura, thus urged, afterwards 
wore it publicly round his neck, where it shone with dazzling 
brightness ; and he moved about like the su», wearing a garland of 
light, Akrura conveyed Krishna and Rama, when youths, to 
Mathura, where Krishna performed some of his great exploits. 

Akshst— A son of the great giant Ravana, who was slain by 

Akshata — Grains of rice tinged with a reddish hue, placed 
by the husband on the head of the iufaitt after the ceremony of 
Arati, and after the women have retired. 

Akskohini — An Army consisting of 109,350 infantry ; 6o,610 
cavalry ; 21,870 chariots ; and 21,870 elephants. 

Akuli — The name of one of the priests of the Asuias. It was 
lie who with another priest of the same class called Kilata, obtained 
permission from Manu to sacrifice for him, and took for the victim 
first a buM of Manu^s into which an Asura-slaying voice had entered. 
When it had been slaughtered the voice departed out of it and 
entered into Manu's wife Mauavi. " Wherever they hear her 
speaking, the Asuras and Raksliasas continue to be destroyed ia. 
consequence of her voice. The Asuras said : ' She does us yet 
more mischief; for the human voice speaks more.' Kilata and 
Akuli said, 'Manu is a devout believer : let us make trial of him V 
They cam« and saici to him * ManUy let us sacrifice for thee !' * With 
what (victim) ?' be asked. * With this (thy) wife,' they replied, 
*Be it so,' he answered. When sliie had been slaughtered the 
voice departed out of her and entered into the sacrifice and the 
sacrificial vessels. Thence they were unable to expel it. This is 
the Asura-slaying voice which speaks out (when the two stones 
are struck with the mmyd, as a part of the ceremonial). Wretched 
become the enemies of that m^u for whom, when he knows this, 
they cause this voice here to reverberate."* 

* Muir's 0. S. T,, vol. 1, p. 189, 

24 AKU— ALL 

Akuti — 1, The second daughter of Svayambhuva Manu and 
his wife Saturupa, the first pair. She was ' graced with loveliness 
and exalted merit.' She was married to Ruchi, and had twins. 
Yajna and Dakshina, who afterwards became husband and wife, 
and had twelve sons, the deities called Yamas. Dr. Muir remarks 
that the word is found in the Rig Veda with the signification of 
*' will" or " design ;" but appears to be personified in a passage of 
the Taittiriya Brahmana, where it is said. " L-a was the wife of 
the creators. Akuti kneaded the oblation." O. S. T., Vol. 1, 
p. 73. 2, Also the name of the wife of Chakshush. 

Aldika — King over the earth for sixty thousand and sixty 
hundred years ; this protracted existence was enjoyed through the 
favor of Lopamudra, and having lived till the period at which the 
curse on Kasi terminated, he killed the Rakshasa Kshemaka by 
whom the city had been occupied after it was abandoned by 
Divodasu, and caused the city to be re-inhabited. 

Alaka — The Himalayan residence of Kuvera the god of riches. 
It is termed in the " Cloud Messenger" the City of the Blessed ; 
and is described as unmatched for lovely girls, who learn to choose 
the flowers that suit them best. 

" The amaranth, bright glory of the spring ; 
The lotus gathered from the summer flood ; 
Acacias taught around their brows to cling ; 
The jasmine's fragrant white their locks to stud ; 
A.nd bursting at thy rain the young Kadamba bud."* 

Alakananda — One of the four great branches of the river 
Ganges, which was carried by Siva upon his head for a hundred 
years ; and was the river which raised to heaven the sinful sons of 
Sagara, by washing their ashes. 

Alambana^The exercise of the Yogi while endeavouring to 
bring before his thoughts the gross form of the Supreme Being. 
It also means the silent repetition of prayer. 

AUama Prabhu — Among the Vira Saivas a lesser incarna- 
* Griffiths' Translation. 

ALL— ALU 25 

tion, or form of Siva. He appears to have been a Brahman, who 
acted in close concert with the elder Basava ; whether as a primary 
instigator, or subsequent accomplice, is not clear. But he became 
Basava' s guru or spiritual adviser, and, as such, was concerned in 
the revolution at Kalyanapuri, in which the king Bijala was slain, 
and a new religion established. The Brabhu liiiga lila is a popular 
poem, in Telugu, and composed expressly in order to magnify the 
great excellencies of AUamd prabhu as a form of Siva^ and 
especially his chastity, that resisted all the fascinations of the 
tdmasa guna or evil portion of Pdrvati ; which became incarnate 
as a woman, Maya or Frans, in order to tempt him. " In the 
Basava purdnam^ AUamh prahhu is stated to have travelled 
about, and especially to Sri Sailam in Telingana, performing 
various wonders, and possessed of a body invulnerable. No 
record of the manner of his death has been observed." — ( Taylor.) 
There is a good abstract of Prabhu-linga lila, by C. P. Brown, in 
the Catalogue Raisonne, vol. 2, p. 838. 

AUoo— A raw hide used by the Rajputs to cover themselves 
when they assert their claim to a disputed piece of land. 

Aluvar — Rulers; twelve heads and original leaders of the 
Vaishnava faith in the Peninsula only. They were born in various 
places, and lived in different times. To understand their oflSce and 
importance the reader must be apprized that the Saiva system first 
obtained a hold and influence in the Peninsula ; and, in some 
instances, by exterminating the Buddhists or Jains who preceded 
them. The Vaishnavas, on their coming, had not only to deal with 
a rude and savage people, following superstitious customs, some of 
which continue to the present day, but also had to contend with 
the astute and powerful Saivas already in possession ; and some- 
times in the way of public disputation— as at Villiputtur in the 
Pandya kingdom, at Uriyur in the Chola kingdom, and at Sri 
Permattur in the Tondamandalam. These, or others, were engag- 
ed in translating portions of the Vedas into Tamil poetry, now 
known as the Tiru-morhi or sacred word. Different books exist, 
containing in all many thousand stanzas, said to indicate the idiom 
of foreigners. Twelve individuals, distinguished in these or other 



ways in the first establishment of Vaishnavism, were named Aluvar ; 
and are regarded with high veneration by modern votaries. An 
approximation towards deification has been assigned, by metaphori- 
cally viewing them as incarnations of Vishnu's arms, ornaments, or 
attendants. Their names in order are — 1, Poyalvar ; 2, Puthatal- 
var ; 3, Peyalvar ; 4, Tirumal Peyalvar ; 5, Namalv^r ; 6, Kula- 
sec'haralvdr ; 7, Periydlvar ; 8, Tirupanalvar ; 9, Tirumangayal- 
var ; 10, Tondamalvar ; 11, Yempramanar, or Yetiraja, or Rama- 
nujdchiiya ; 12, Kurattdlvar. — Taylor > 

Amara Kosha — A celebrated Sanscrit Vocabulary which is 
found in a more or less perfect state in all Indian languages. Like 
most other Sanscrit Dictionaries it is arranged in verse to aid the 
memory. Synonymous words are collected into one or more verses, 
and placed in fifteen different chapters, which treat of as many 
different subjects. The sixteenth contains a few homonymous 
terms arranged alphabetically, in the Indian manner, by the final 
consonants. The seventeenth chapter is a pretty full catalogue of 
indeclinables, which European philologists would call adverbs, pre- 
positions, conjunctions, and interjections, but which Sanscrit gram- 
marians consider as indeclinable nouns. The last chapter of the 
Amara ICosha is a treatise on the gender of nouns. See Cole- 
brooke's Essay on the Sanscrit and Pracrit Languages. 

Amara Sinha — The author of the Amara Kosha. He was 
also an eminent poet, and one of the nine gems, as these poets 
were termed, who were the ornaments of Vicramaditya's court. 
Unfortunately he held the tenets of a heterodox sect, and his 
poems perished in the persecutions fomented by intolerant 
philosophers against the persons and writings of both Jainas and 

Amara vati — The capital of Indra, built by Visvakarma, the 
architect of the gods. It is described as 800 miles in circumfer- 
ence, and 40 miles high. Its pillars are composed of diamonds ; its 
thrones of pure gold ; it is surrounded with gardens and fountains, 
while music and dancing entertain the celestial inhabitants. There 
is a ruined town called Amara vati on tJie banks of the river Kistua 
containing numerous antiquities in the form of sculptures, all of 

AMA— AMB 27 

Buddhist origin. Sir Walter Elliot and Mr. Fergusson made consi- 
derable explorations there. The ruined Dagoba whence the relics 
were taken was on a mound of 150 feet diameter, now converted 
into a tank. It is called Dipaldinna, the Mound of Light. 

Amavasya— The day of * conjunction,' just before new-moon 
— a fast day for all brahmans. 

Amba — The eldest daughter of the Raja of Kasi. She was 
taken with her two sisters by Bhishma, when he conveyed them 
away from the Swayamvara to be the wives of Raja Vichitravirya. 
But on the day when the marriage was to be performed, Amba 
said that her father had already betrothed her to the Raja of Salwa, 
and prayed that she might be sent to him. Bhishma accordingly 
sent her under a safe conduct, to the Rdja of Salwa, and Amba 
related how she had been carried away, and had now come to fulfil 
her betrothal ; but the Raja of Salwa said, " You have entered the 
dwelling of a strange man and I will not take you to be my wife ;" 
and ordered his servants to drive her from the city : she went into 
the jungle and perished miserably. (Maha bharata) Another 
legend says she was born again as a man named Sikhandin and slew 
Bhishma the author of all her misfortunes. 

Amba and Ambika— Names of Tdrvati, the SaM of Siva. 

Ambi and Ambalika — The sisters of Amba, who became the 
two widowed wives of Vichitravirya, on whom the Muni Vyasa 
begot Dritardshtra and Fdndie. See Vyasa. 

Ambarisha — l, The son of the great monarch Mandhatri. 
He had fifty sisters, all of whom were married to the sage Saub- 
hari ; 2, The name of several other princes mentioned in the 
Puranic histories. 

Ambhansi — A mystic term for the four classes of beings, gods, 
demons, men, and pitris. It means literally * waters.' 

Ambha Matha, a Jaina goddess, still worshipped in various 
parts of India. The ruins of many beautiful temples erected to 
her may be seen in the high hills of Marwar. 

Ambea — The mother of the Kurus, — a race of heroes or demi- 
gods related to the Pandus. 

28 AMI— AMR 

Amitabha — The Lord of the Munis, a deity in the Buddhist 

Amogavarsha— The Jain king of Kanchi, or Tondamanda- 
1am, at the end of the ninth century of the Christian era. The 
principal Jain Puranas are supposed to have been written in his 
reign, by the king's spiritual preceptor Jina Sena Acharya. 

Amogha Siddha— The remover of the ills of the Kali age ; a 

deity in the Buddhist Pantheon to whom prayers are made and 
offerings addressed. — Wilson. 

Amrita — Ambrosia. The beverage of immortality. It was 
produced at the churning of the ocean, a legend with which all 
Hindus are familiar, and is said to have occurred in the following 
way ; When the gods were overcome by the Danavas, they fled 
for refuge to Vishnu and sought his protection and advice. Hari, 
the creator of the universe, being thus prayed to by the prostrate 
divinities, smiled, and thus spake with renovated energy, " Oh gods, 
I will restore your strength. Do you act as I enjoin ? Let all the 
gods, associated with the Asuras, cast all sorts of medicinal herbs 
into the sea of milk ; and then taking the mountain Mandara for 
the churning-stick, the serpent Vasuki for the rope, churn the 
ocean together for Ambrosia ; depending upon my aid. To secure 
the assistance of the Daityas, you must be at peace with them, and 
engage to give them an equal portion of the fruit of your associat- 
ed toil ; promising them that by drinking the Amrita that shall be 
produced from the agitated ocean, they shall become mighty and 
immortal. I will take care that the enemies of the gods shall not 
partake of the precious draught ; that they shall share in the labor 

" Being thus instructed by the god of gods, the divinities entered 
into alliance with the demons, and they jointly undertook the 
acquirement of the beverage of immortality. They collected 
various kinds of medicinal herbs, and cast them into the sea of 
milk, the waters of which were radiant as the shining clouds of 
autumn. They then took the mountain Mandara for the staff; 
the serpent Vasuki [see Ananta] for the cord ; and commenced 
to churn the ocean for the Amrita. The assembled gods were 

AMR 29 

stationed by Vishnu at the tail of the serpent ; the Daityas and 
Danavas at its head and neck. Scorched by the flames emitted from 
his inflated hood, the demons were shorn of their glory ; whilst 
the clouds driven towards his tail by the breath of his mouth, 
refreshed the gods with revivifying showers. In the midst of the 
milky sea, Hari himself, in the form of a tortoise ; served as a 
pivot for the mountain, as it was whirled around. The holder of 
the mace and discus was present in other forms amongst the gods 
and demons, and assisted to drag the monarch of the serpent race : 
and in another vast body he sat upon the summit of the mountain. 
With one portion of his energy, unseen by gods or demons, he 
sustained the serpent king ; and with another infused vigour into 
the gods. 

*' From the ocean, thus churned by the gods and danavas, first up- 
rose the cow Surabha, the fountain of milk, and curds, worshipped 
by the divinities, and beheld by them and their associates with 
minds disturbed, and eyes glistening with delight. Then, as the 
holy Siddhas in the sky wondered what this could be, appeared 
the goddess Varuni [the deity of wine,] her eyes rolling with 
intoxication. Next, from the whirlpool of the deep, sprang the 
celestial Parijata tree, the delight of the nymphs of heaven, per- 
fuming the world with its blossoms. The troop of Apsarasas, the 
nymphs of heaven, were then produced, of surprising loveliness, 
endowed with beauty and with taste. The cool-rayed moon next 
rose, and was seized by Mahadeva : and then poison was engendered 
from the sea, of which the snake gods (Nagas) took possession. 
Dhanwantari, robed in white, and bearing in his hand the cup of 
Amrita, next came forth ; beholding which, the sons of Diti and 
of Danu, as well as the Munis, were filled with satisfaction and 
delight. Then, seated on a full-blown lotus, and holding a water- 
lily in her hand, the goddess Sri, radiant with beauty, rose from 
the waves. The great sages, enraptured, hymned her with the 
song dedicated to her praise. Viswavasu and other heavenly quiris- 
ters sang, and Ghirtachi and other celestial nymphs danced before 
her. Gang^ and other holy streams attended for her ablutions ; 
and the elephants of the skies, taking up their pure waters in 
vases of gold, poured them over the goddess, the queen of the 

30 ANA 

universal world. The sea of milk in person presented her with 
a wreath of never-fading flowers ; and the artist of the gods (Vis- 
wakarma) decorated her person with heavenly ornaments. Thus 
bathed, attired, and adorned, the goddess, in the view of the celes- 
tials, cast herself upon the breast of Hari, and there reclining, 
turned her eyes upon the deities, who were inspired with rapture 
by her gaze. Not so the Daityas, who, with Viprachitti at their 
head, were filled with indignation, as Vishnu turned away from 
them, and they were abandoned by the goddess of prosperity 

" The powerful and indignant Daityas then forcibly seized the 
Amrita-cup that was in the hand of Dhanwantari : but Vishnu, 
assuming a female form, fascinated and deluded them ; and recov- 
ering the Amrita from them, delivered it to the gods. Sakra and 
the other deities quaffed the Ambrosia. The incensed demons, 
grasping their weapons, fell upon them ; but the gods, into whom 
the Ambrosial draught had infused new vigour, defeated and put 
their host to flight, and they fled through the regions of space, and 
plunged into the subterraneous realms of Patala. The'gods thereat 
greatly rejoiced, did homage to the holder of the discus and mace, 
and resumed their reign in heaven. The sun shone with renovated 
splendour, and again discharged his appointed task ; and the celes- 
tial luminaries again circled, in their respective orbits. Fire once 
more blazed aloft, beautiful in splendour ; and the minds of all 
beings were animated by devotion. The three worlds again were 
rendered happy by prosperity ; and Indra the chief of the gods, was 
restored to power." (V. P., p. 77.) The legend as given in the 
Ramayana may be found in Carey's Translation, Vol. I, p. 410 — 
and that of the Mah^Bharata in Sir C. Wilkins' Bhagavat Gita — 
Bangalore edit., p. 105. 

Anabhitra — A proper name of ; 1 , A prince of the solar race, 
a descendant of Sagara, son of Nighna and brother of Raghu, the 
fifty-second king of Ayodhy^ ; 2, a son of the king Kroshtu or 
Kroshtri by Gandhari and father of Sini or, according to others, a 
grandson of Vrishni, son of Sumitra by Mddri and brother to Sini ; 
or, again, a grandson of Dhrishta, son of Sumitra, &c. 


Anadi-chitta-para-meshti — Eternal intellectual heavenly 
dweller ; the Jain name of the Supreme Being, the Lord of all, 
who dwells in Moksha-loha^ the world of bliss. 

Ananganu — A name of Cupid, the Hindu god of love. 

Ananta — Infinite. Called also Sesha or V^suki. The king of 
the N^gas, a race of serpents which inhabit Pdtala. He belongs 
purely to the Pui-anic period, and is described as haying a thou- 
sand hooded-heads, on the foreheads of which was inscribed the 
sign called Swastika, the mystic cross which betokens good for- 
tune. He is clothed in purple and wears a white necklace. In one 
hand he holds a plough, in the other a pestle. At the end of each 
kalpa he vomits a venomous fire which destroys all creation. He 
bears the universe on his head and produces earthquakes whenever 
he yawns. On his body Vishnu reposes, during the intervals of 
creation, and is sheltered by his hoods w^hich stretch out above 
him like a canopy. He proved a very useful personage at the 
churning of the ocean ; the gods seizing his tail and the demons 
his head, they twisted him round Mount Meru, and thus formed a 
churn on a large scale. — J. C. Thomson. 

Ananta — l, A name of Vishnu or Krishna ; 2, a name of 
Baladeva, the elder brother of Krishna ; 3, a name of Siva ; 4, a 
name of Rudra, in an Upanishad of the Atharvana veda ; 5, a name 
of Sesha, the chief of the Nagas or serpent race as described 
above : the couch and constant attendant of Vishnu ; 6, a 
name of Vasuki, another king of the serpents, the brother of the 
former ; 7, a name of one of the Viswadevas ; 8, the name of the 
fourteenth of the twenty-four Arhats or Jaina deified saints of the 
present Avasarpini ; 9, the name of a king of Kashmir ; 10, a pro- 
per name common to several authors, &c. 

Ananda Giri — A Sanscrit author who lived about the 10th 
century and wrote several works which are still extant and of 
some value : among them ai^e the Sankara Dig Vijaya, the Life of 
Sankaracharya, &c. 

Anaranya~A venerable patriarch whose daughter Pushka- 
rani, was mother of the Manu Cliukshusa. 

32 ANA— AND 

Anasuya— Charity. The daughter of Daksha and wife of 
Atri, celebrated for her piety and virtue. Atri introduced her to 
Sita, to whom she gave an ointment to render her " beautiful for 

Andakataha — The shell of the mundane egg. Beyond the 
sea of fresh water is a region of twice its extent, where the land is 
of gold, and where no living beings reside. Thence extends the 
Lokd-lolia mountain, which is 10,000 yojanas in breadth, and as 
many in height ; and beyond it perpetual darkness invests the 
mountain all around ; which darkness is again encompassed by the 
shell of the egg. 

Andhaka — A proper name of: 1, a demon, a son of Kasyapa 
and Diti with a thousand arms and heads, two thousand eyes and 
feet, and called Andhaka, because he walked like a blind man 
although he saw very well ; in his attempt to take away the Pari- 
jdta tree of Swarga he was slain by Siva ; 2, a grandson of Krosh- 
tri, and son of Yuddhajita, who together with his brother Vrishni 
is the ancestor of the celebrated family of the Andhaka- Vrishnis ; 
3, a grandson of Vrishni (the brother of Andhaka), and son of 
Swaphalka by Gandini ; 4, a son of Sattwat, belonging to the same 
family, by Kausalya ; 5, a son of Bhima (of the same family) and 
father of Revata. [The foregoing lineage, 2-5, is taken from the 
Harivansa. In the Linga Purana an Andhaka is a son of Nahusha 
who, according to other Puranas, is the ancestor of Kroshtri ; in 
the Kurma Purina an Andhaka is a son of Ansa and father of 
S^ttwata, while in the Vishnu P. a prince of that name is men- 
tioned as the son of Sattwata who is apparently the same as the 
Sattwat of the Hariv.] ; 6, The name of a Muni (in the Padma 

Andhra kings, dynasty of, celebrated in the south of India 
from a very early period. Professor Wilson makes it commence 
about 20 years B.C., though they might not have established their 
authority in Magadh^ until the first centuries of the Christian era. 
They are noticed by Pliny. 

Andhra Dipaca — An old and very good Dictionary of the 
Telugu language, by Mdmidi Vencaya. 


Andhra — The Sanscrit Dame for the Telugu language. Audhra 
is the aucient name of Teliugana, the Telugu couutiy. 

Andrajatias — The same as Andhras, the Telugu people, or 
inhabitants of Telingana, formerly called Gentoos. 

Anga — 1> A name of a minor Dwipa, peopled by Mlechchhas 
who worship Hindu divinities ; 2, A country in the neighbourhood 
of Bhagulpur. It is the scene of several of the legends of the 
Ramayana. A dynasty of Buddhist Rajas reigned at Anga about 
the second century of the Christian era under the name of Karnas; 
and it is thought that the Brahmanical compilers of the Mahabhi- 
rata wished to establish a mythical connection between the Kama 
who fought in the great war, and the Kama Rajas of Anga who 
flourished at a much later period. 

Anga — The eldest of the six sons of Uru, a descendant of 
Dhruva, of the family of Atri. Anga who had by his wife Sunitha, 
only one son named Vena, whose right arm was rubbed by the 
Rishis for the purpose of producing from it progeny. (See Prithu.) 

Angada — A son of Lackshmana, king of Angadi, and brother 
of Rama ; 2, the son of Vali, who was installed Yuvaraja of Kish- 
kindha ; 3, a son of Gada by Vrihati. 

Allganyasa karanyasa— The mantras used in the early 
morning by Brahmans, with certain motions of their fingers, and 
touching various parts of their bodies. 

Angaja — (Lust). A sou of Brahma. The virtues and vices are 
represented as the progeny of Bramha. 

Angaraka— A Rudra. There are eleven well-known Rudras, 
lords of the three worlds ; but each one of the eleven has many 
appellations in the different Puranas. 

AngaraS— One of the peoples enumerated in the V. P. 

Angas — There are six Angas, or subsidiary portions of the 
Vedas, viz : — Siksha, rules for reciting the prayers, the accents and 
tones to be observed j Kalpa, ritual; Vyakarana, grammar; Nirukta, 
glossarial comment ; Chhandas, metre ; and Jyotish, astronomy. 
The four Vedas, the six Angas, with Mimansa, theology ; Nyaya, 
logic ; Dharma, the institutes of law, and the Puranas, constitute 
the fourteen principal branches of knowledge, 



Angiras — A Prajapati who married Smriti (memory) one of 
the daughters of Daksha. He is the reputed author of many 
vaidik hymns, but is mentioned also in a subsequent period as one 
of the inspired legislators of India, and as the author of an astrono- 
mical work. " The various legends connected with his life seem 
to have been occasioned by the word Angiras coming from the 
same radical as, and its sound recalling that of Agni, fire (q. v.) 
Hence we find Angiras sometimes either as an epithet or as the 
father of Agni, and the saint himself connected chiefly with such 
hymns as are addressed to Agni, to Indra or to deities of a kindred 
description : a portion of the fourth Veda, the Atharvan, reports 
him also as an expounder of the Eramhavidya (q. v.) or the sacred 
knowledge that had been imparted to him by Satyavaha, a descend- 
ant of Bharadvaja. Though Angiras, as may be concluded from 
his name being connected with the authorship of a great portion of 
the sacred Hindu literature, appears to have been one of the oldest 
civilizers of India, no historical date is to be obtained from the 
epic or puranic literature where the vaidik legends of his life are 
merely amplified ; there he is named as one of the Prajapatis or 
progenitors of mankind, engendered, according to some by Manu, 
according to others by Brahma himself, either with the female half 
of his body or from his mouth, or from the space between his eye- 
brows. As such he is considered also as one of the seven Rishis 
who preside over the reign of the first Manu, or Svayambhuva. 
He is called, besides, the priest of the Gods, the Lord of the Sacri- 
fice, &c. Sometimes he is considered as a son of Uru by Agneyi, 
the daughter of Agni. His daughters are the Richas (or vaidik 
hymns) and also Sasvati, Sinivali, Kuhu, Raka, Anumati ; his sons 
are Samvarta, the manes called Havishmats, Utathaya, Brihaspati, 
Markandeya ; his wives, Smriti (traditional science), two daugh- 
ters of Daksha, Swadha and Sati, and Sraddha, the daughter of 
the sage Kardama. As an astronomical personification he is Bri- 
haspati himself, or the regent of the planet Jupiter and presides 
over the sixth year of the cycle of sixty years." — Goldstucker. 

Angirasas — Warrior priests. These who were kshatryas by 
birth, the heads of the family of Rathinara, were called Angirasas 
(sons of Angiras) and were brahmans as well as kshatryas. " This 


affords an instance of a mixture of character, of which several 
similar cases occur. Kshatryas by birth become brahmaus by pro- 
fession, and such persons are usually considered as Augirasas, 
descendants or followers of Angiras, who may have founded a 
school of warrior priests." — Wilsoii. 

Anila — (Wind) Vasu. The deities called Vasus, because, pre- 
ceded by fire, they abound in splendour and might, are severally 
named Apa, Dhruva, Soma, Dhava (fire), Anila (v\'ind), Anala (fire), 
Pratusha (daybreak) and Prabhasa, (eight) ; 2, The son of Tansu 
and father of Dushyanta ; 3, A Rakshasa. 

Anima — A superhuman faculty, or the possession of a divine 
influence to be attained by austere devotion ; or the faculty of 
assuming an atomic, subtle, invisible, supreme condition of existence, 
supposed to be attainable by men through a course of austerities, 
attended with magical rites, in honor of Siva and Parvati. 

Aniruddha — The son of Pradyumna. He is described as " a 
powerful and gallant prince, who was fierce in fight, an ocean of 
prowess, and the tamer of his foes." He was beloved by Usha, 
daughter of Bana. Her companion Chitralekha, being endowed 
with magic power, set off through the air to Dwaraka, and returned 
bringing Aniruddha along with her to the palace of Bana. The 
guards discovering him there with Usha reported it to the king, 
who sent a body of his followers to seize the prince ; but the valiant 
youth slew his assailants, on which Bana advanced against him 
and endeavoured to kill him. Finding however that Aniruddha 
was not to be subdued by prowess, he brought his magical faculties 
into the conflict, by which he succeeded in capturing the Yadu 
prince and binding him in serpent bonds. When Aniruddha was 
missed from Dwaraka, and the Yadavas were enquiring of one 
another whither he had gone, Narada came to them and told them 
he was the prisoner of Bana. Krishna immediately summoned 
Garuda, who came with a wish, and mounting upon him, along with 
Bala and Pradyumna, he set off for the city of Bana, A great battle 
then took place in which Krishna with his discuss lopped away the 
thousand arms of Bana, and would have killed him but for the 

36 ANJ— ANT 

interference of Siva on his behalf. Krishna then went to the place 
where Aniruddha was confined. The fetters that bound him were 
destroyed, being blasted by the breath of Garuda ; and Krishna, 
placing him, along with his wife Usha, on the celestial bird, returned 
with Pradyumua and Rama to Dwaraka." V. P. Professor Wilson 
thinks that the legend describes a serious struggle between the 
Saivas and Vaishnavas in which the latter were victorious. 

Anjaka"— One of the Danavas, a son of Viprachitti, of the 
families of the Daityas. 

Anjan — The second elephant of Indra. 

Anjana — A serpent with many heads, one of the progeny of 
Kadru, V. P., V. I„ c. 21. 

Anrita- — Falsehood, son of Adharma, (vice) married to Nikriti, 
they had two sons, Bhaya (fear) and Naraka (hell), and twins ta 
them two daughters, Maya (deceit) and Vedanu (torture), who 
became their wives. In the Bamayana, Anrita is the name of one 
of the mystical weapons delivered by Rama to Viswamitra. 

Ansa— One of the twelve Adityis. V. P., p. 122. 

Ansuman — A mythical raja pf the solar race, the son of 
Asamanj, and father of Dilipa. He was the grandson of Sagara, 
who was sent by him to recover the sacrificial steed, Ansumat 
having arrived at the place of the great Rishi, Kapila, prayed to 
him and so propitiated him, that the saint gave up the horse and 
predicted his future greatness. Sagara on recovering the steed 
completed his sacrifice. 

" Prince Ansuman, the strong and brave 
Followed the rede Suparna gave, 
The glorious hero took the horse, 
And homeward quickly bent his coui*se." — Gi^iffiths. 

Ansaumti — A river mentioned in the Rig Veda, on the banks 
of which Krishna the Dasyu was conquered by Raja Rigiswan. 

Antacharas — A class of Border tribes, mentioned in the V. P. 

Antariksha — A Vyasa, son of Kinnara, the arranger of the 

V6das in the thirteenth Dw^ara. The great Rishis are said in the 


v. P. to have arranged the Vedas twenty-eight times, a list is 
given of the twenty-eight Vyasas of the present Manwantara ; 2, 
A king of the family of Ikshwaliu, a son of Kinnara and father of 

Anu — A. son of Yayati who was made by his father king of 
the North to govern as viceroy under his younger brother Puru, 
whom he appointed supreme monarch of the earth. 

Anubhavamrita — A vairdgya treatise, which exists only in 
the Dravidian languages, and appears to be entirely unknown in other 
parts of India. Dr. Ballantyne informed the writer in 1852 that 
none of the pandits in the Benares College knew of the work : it 
contains a treatise on the Upanishads, — a sort of exposition of 
Pantheism — shows that the existence of a material world cannot be 
proved — that all is Maya — recommends retirement from domestic life 
and meditation, in order to the soul's purification and final beatitude. 

Anugraha — The eighth creation, which possesses both the 
qualities of goodness and darkness. This seems to have been taken 
from the Sankya philosophy, and is described in the Padma, Linga, 
and Matsya Purauas. It is the creation of which we have a notion, 
or to which we give assent (anugraha) in contradiction to organic 
creation, or that existence of which we have sensible perception. 

Anugraha-sarga — A technical phrase meaning " Benevolent 
Nature," one of the Aphorisms of the Sankhya Philosophy as stated 
in the Compendium of Principles. " Benevolent creation" it is said 
consists of the production of external objects from the five subtile 
elements, viz., of sound, tangibility, colour, savour, odour. Bramha 
perceiving these (the senses) to be destitute of a sphere of action, 
created external objects, or *' benevolent natui'e." 

Anuhlada — Son of Hiranyakasipu, and brother of the wise 
Pr^hlada, the augmenter of the Daitya race [Pr^hlada.] 

Anukramanis— Systematic indices to various portions of the 
ancient Yaidic literature. The most perfect Anukramani is that of 
the Sanhita of the Rig V^da. It is ascribed to K^tyayana, an 
iauthor chiefly known by his works in the Yajur Veda and S^ma 
Veda. Its name is Sarvanukramaui, i, e., the index of all things. 


It gives the first words of each hymn, the number of verses, the 
name and family of the poets, the names of the deities and the 
metres of every verse. Max Miiller fixes the date of Katyayan^'s 
writing in the latter half of the fourth century, b. c. 

Anula— -A^ female Buddhistic Arhat or saint who is renowned 
for having introduced the Buddhistic religion into Lanka or Ceylon 
in the time of the king Asoka ; she was the wife of Mahanaga, the 
younger brother of Mahendra and received the dignity of a female 
Arhat from Sanghamitra, the sister of Mahendra ; 2, A queen of 
Ceylon renowned for her profligacy. She was the wife of Kor^nga, 
the brother of Mah^ktila-mahatishya, whom she killed by poison as 
well as his son Tishya and four paramours whom she married in 
succession. A second son of Mahakula, Kalakanatishya, revolted 
at last against her and caused her death in the year 41 b. c. — 

Anumati — One of the four daughters of Angiras ; the first day 
of the moon's wane. The four daughters are the four phases of the 
moon, V. P., p. 83. The goddess of the day when the moon is in 
the third and fourth quarters. 

Auuradha — -A. lunar mansion in Jaradgavi. For an explana- 
tion of the divisions of the celestial sphere, see V. P., p. 226. 

Anushtubh. — 1> -^ metre from the northern mouth of 
Brahma, along with the Sama Veda, &c., V. P., p. 42 ; 2, A name 
of Saraswati. 

Anuvatsara — Fourth cyclic year. Fifteen daj^s of thirty 
Muhurttas, each is called a Paksha (a lunar fortnight) ; two of 
these make a month, two months a solar season, three seasons a 
northern or southern declination (Ayana) ; and these two compose 
a year. Years, made up of four kinds of months, are distinguished 
into five kinds ; and an aggregate of all the varieties of time is 
termed a Yuga or cycle. The years are severally called Samvatsara, 
Parivatsara, Idvatsara, Anuvatsara and Vatsara. This is the time 
called a yuga. 

Anyadesya— The name given to words derived from foreign 

APA— APR 39 

^pa — One of the deities called Vasus. (See Anila.) 

Apamurtti — One of the sinless sons of Atri. 

Apana — One of the ten winds which brahmans believe to be 
lodged in the body ; this one resides in the region of the navel, 
and forces out the solid and liquid secretions. 

Apara — A technical term in the Saukhya philosophy, denot- 
ing that kind of mental acquiescence or indifference which arises 
from the reflection that sensual objects perish in consequence of 
enjoyment, and that there is a feeling of pain or trouble when they 

Aparagodama — (In Buddhistic Cosmogony.) One of the 
four dwipas or continents, in shape like a round mirror, and seven 
thousand Yojanas in breadth, to the west of the Mahameru which 
is in the centre of the earth. 

Aparajita— 1, One of the eleven Eudras ; 2, A name of 
Siva and of Vishnu ; 3, A name of Durga. 

Aparna — A name of Uma, a daughter of Himavat and Mena, 
so called because she did not even eat a leaf during her perform- 
ance of religious austerities. 

Apaspati — A son of Uttanapada, and brother of Dhruva, q. v. 

Apastamba-— A celebrated writer, author of the S^maya- 
charica sutras. The precise period at which he lived is not known, 
but his writings are much valued.— A. S. L,, p. 206. 

Apava— A name of the Prajapati Vasishtha. "As" says 
Professor Wilson, " he performs the office of Brahma, he should be 
regarded as that divinity, but this is not exactly the case. Apava 
becomes two-fold, and in the capacity of his male half begets 
offspring by the female." V, P., p. 52. 

Appamanabha— The name of the twelfth heaven of Bud- 

Appamana Subha— The fifteenth heaven of Buddhism. 

Apratisht'ha— One of the Narakas or hells, of which twenty- 
eight are enumerated. They are called the awful provinces of the 
kingdom of Yama, terrible with instruments of torture. 

40 APS— APT 

Apsarasas — The name given to the nymphs of heaven 
created by Brahma in the commencement of the Kalpa. They are 
also said to have been produced from the whirlpool of the deep, of 
surprising loveliness. In some of the Puranas they are called 
the daughters of Kasyapa and Muni. The Apsarasas are of two 
kinds : Laukika, " worldly," of whom thirty-four are specified ; 
and Daivika or divine, ten in number ; the latter furnish the indivi- 
duals most frequently eugaged in the interruption of the penances of 
holy sages. There are also fourteen Ganas — or troops of Apsarasas, 
beariug peculiar designations as Ahutas, «&;c. " Originally these 
deities seem to have been personifications of the vapours which are 
attracted by the sun, and form into mist or clouds : their character 
may be thus interpreted in the few hymns of the Rig Veda where 
mention is made of them. At a subsequent period when the Gand- 
harva of the Rig Veda, who personifies there especially the fire of 
the Sun, expanded into the Fire of Lightning, the rays of the moon 
and other attributes of the elementary life of heaven, as well as 
into pious acts referring to it, the Apsarasas become divinities 
which represent phenomena or objects both of a physical and ethi- 
cal kind, closely associated with that life ; thus in the Yajurveda 
sunbeams are called the Apsarasas, associated with the Gandharva 
who is the sun ; Planets are termed the Apsarasas connected with 
the Gandharva Fire ; Constellations are the Apsarasas of the Gan- 
dharva Wind, &c., &c. In the last Mythological epoch when the 
Gandharvas have saved from their elementary nature merely so 
much as to be musicians in the paradise of Indra, the Apsarasas 
appear among other subordinate deities which share in the merry 
life of Indra's heaven, as the wives of the Gandharvas, but more 
especially as wives of a licentious sort, and they are promised there- 
fore, too, as a reward to heroes fallen in battle when they are 
received in the paradise of Indra ; and while, in the Rig Veda, they 
assist Soma to pour down his floods, they descend in the epic liter- 
ature on earth merely to shake the virtue of penitent sages, and to 
deprive them of the power they woukl otherwise have acquired 
through unbroken austerities."— Qoldstucker, Sans. Diet, 

Aptoryama — A sacrificial rite produced from Bramha's 
northern mouth, V. P. " The Aptoryam is the seventh or last 


part of the Jjotishtoma, for the performance of which it is not 
essentially necessary, but a voluntary sacrifice instituted for the 
attainment of a specific desire. The literal meaning of the word would 
be in conformity with the Fraud hamanoramd ' a sacrifice which 
procures the attainment of the desired object." ' — Goldstiicher. 

Aradhya — The name of a class of Brahmans who recede 
somewhat from the extreme tenets of the Vira Saivas, and tend 
somewhat towards the Vaishnavas. Basava was originally an 
Aradhya brahman, though in the Purana bearing his name the sect 
is spoken of very contemptuously. 

Araga — -^ Sun. When Vishnu assumes the character of 
Rudra, the destroyer, and descends to reunite all creatures wjth 
himself, he enters into the seven solar rays which dilate into seven 
suns — the name of the first is Araga. 

Aranyakas — " The Treatises of the Forest." So named, as 
Sayana informs us, because they had to be read in the Forest. 
" It might almost seem," says Max Miiller, " as if they were 
intended for the Vanaprasthas only, people who, after having per- 
formed all the duties of students and householders, retire from the 
world to the^ forest, to end their days in the contemplation of the 
deity." In some instances the Aranyakas form part of the 
Brahmanas and thus share the authority of Sruti or revelation. 
Part of one however is ascribed to a human author Asvalanyaka. 
Another part is quoted by Sayana as being a Sutra work of 
Saunakas. The Aranyakas pre-suppose the existence of the 
Brahmanas, and may be regarded as an enlargement upon them. 
The chief interest which they possess at the present moment con- 
sists in their philosophy. The philosophical chapters, termed 
Upauishads, are almost the only portion of Vedic literature exten- 
sively read to this day. The Vedanta, the Sankya, the Vaiseshika, 
the Nyaya and Yoga philosophers, all appeal to the Upanishads iu 
support of their tenets. " Traces of modern ideas are not wanting 
in the Aranyakas, and the very fact that they are destined for a 
class of men who had retired from the world iu order to give them- 
selves up to the highest problems, shows an advanced, and an 


42 AHA 

already declining and decaying society, not unlike the monastic 
age of the Christian world." — Max Muller, A. S. L., Chap. II. 

Arati, Alati — A ceremony on the birth of a brahman child. 
The Abbe DuBois thus describes it : " Upon a plate of copper they 
place a lamp, made of a paste from rice-flour. It is supplied with 
oil and lighted. The married women, but not widows, for their 
presence would be unlucky, take hold of the plate with both hands, 
and raising it as high as the head of the person for whom the cere- 
mony is performed, describe in that position a number of circles 
with the plate and the burning lamp. 

Sometimes, in place of the rice lamp, they fill the plate with 
water, colored red with a mixture of saffron and other ingredients ; 
and with this describe their circle, raising it as high as the head of 
the person who is the object of the ceremony. 

The intention of this ceremony is to avert fascination by the eye, 
and to prevent the accidents which arise out of I know not what 
evil impression occasioned by the jealous looks of certain persons. 
The credulity of the Hindus respecting this sort of injury is carried 
to excess : and it is for that reason that the ceremony of the dj-ati, 
which is considered to have the virtue of preventing the effect of 
those glances, is so common and so universal among the Hindus, 
and especially among persons of high rank, who, being more 
observed and having more enemies than private individuals, are 
more exposed to the evil influence of malevolent or jealous looks. 
When such persons therefore appear in public, the first thing that 
is done on their return home, is to perform this ceremony of the 
arati over them, as an antidote to the ill-designed looks which may 
have been cast upon them. P'or the same reason princes have the 
ceremony repeated several times in a day. 

This sort of superstition or idle observance is by no means 
peculiar to the Hindus. I have seen cantons in France, (and I 
suppose it is not different in many other countries,) where the 
people were scarcely less infatuated. I have known decent villagers 
who would not have dared to show their young children to people 
they did not know, or to persons of bad appearance, lest their 
invidious or ill-boding look should occasion some mischief to befall 
them." — Manners and Customs of the Hindus. 

ARB— ARJ 43 

Arbudas — The people about Mount Abu in Guzerat — called 
Arbuda in the Puranas. 

Archish— (Flame). The wife of Krisaswa, and mother of Dhu- 
maketu (comet). 

Ardra — A lunar mansion in Gajavithi. The path of the sun 
and other planets amongst the lunar asterisms is divided into three 
portions or Avasthanas, northern, southern and central, called 
severally Airavata, Jaradgava and Vaiswanara. Each of these 
again is divided into three parts or Vithis. Each of these Vithis 
contains three asterisms. 

Argha — -^ gift indicating great respect, such as fruit and 
flowers, or milk and honey, which are offered to an idol, or to a 
brahman, or to a bridegroom on his wedding day. 

Ahrat — 15 A king of southern Karnataka who was converted 
by Rishabha ; 2, A name of a deified sage among the Jaiuas. 

Arhatas — A- name applied to the Jains, q. v. 

Arishta — !> A demon who in the forai of a savage bull came 
one evening to the spot where Krishna and the Gopis were dancing 
together. His color was that of a cloud charged with rain, he had 
vast horns ; and his eyes were like two fiery suns, his tail was 
erect, his dewlap hung low, and he was a terror to the herds. The 
herdsmen and their women were exceedingly frightened, and call- 
ed aloud on Krishna, who came to their succour, without any fear. 
He waited the near approach of the bull, when he seized him by 
the horns and pressed his sides with his knees. Tearing off one 
of the horns he beat the fierce demon with it till he died, vomiting 
blood from his mouth. The herdsmen then praised Krishna ; 2, A 
daughter of Daksha, and wife of Kasyapa. V. P. 

Arishtancmi — 1> A Prajapati, who married four daughters 
of Daksha ; 2, A name of Kasyapa. His daughter Kesini became 
the wife of Sagara. 

Arjuna — The third of the five sons of Pandu by his wife 
Kunti or Pritha, who, however, received amatory visits from the 
gods Dharma, Vayu and Indra, who are therefore put forward as 
the real fathers of Yudhishthira, Bbima and Arjuna, in erder to 

44 ARJ 

give these heroes a divine origin. Arjuna is therefore called the 
son of Indra. He was taught the use of the bow by Drona, and 
was his best loved pupil : this excited the jealousy of his cousin 
Duryodhana, and ultimately led to the banishment of the Pandavas 
from Court. Arjuna appeared at the exhibition of arms at Hastina- 
pura, where he performed marvellous feats in archery, sword- 
playing, whirling the chakra, and throwing the noose. At the 
Swayamvara of Draupadi, Arjuna was disguised as a brahman, and 
succeeded in hitting the golden fish after all the Rajas had failed ; 
he was at once acknowledged by Draupadi as the victor ; she 
threw the garland round his neck, and permitted him to lead her 
away according to the rule of the Swayamvara. Draupadi became 
the wife of the five brothers ; each had a house and garden of his 
own, and Draupadi dwelt with each of them in turn for two days 
at a time ; and it was a law amongst them that if a brother entered 
the house of another brother, whilst Draupadi was dwelling there, 
he should depart out of the city and go into exile for twelve years. 
It happened that this rule was inadvertently violated by Arjuna, 
who went into exile in consequence. He was accompanied by 
many brahmans, and visited many sacred places. At Hurdwar a 
damsel named Ulupi, the daughter of Vasuki, the Baja of the Nagas, 
saw Arjuna and besought him to espouse her, and he abode with 
her many days. 

After this he visited the countries of the south, and in the 
Mahendra mountain saw Parasu Rama from whom he obtained 
some excellent weapons. In the city of Manipura, Chitrangada 
the daughter of the Raja, saw Arjuna and desired him for her 
husband. They were married on the condition that any son she 
might have should remain to succeed to the Raj of Manipura. She 
gave birth to a sou who was named Babhru-vahana. After a 
residence there of three years Arjuna took leave of his wife and 
son and proceeded on his travels. 

The next place to which he went was Prabhasa near Dwaraka. 
Here he was met by Krishna, who gave orders that the city of 
Dwaraka should be dressed out with flowers and banners and every 
sign of rejoicing. Krishna gave a great entertainment to all tho 
chieftains and tlicir Indies, on the beautiful hill of Raivatakn, 

ARJ 45 

Arjima was smitten with the charms of Subhadra, the sister of 
Krishna. In a few days they were married by the contrivance of 
Krishna, and when the twelve years of exile were accomplished 
Arjuua departed with his wife Subhadra for the city of Indrapras- 
tha. His brothers received him with gladness and Draupadi was 
soon reconciled to Subhadra. 

Arjuna's elder brother, the Raja Yudhishthira, determined to 
perform the great sacrifice called the Rdjastiya. This was success- 
fully accomplished, but it revived the old feud between the 
Kauravas and Pandavas. Duryodhana invited his kinsmen to a 
gambling match, seeking by under-hand means to deprive Yud- 
hishthira of his Raj. — [See Yudhishthira.] 

In the course of the second exile of the Pandavas, Aijuna *' by 
the advice of his mythical grandfather Vyasa, for the sake of per- 
forming such penances as should propitiate the gods, and induce 
them to grant him celestial weapons which would ensure him the 
victory over Duryodhana and the Kauravas. -On reaching the 
Mandara mountain he heard a voice in the sky calling upon him 
to stop ; and Indra appeared in all his glory, and promised to give 
him the divine weapons provided he succeeded in propitiating the 
god Siva. Arjuua then entered upon a course of austerities so 
severe that Siva was perfectly gi'atified, but proved the valour of 
his worshipper by taking upon himself the form of a mountaineer 
and engaging Arjuna in single combat. Arjuna, unable to make 
any impression upon his enemy, at length discovered the deity, 
and prostrated himself at the feet of Siva ; upon which Siva gave 
him one of his most powerful weapons. Subsequently the gods of 
the four quarters of the universe — Indra, Yama, Varuna, and 
Kuvera — presented themselves to Arjuna, and respectively fur- 
nished him with their own peculiar weapons. Arjuna was then 
carried away in Indra's chariot to the city of Amaravati, which is 
the heaven of Indra. There he spent many years in practising the 
use of arms ; and at length was sent by Indra to make war against 
the Daityas of the sea. 

The mythic account of Arjuna's wars against the Daityas of the 
sea, is also worthy of notice if only as a creation of the imagina- 
tion. On approaching the coast in a chariot which flew through 

46 ARJ 

the air, Arjuna beheld the sea rising iu vast heaps, and saw ships 
laden with rubies, and fishes and tortoises as large as mountains. 
He blew his war shell and the Daityas trembled with fear, but 
in return they sounded their drums and trumpets so loudly that 
the monsters of the deep leaped above the waves. Thousands of 
Daityas rushed upon him, but he uttered powerful mantras as he 
discharged his arrows, and kept them all at bay. They rained 
fire, water, and mountains upon him, but he triumphed in the end 
and slew them all. Then the women came out screaming like, 
cranes, but Arjuna passed them by and entered the city, where he 
saw chariots with ten thousand horses of the colour of peacocks. 
Meantime the women were terrified at the rolling of his chariot, 
and fled to their houses, whilst the noise of their ornaments 
resembled the falling of stones upon a mountain. After this victory 
Arjuna returned to Indra, and was rewarded with great praises ; 
and the sovereign of the gods presented him with a chain of gold 
and a diadem, and with a war-shell which sounded like thunder." 

After these extravagant myths Arjuna is said to have been in 
the service of Raja Virata, as teacher of music and dancing, until 
the expiration of the thirteen years of exile. When negotiations 
took place for the restoration of the Pandavas, Arjuna exerted 
himself to win over Krishna to their side ; and Krishna promised 
to drive his chariot in the war which ensued. It was then that 
the celebrated dialogue known as the Bhagavat Gita, took place. 
On the first day of the war Arjuna fought with Bhishma : on the 
following day he rallied the Pandavas after they had been repulsed 
by Bhishma, and the latter reluctantly engaged in a second combat 
with him. He also rescued his son Abhimanyu from Duryodhana. 
In another terrible conflict with Bhishma the latter was mortally 
wounded. Arjuna was afterwards challenged by Susarma and 
his four brethren : contrary to the advice of Yudhishthira he 
accepted the challenge, defeated Susarma and his brethren ; 
fought Susarma a second time in another locality ; and during his 
absence his son Abhimanyu was slain by six of the Kaurava chief- 
tains. Arjuna was overpowered with grief when he heard this, 
and vowed to take the life of Jayadratha before the setting of the 
morrow's sun. This he accomplished, and not long after killed 

ARS— ART 47 

Kama with a crescent-shaped arrow. The armies stopped fighting, 
and the gods descended from heaven to witness the battle between 
Arjuna and Kama. 

The Mahabharata next relates Aijuna's adventures with the 
horse that was captured and then let loose for a year, previous to 
the great Asvamedha which Yudhishthira had resolved to perform. 
These adventures constitute twelve legends connected with the 
countries into which the horse is said to have wandered. In the 
seventh of them Arjuna is slain and beheaded by his own son 
Babhru-vahana in the city of Manipura, but restored to life by the 
application of a jewel brought from the city of serpents in the 
under world. After the massacre at Prabhasa, Arjuna was sum- 
moned to Dwaraka by Krishna, and on his arrival he directed the 
residue of the people to leave the city. His strength now depart- 
ed from him ; he was advised by Vyasa to abandon worldly con- 
cerns, and died with the other Pandavas on the Himalaya moun- 
tains. His grandson Parikshit (son of Abhimanyu) succeeded to 
the Raj of Hastinapura. 

Arshabhu — The first division of the central portion of the 
lunar mansions. 

Arsha marriage— One of the eight modes of marriage des- 
cribed by Manu ; in which a father receives from a bridegroom one 
pair of kiue, (a bull and a cow) or two pairs, for religious pur- 
poses, and then gives away his daughter in due form. This is the 
ceremony of the Rishis and probably prevailed amongst all the 
Vedic Aryans. It furnishes proof of the distinction between the 
marriage rite of the Rishis and that of the Brahmans. No reli- 
gious qualification was required in the bridegroom, and the young 
man simply obtained a damsel by presenting her father with a 
pair or two of kine. — Wheeler. 

Art'ha Brahmans — According to the Kerala Ulpatti, when 
Parasu Rama had recovered a large strip of territory from the 
ocean, on the Malayalam coast, he set apart certain fishermen to 
officiate as Brahmans to the rest of the people, and promised to 
come at their call. They, however, acted so as to displease him ; 
whereupon he disfranchised them, and called in a colony of pure 

48 ART— ARY 

Brahmans from Hai Kshetram, to whom he delivered charge of 
the people, in matters of rites and ceremonies. The fishermen had 
the title of " half-brahmans." — Taylor. 

Art'hanesvari — A form of Siva, and, on the left-hand half, is 
Pdnmti. This is doubtless an early hieroglyphic to convey a 
chaste notion of the union of the active deity, with passive matter ; 
whence creation. 

Arthasadhak — The finance minister of Raja Dasaratha. 

Arthasastra— One of the eighteen principal branches of 
knowledge, viz., the science of Government as laid down first by 

Arugan — The name given by the Jains to the Supreme Being. 
The popular name of God is Jinan, or Jainan ; hence the appella- 
tion Jains. To this God one thousand and eight sacred names are 
ascribed. The attributes of omnipotence and omniscience, of omni- 
presence and infinite benevolence, are given to this deity. See 

Amna — A celebrated son of Kasyapa and Vinata : and brother 
of Garuda the destroyer of serpents. 

Amndhati — Daughter of Kardama, wife of Vasistha, evident- 
ly an allegorical personification of a religious rite. ''One of the 
Pleiades and generally regarded as the model of wifely excellence ; " 
it is a small star close to the middle one in the tail of Ursa Major : 
and is said to have been the wife of Vasistha. A newly-married 
couple, amongst brahmans, have this star pointed out to them by the 
Purohita, or Astrologer, and are directed to pay it obeisance. 

Arvarivat — One of the seven Rishis of the second Mauwan- 
tara. By the seven Rishis we may often understand the constel- 
lation, Ursa Major. 

ArvavaSU— One of the seven principal solar rays, that which 
supplies heat to the planet Jupiter. 

Aryabhatta— A celebrated ancient Hindu astronomer. It is 
difficult to determine with accuracy when he lived, but Mr. 
Colcbrooke thinks he flourished soon after the commencement of the 
Christian era, or not later than the third or fourth century. 

ARYA 49 

Aryaka — A cowherd in the Sanscrit drama of the Toy-cart. 
He conspired against the weak and unpoi:)ular king then upon the 
throne at Ananti or Ougein. Aryaka is described as a man with 
* arms like elephants, vast'tusks, his breast and shoulders brawny 
as the lion's, his eyes a coppery red.' He succeeded in obtaining 
possession of the throne. 

Aryayhichita — A celebrated Dravida Brahman who lived at 
Agrah^ra in the 16th century of Salivdhana ; his contemporaries 
considered him as an emanation of Siva, on account of his devotion 
for this god, and his great learning. He is said to be the author 
of 84 books on theology, rhetoric and philosophy ; he died at Chil- 
lumbrum at the age of ninety, 

Aryaman — One of the twelve Adityas in the Manwantara of 

Aryan Race, Aryan Languages — Aryavarta was the holy 

land of the brahmans, the country lying between the Hima- 
laya and the Vindhya mountains, which was the ancient abode of 
the Hindus. In the north-western part of that region, in countries 
watered by the Saraswati, the earliest traditions of the brahmans 
place the ancestors of the Indian race. The name Aryan is now 
generally used to designate that ethnological division of mankind 
otherwise called Indo-European or Indo-Germanic. No one now 
doubts that the brahmans of India belong to the same family, the 
Aryan or Indo-European family, which civilized the whole of 
Europe. The Aryan race consists of two branches, an eastern and 
a western. The western branch comprehends the inhabitants of 
Europe, with the exception of the Turks, Magyars,^ and Finns : 
the eastern comprehends the inhabitants of Armenia, of Persia, 
of Afghanistan and Hindustan. The evidence on which a family 
relation has been established among these nations is that of 

" At the first dawn of traditional histoiy," says Max Miiller, " we 
see these Aryan tribes migrating across the snow of the Himalaya 
southward toward the ' Seven Rivers' (the Indus, the five rivers 
of the Punjab and the Sarasvati), and ever since India has been 
called their home. That before that time they had been living in 


50 ARYA 

more northern regions, within the same precincts with the ances- 
tors of the Greeks, the Italians, Slavonians, Germans and Celts, is 
a fact as firmly established as that the Normans of William the 
Conqueror were the northmen of Scandinavia. The evidence of 
language is irrefragable, and it is the only evidence worth listening 
to with regard to ante-historical periods. It would have been next 
to impossible to discover any traces of relationship between the 
swarthy natives of India and their conquerors, whether Alexander 
or Clive, but for the testimony borne by language. What other 
evidence could have reached back to times when Greece was not 
peopled by Greeks, nor India by Hindus ? Yet these are the times 
of which we are speaking. What authority would have been strong 
enough to persuade the Grecian army, that their gods and their 
hero ancestors were the same as those of King Porus, or to con- 
vince the English soldier that the same blood was running in his 
veins and in the veins of the dark Bengalese ? And yet there is 
not an English jury now-a-days, which, after examining the hoary 
documents of language, would reject the claim of a common descent 
and a legitimate relationship between Hindu, Greek and Teuton. 
Many words still live in India and in England, that have witnessed 
the first separation of the northern and southern Aryans, and these 
are witnesses not to be shaken by cross-examination. The terms 
for God, for house, for father, mother, son, daughter, for dog and 
cow, for heart and tears, for axe and tree, identical in all the Indo- 
European idioms, are like the watchwords of soldiers. We chal- 
lenge the seeming stranger ; and whether he answer with the lips 
of a Greek, or German, or an Indian, we recognise him as one of 
ourselves. Though the historian may shake his head, though the 
physiologist may doubt, and the poet scorn the idea, all must yield 
before the facts furnished by language. There was a time when 
the ancestors of the Celts, the Germans, the Slavonians, the Greeks 
and Italians, the Persians and Hindus, were living together within 
the same fences, separate from the ancestors of the Semitic and 
Turanian races. 

It is more difficult to prove that the Hindu was the last to leave 
this common home, that he saw his brothers all depart towards the 
setting sun, and that then, turning towards the south and the 

ARYA 51 

east, he started alone in search of a new world. But as in his lan- 
guage aud in his grammar he has preserved something of what 
seems peculiar to each of the northern dialects singly, as he agrees 
with the Greek and the German where the Greek and the Ger- 
man seem to differ from all the rest, and as no other language 
has carried off so large a share of the common Aryan heirloom — 
whether roots, grammar, words, myths, or legends — it is natural 
to suppose that, though perhaps the eldest brother, the Hindu was 
the last to leave the central home of the Aryan family. 

The Aryan nations who pursued a north-westerly direction, 
stand before us in history as the principal nations of north-western 
Asia and Europe. They have been the prominent actors in the 
great drama of history, and have carried to their fullest growth all 
the elements of active life with which our nature is endowed. 
They have perfected society and morals, and we learn from their 
literature aud works of art the elements of science, the laws of art, 
aud the principles of philosophy. In continual struggle with each 
other aud with Semitic and Turanian races, these Aryan nations 
have become the rulers of history, and it seems to be their mission 
to link all parts of the world together by the chains of civilization, 
commerce and religion. In a word, they represent the Aryan man 
in his historical character. 

But while most of the members of the Aryan family followed 
this glorious path, the southern tribes were slowly migrating 
towards the mountains which gird the north of India. After cross- 
ing the narrow passes of the Hindu kush or the Himalaya, they 
conquered or drove before them, as it seems without much effort, 
the aboriginal inhabitants of the Trans-Himalayan countries. They 
took for their guides the principal rivers of northern India, and 
were led by them to new homes in their beautiful and fertile val- 
leys. It seems as if the great mountains in the north had after- 
wards closed for centuries their Cyclopean gates against new 
immigrations, while, at the same time, the waves of the Indian 
Ocean kept watch over the southern borders of the peninsula. 
None of the great conquerors of antiquity — Sesostris, Semiramis, 
Nebuchadnezzar, or Cyrus, who waged a kind of half-nomadic war- 


fare over Asia, Africa *and Europe, aud whose names, traced in 
characters of blood, are still legible on the threshold of history, 
disturbed the peaceful seats of these Aryan settlers. Left to them- 
selves in a world of their own, without a past, and without a 
future before them, they had nothing but themselves to ponder on. 
Struggles there must have been in India also. Old dynasties were 
destroyed, whole families annihilated, and new empires founded. 
Yet the inward life of the Hindu 'vvas not changed by these con- 
vulsions. His mind was like the lotus leaf after a shower of rain 
has passed over it ; his character remained the same, passive, medi- 
tative, quiet and full of faith." — A Sanscrit Lit, p. 16. 

Asamanj — The son and successor of Sagara ; he is thus 
described in the Rdmayana : 

" Prince Asamanj brought up with care. 
Scourge of his foes was made the heir. 
But liegemen's boys he used to cast, 
To Sarju's waves that hurried past, 
Laughing the while in cruel glee 
Their dying agonies to see. 
This wicked prince who aye withstood 
The counsel of the wise and good, 
. Who plagued the people in his hate. 
His father banished from the State ; 
His son, kind-spoken, brave and tall. 
Was Ansuman, beloved of all." — Griffiths. 
Asampricshana— The title of the fifth section of the Pan- 
cha Tantra ; meaning Inconsiderateness. 

Asamprajnata — Contemplation, in which reason is lost sight 
of ; a complete restraint of the action of thought ; the last stage of 
mental abstraction ; in which even the reflection of his individual 
existence is lost sight of, and he is mentally one with the Supreme 

Asana— The third stage of Yoga. There are various postures 
in which the Yogi is directed to sit when he engages in meditation, 
Asana is that in which he crosses his legs underneath him, and 
lays hold of bin feet on each side with his hands. 

ASH— ASO 53 

Ashadha — The name of a coustellation. 

Ashahra — The name of one of the lunar months in the Vedas. 

Ashtavakra — A brahman, who by a long course of religious 
penance, standing in water, and meditating on the eternal spirit, 
became a celebrated sage or Muni. He was deformed from his 
birth, and on one occasion he was laughed at by the Apsarasas, or 
divine nymphs, on whom in consequence he denounced impreca- 
tions. The nymphs then endeavoured to appease him, and so far 
succeeded that he promised they should finally return to the sphere 
of the gods. 

Asikni — The daughter of the patriarch Virana, wife of Dak- 
sha, the great father of mankind. 

Asipatravana — Sins punished in one of the Narakas or hells, 
of which tAventy-eight are enumerated. 

Asit — The sou of Raja Dhruvasandhi, of the solar race ; his 
career is thus described iu the Ramayana : 

" Asit had warfare, fierce and hot, 
With rival kings iu many a spot, 
Haihayas, Talajanghas styled. 
And Sasivaindhus, strong and wild, 
Long time he strove, but forced to yield. 
Fled from his kingdom and the field. 
With his two wives away he fled 
Where high Himalaya lifts his head. 
And, all his wealth and glory past. 
He paid the dues of Fate at last." — Griffiths. 

Asitanga — The name of one of the eight Bhairavas, or inferior 
manifestations of some portion of Siva. 

Aslesha — A lunar mansion in Aii-avati, the third vithi of the 
northern Avashtana. 

Asmita — Selfishness, one of the five afilictions of the Patan- 
julu philosophy. 

Asoka — A king of Magadha, patron of Buddhism. This king, 
is the most celebrated of any. in the annals of the Buddhists. In 

54 ASO— AST 

the commencement of his reign he followed the Brahmanical faith, 
but became a convert to that of Buddha, and a zealous encourager 
of it. " He is said to have maintained in his palace 64,000 Bud- 
dhist priests, and to have erected 84,000 columns or topes through- 
out India. A great convocation of Buddhist priests was held in 
the eighteenth year of his reign which was followed by missions 
to Ceylon and other places. According to Buddhist chronology 
he ascended the throne 218 years after the death of Buddha, 
B. c, 325. As the grandson of Chandragupta, however, he must 
have been sometime subsequent to this. The duration of his 
reign was 36 years, bringing it down to b. c. 230. A number of 
very curious inscriptions in columns and rocks, by a Buddhist 
prince, in an ancient form of letter, and the Pali language, exist 
in India, and some of them refer to Greek princes, who can 
be no other than members of the Seleucidan and Ptolemaic 
dynasties, and are probably Antiochus the Great, and Ptolemy 
Energetes, Kings of Syria and Egypt in the latter part of the 
third century before Christ." — Frofessor Wilson, 

Asokavarddhana — Another name for Asoka, 

Asramas— A condition of life ; " orders;" when the youth has 
been invested with the sacred thread, he is diligently to prosecute 
the study of the Vedas in the house of his preceptor, with an atten- 
tive spirit and leading a life of continence. 

Asti — The wife of Kansa, and daughter of Jarasandha, king of 

Astika— A brahman whose father had practised great auste- 
rities, bathed in all the holy tanks, and abstained from matrimony, 
with his body dried up by fasting, he wandered hither and thither, 
till he accidentally came to a hollow place in which he perceived 
men hanging over an abyss. Their heads were downwards and 
suspended by a straw at which a rat was gnawing. Inquiring who 
they were he discovered that they were his own ancestors. These 
wretched men tell him that they are thus suspended because their 
posterity, who should have been the means of ensuring their bliss, 
had perished ; and the one living descendant, whose son might 
have done so, was entirely given up to austerities, and did not 

ASU 55 

many. The ascetic tells them that he is that one descendant. 
The ancestors entreat him to many and have a son who would 
release them. He promises to do what they desire, but Avill only 
marry a girl whose parents give her to him willingly. At length 
in the forest, Vasuki, king of serpents, offered him his sister, a 
young girl of lovely form. To her he was married, and the child 
born to them was Astika. Of him we are told that he had a noble 
spirit, was well read in the Vedas, and became powerful through 

Asuras — Demons, born from the thigh of Brahma while the 
quality of darkness pervaded his body. Asura is a general name 
for all the giants and demons who composed the enemies of the 
gods, and the inhabitants of Patala ; and a special designation for a 
class of these of the first order. They belong, in the wider sense, 
to the Epic ; in the more special sense, to the Puranic period. In 
the latter they are fabled to be sprung from Brahma's thigh 
(Vishnu, P., p. 40), and to be the sons of Kasyapa, by Diti and 
Danayu. As in the earliest period the Suras were personifications 
of light, so the Asuras were probably those of darkness ; and the 
original idea of the existence of malignant and terrible beings may 
thus be traced to the fear that man experiences in darkness, from 
the conviction that he is surrounded by creatures which he cannot 
see, in short, ghosts or goblins. *' (The word is derived from a, 
privative, or rather negative, and sui-a, * a deity.') XI, 22." — J. C, 
Thompsoyi. In the Puranas the aborigines are described under the 
names of Asuras and Rakshasas ; as being giants and cannibals, 
and of course very repulsive. " The word Asura has a very interest- 
ing history. In classical Sanscrit it only means a demon ; and this 
meaning occurs occasionally even in the early books of the Rig 
Veda, and often in the later tenth. In the Atharva Veda it occurs 
very often in this sense, and the Brahmanas are never tired of 
beginning their legends with the phrase ' devasui-d va eshu lokeshu 
samayatanta^ ' the gods and asuras contended in these worlds.' 
But generally in the * Rig Veda' the word has no such evil meaning, 
and it appears to have been originally derived from as * to be' with 

* Mrs. Manning, from Fragments du Mahabharata, Par. T. Pavie. 

56 ASU— ASV 

the affix ura (a-sura), and to have meant * living,' * spiritual.' But 
in later times asiira acquired a malevolent meaning, just as the 
Greek saifiiov ; and even in the great epics, the Ram4yana and the 
Mahabharata, we find a new word sura, coined to express the good 
deities. Henceforth sura and asura play the same parts in the 
legends which had once been played by deva and asura ; and a 
new legend is invented for an etymology, the suras being those 
heavenly beings who shared the liquor of immortality, (sura) while 
those who were excluded became the asuras." — Quarterly Review, 
July mo, p. 202, 

Asura-marriage — The fifth mode of marriage mentioned by 
Manu, in which the bridegroom gives as much wealth as he can 
afford to the damsel and her kinsmen, and then takes her according 
to his own pleasure. 

Asvalayana — A distinguished author, who lived about 350 
B. c. He was the pupil of Saunaka and the predecessor of Kat- 
yayana. He was one of the writers of the Kalpa-sutras which teach 
the mode of performance of sacrifices enjoined by the Vedas : and 
the author of the Grihya Sutras, or rules for household rites. 

Asvamedha — The Sacrifice of a Horse. This forms the sub- 
ject of the Bharata of Jaimini. The sacrifice was an affair of great 
importance. It was of a politico-religious character. Any one claim- 
ing to be a supreme ruler, announced his intention of celebrating a 
horse sacrifice. A horse was selected and then turned loose to go 
whither it pleased : only being followed by armed men. If any 
other potentate contested the claim, he endeavoured to seize the 
horse ; and there is much of Romance on this topic. If the armed 
men came back unconquered, and the horse with them, the sacrifice 
was conducted on a great, and most expensive scale. The flesh of 
the sacrifice was eaten, or burnt : the latter is the usual statement. 
The Aswamedha, performed a hundred times, raised the sacrificer 
to a level with Indra. 

Asvapati — (Lord of Horses). 1, The Eaja of Kekaya, and 
father of Maharaja Dasaratha's wife Kaikeyi ; 2, An ancient i-Sja, 
the father of Savitri, q. v. 

ASVI 57 

Asvini — A lunar asterism in Nagavithi, the first vithi in the 
northern Avasthana. 

Asvins — *' The Asvins seem to have been a puzzle even to the 
oldest Indian commentators." {Muir.) Professor Roth says " they 
are the earliest bringers of light in the morning sky, who in their 
chariot hasten onward before the dawn, and prepare the way for 

*' It may seem unaccountable that two deities of a character so 
little defined, and so difficult to identify, as the Asvins, should 
have been the objects of so enthusiastic a worship as appears from 
the numerous hymns dedicated to them in the Rig Veda, to have 
been paid to tliem in ancient times. The reason may liave been 
that they were hailed as the precursors of returning day, after 
the darkness and dangers of the night. In some passages they are 
represented as being, like Agni, the chasers away of evil spirits. 

" The Asvins are said to be young ancient, beautiful, honey- 
hued, lords of lustre, bright, of a golden brilliancy, agile, fleet as 
thought, swift as young falcons, possessing many forms, wearing 
lotus garlands, strong, mighty, terrible, possessed of wondrous 
powers, and profound in wisdom." — Muir, 0. S. T., vol. v., p. 240. 

" The following are a few of the modes in which the divine 
power of the Asvins is declared in different hymns to have been 
manifested for the deliverance of their votaries. 

" When the sage Chyavana had grown old and had been forsaken, 
they divested him of his decrepit body, prolonged his life and 
restored him to youth. 

" In the same way they renewed the youth of Kali after he had 
grown old ; and when Vispala's leg had been cut off in battle like 
the wing of a bird, the Asvins are said to have given her an iron 
one instead. 

"They restored Paravjir (or an outcast), who was blind and 
lame, to sight and the power of walking. 

"Finally to say nothing of the succours rendered to numerous 
other persons, the Asvins did not confine their benevolence to 
human beings, but are also celebrated as having rescued from 
the jaws of a wolf a quail by which they were invoked. 


58 ASVI 

" The Asvins are worshipped with uplifted hands, and supplicated 
for a variety of blessings, for long life, and for deliverance from 
calamities, for offspring, wealth, victory, destruction of enemies, 
preservation of the worshippers themselves, of their houses and 
cattle. No calamity or alarm from any quarter can touch the man 
whose chariot they place in the van." — Ibid, p. 249. 

Professor Goldstiicker writes, " The myth of the Asvins is, in 
my opinion, one of that class of myths in which two distinct 
elements, the cosmical and the human or historical, have gradually 
become blended into one. It seems necessary, therefore, to sepa- 
rate these two elements in order to arrive at an understanding 
of the myth. The historical or human element in it, I believe, is 
represented by those legends which refer to the wonderful cures 
effected by the Asvins, and to their performances of a kindred 
sort ; the cosmical element is, that relating to their luminous 
nature. The link which connects both seems to be the mysterious- 
ness of the nature and effects of the phenomena of light, and of 
the healing art at a remote antiquity. That there might have 
been some horsemen or warriors of great renown who inspired 
their contemporaries with awe by their wonderful deeds, and more 
especially by their medical skill, appears to have been also the 
opinion of some old commentators mentioned by Yaska, for some 
* legendary writers,' he says, took them for ' two kings, per- 
formers of holy acts ;' and this view seems likewise borne out by 
the legend in which it is narrated that the gods refused the 
Asvins admittance to a sacrifice on the ground that they had been 
on too familiar terms with men. It would appear then that these 
Asvins, like the Ribhus, were originally renowned mortals, who, 
in the course of time, were translated into the companionship of 
the gods ; and it may be a matter of importance to investigate 
whether, besides this a priori view, there are further grounds of a 
linguistic or grammatical character for assuming that the hymns 
containing the legends relating to these human Asvins are pos- 
terior or otherwise to those descriptive of the cosmical gods of the 
same name. 

*' The luminous character of the latter can scarcely be matter of 
doubt, for the view of some commentators — recorded by Ydska,— 

ASVI 59 

according to which they were ideutitied with * heaven and earth/ 
appears not to be countenanced by any of the passages known to 
us. Their very name, it would seem, settles this point, since asva^ 
the horse, literally, * the pervader,' is always the symbol of the 
luminous deities, especially of the sun. The difficulty, however, is 
to determine their position amongst these deities and to harmonize 
with it the other myths connected with them. I may here, how- 
ever, first observe that, though Yaska records opinions which 
identify the Asvins with *day and night,' and * sun and moon,' 
the passage relied upon by Professor Roth to prove that YAska 
himself identified them with Indra and Aditya (the sun), does not 
bear out any such conclusion. For the passage in question, as I 
understand it, means : * their time is after the (latter) half of the 
night when the (spaces) becoming light is resisted (by darkness) ; 
for the middlemost Asvin (between darkness and light) shares in 
darkness, whilst (the other), who is of a solar nature (Aditya), 
shares in light.' There is this verse relating to them : * In 
nights,' etc. Nor does Durga, the commentator on Y^ska, 
attribute to the latter the view which Professor Roth ascribes to 
him. His words, as I interpret them, are : * their time is after tho 
(latter) half of the night when tho (spaces) becoming light is 
resisted,' (means) when, after the (latter) half of the night, 
darkness intersected by light makes an effort against light, that is 

the time of the Asvins Then the nature of the middlemost 

(between them) is a share in that darkness which penetrates into 
light ; and the solar one (aditya) assumes that nature which is a 
share in the light penetrating into darkness. These two are the 
middlemost and the uppermost : this is the teacher's (?, c, Yaska's) 
own opinion, for, in order to substantiate it, he gives as an instance 
the verse * Vasdtishu sma, ' " etc. 

*' To judge, therefore, from these words, it is the opinion of Yaska 
that the Asvins represent the transition from darkness to light, 
when the intermingling of both produces that inseparable duality 
expressed by the twin nature of these deities. And this interpre- 
tation, I hold, is the best that can be given of the character of the 
cosmical Asvins. It agrees with the epithets by which they are 
invoked, and with the relationshi]) in which they are placed. They 

60 ATA— ATH 

are young, yet also ancient, beautiful, bright, swift, etc. ; and their 
negative character— the result of the alliance of light with dark- 
ness — is, I believe, expressed by dasra, the destroyer, and also by 
the two negatives in the compound nasatya {nsi-^a-satya)^ though 
their positive character is again redeemed by the ellipsis of 
" enemies, or diseases, to dasra, and by the sense of nasatya^ not 
un-true, i. e., truthful. They are the parents of Pushan, the sun ; 
for they precede the rise of the sun ; they are the sons of the sky, 
and again the sons of Vivasvat and Saranyu. Vivasvat, I believe, 
here implies the firmament * expanding' to the sight through the 
approaching light ; and though Saranyu is to Professor Miiller one 
of the deities which are forced by him to support his dawn-theory, 
it seems to me that the etymology of the word, and the character 
of the myths relating to it, rather point to the moving air, or the 
dark and cool air, heated, and therefore set in motion, by the 
approach of the rising sun. The Asvins are also the husbands or 
the friends of Sorya, whom I take for the representative of the 
weakest manifestation of the sun ; and I believe that Sayana is 
right when, by the sister of the Asvins, he understands Ushas, the 
dawn. The mysterious phenomenon of the intermingling of dark- 
ness — which is no longer complete night — and of light — which is 
not yet dawn — seems to agree with all these conceptions, and with 
the further details of a cosmical nature, -svhich are so fully given 
in the preceding paper." — Ibid, p. 255-7. 

Atala — The first of the seven regions of Patala, — below the 
earth — ten thousand yojanas in extent — the soil of Atala is white, 
and the place is embellished with magnificent palaces. 

Atarva— One of the fifteen teachers of the school of Vajasa- 
neyi or white Yajush. 

Atharva Veda — The name of the fourth of the four Vedas, 
created from the northern mouth of Brahma. It was arranged by 
Vyasa. The illustrious sago Sumanta taught this Veda to his 
pupil Kabandha, who made it two-fold. The principal subjects of 
difference in the Sanhitas of the Atharva Veda, are the five 
Kalpas or ceremonials. *' As to the internal character of the 
Atharva hymns, it may be «ttid of them, as of the tenth book of the 

ATH 61 

Kik, that they are the productions of another and a later period, 
and the expressions of a different spirit, from that of the earlier 
hymns in the other Veda. In the latter, the gods are approached 
•with reverential awe, indeed, but with love and confidence also ; 
a worship is paid them that exalts the offerer of it ; the demons, 
embraced under the general name Rdkshasas, are objects of horror, 
whom the gods ward oif and destroy ; the divinities of the Atharva 
are regarded rather with a kind of cringing fear, as powers whose 
wrath is to be deprecated and whose favour curried, for it knows 
a whole host of imps and hobgoblins, in ranks and classes, and 
addresses itself to them directly, offering them homage to induce 
them to abstain from doing harm. The mantra, prayer, which in 
the older Veda is the instrument of devotion, is here rather the 
tool of superstition ; it wrings from the unwilling hands of the 
gods the favours which of old their good-will to men induced them 
to grant, or by simple magical power obtains the fulfilment of the 
utterer's wishes. The most prominent characteristic feature of 
the Atharva is the multitude of incantations which it contains ; 
these are pronounced either by the person who is himself to be 
benefited, or, more often, by the sorcerer for him, and are directed 
to the procuring of the greatest variety of desirable ends ; most 
frequently, perhaps, long life, or recovery from grievous sickness, 
is the object sought ; then a talisman, such as a necklace, is some- 
times given, or in very numerous cases some plant endowed with 
marvellous virtues is to be the immediate external means of the 
cure ; farther, the attainment of wealth or power is aimed at, the 
downfall of enemies, success in love or in play, the removal of 
petty pests, and so on, even down to the growth of hair on a bald 
pate. There are hymns, too, in which a single rite or ceremony 
is taken up and exalted, somewhat in the same strain as the Soma 
in the Pavamanya hymns of the Rik. Others of a speculative 
mystical character are not wanting ; yet their number is not so 
great as might naturally be expected, considering the develop- 
ment which the Hindu religion received in the periods follow- 
ing after that of the primitive Veda. It seems in the main that the 
Atharva is of popular rather than of priestly origin ; that in 
making the transition from the Vcdic to modern times, it forms an 

62 ATH 

intermediate step, rather to the gross idolatries and superstitions 
of the ignorant mass, than to the sublimated pantheism of the 
Brahmans." — Whitney, 

" It has been surmised (Miiller's Ancient Sanscrit Literature, 
p. 447, ff.) that the hymns of the Atharva Veda * formed an addi- 
tional part of the sacrilfice from a very early time, and that they 
were chiefly intended to counteract the influence of any untoward 
event that might happen during the sacrifice.' This is possible ; 
but the great importance which the adherents of this Veda them- 
selves attach to it, is founded on other considerations than these. 
They argue, as appears from the treatise AtharvanaraJiasya, 
mentioned above, that the three other Vedas enable a man to fulfil 
the dharma, or religious law, but that the Atharva helps him to 
attain mbksha, or eternal bliss. This doctrine is laid down, for 
instance, in the Chulika Upanishad of this Veda, when it says : 
* Those Brahmans and others who know the science of the (neuter) 
Brahman continued in the Brahma Veda, became merged in 
Brahman ;' and it is likewise inferred from other passages in the 
Sdunaka Brahmand. The name of Brahma Veda itself, by which 
this Veda is also frequently called, is therefore explained by them, 
not as implying the Veda which belongs to the province of the 
priest Brahman, but the Veda which contains the mysterious 
doctrine of Brahman, the supreme spirit, into which the human 
soul becomes finally absorbed. It is probable, therefore, that the 
very uselessness of the Atharva Veda for sacrificial purposes, and 
the reluctance which was felt to base its sanctity merely on its 
incantations and spells, invested it, in the mind of its followers, 
with a spiritual character, which was then fully developed in the 
numerous Upanishads (q. v.) now connected with it." — Muir, 

Professor Miiller, in his Ancient Sanscrit Literature, has given 
the following hymn from the Atharva Veda, of which the Quar- 
terly Review says, " we know of no passage in Vedic literature 
which approaches its simple sublimity :" — 

" The Great one who rules over these worlds beholds all as if he 
were close by. When any one thinks that he cloaks a tUiug, the 
Gods know it all. 

ATH— ATI 63 

* They know every one who stands or walks or glides along 
secretly or withdraws into his house or into any hiding place. What- 
ever two persons sitting together devise, Varuna the king knows it 
as the third. 

* This earth too is Varuna the king's, and that vast sky whose 
ends are far off. The two oceans are Varuna's loins ; he resides too 
in this little pool. 

* He who should flee far beyond the sky, would not there escape 
from Varuna the king ; his messengers from heaven traverse this 
world, thousand-eyed they look beyond this earth. 

* King Varuna sees all, — what is within and beyond heaven and 
earth ; the winkings of men's eyes are all numbered by him ; he 
moves all these things as a gamester his dice. 

* May all thy destructive nooses, O Varuna, which are cast 
sevenfold and threefold, bind him who speaks falsehood, and pass 
by him who speaks truth.' " 

Atharvan — A priest who is considered to have obtained the 
fire from heaven, and who in the course of Mythological personifi- 
cation appears as a Prajapati or father of all beings, as the inspired 
author of the fourth or Atharva Veda, as the eldest son of Brahma 
to whom Brahma revealed the Bralima vidya, or knowledge of 
God ; and at a later period as the same as Angiras. 

Atharvan — A distinguished sage, the generator of fire, and 
producer of Agni. Atharvan is mentioned as the earliest institutor 
of sacrifice. Atharvan was the first who by sacrifices opened up 
paths ; then the friendly Sun, the upholder of ordinances, was 

Atharvas — A class or even caste of priests, who had secrets 
which they were prohibited from divulging ; they were the 
spiritual guides of their nation, and none but the son of a priest 
could become a priest — a rule which the Parsis still maintain.f 

Atiratra — A form of sacrifice created from the western mouth 
of Brahma, along with the S^ma Veda. It is a division of the 

• Muir, O. S. T., vol. 1, p. 169. 
t Muir, O. S. T„ vol. 1, p. 293. 

64 ATI— AUR 

service of the Jyotishtoma, the fifth part, or Somasamtha, and 
means literally, lasting through the night. 

Atiratra — One of the ten noble sons of Chakshusha. V. P., 
p. 98. 

Atma — A name of Vishnu, who has many appellations. 

Atma — Soul, living soul, animating nature and existing before 
it : " the highest object of their religion was to restore that bond 
by which their own self, (atma) was linked to the eternal self 
(param^tmau) ; to recover that unity which had been clouded and 
obscured by the magical illusions of reality ; by the so called 
Maya of creation ." — Max Midler. 

Atri — A prajapati, one of the mind-engendered progeny of 
Brahma, with a form and faculties derived from his corporeal 
nature. One of the nine brahmans celebrated in the Puranas. 
He was married to Anusuya (charity), one of the twenty-four 
daughters of Daksha. When Atri was plunged, by the malice 
and arts of evil spirits, into a gloomy and burning abyss, the Asvins 
" speedily came to his assistance, mitigated the heat with cold, and 
supplied him with nutriment, so that his situation became tolerable, 
if not agreeable, till they eventually extricated him from his peril- 
ous position." (O. S. T., vol. v, p. 247.) The son of Atri was 
Soma (the moon), whom Brahma installed as the sovereign of 
plants, of brahmans, and of the stars. 

Attapa — The name of the nineteenth heaven of Buddhism. 

Aurva — A sage, the grandson of Bhrigu. When the sons of king 
Kritavirya persecuted and slew the children of Bhrigu, to recover 
the wealth which their father had lavished upon them, they destroy- 
ed even the children in the womb. One of the women, of the race of 
Bhrigu, in order to preserve her embryo, secreted it in her thigh 
(uru), whence the child in his birth was named Aurva ; from his 
wrath proceeded a flame that threatened to destroy the world ; 
but at the persuasion of his ancestors he cast it into the ocean, where 
it abode with the face of a horse. Aurva was afterwards religious 
preceptor to Sagara, and bestowed upon him the Agneyastram, or 
fiery weapon with which he conquered the tribes of barbarians, who 

AVA 65 

had invaded his patrimonial possessions. The duties and ceremonies 
of various castes and classes were explained by Aurva to Sagara and 
may be seen in the V. P., Book III, Chapters VIII to XVI 
inclusive. It is said that Aurva earnestly longed for a son, and 
that Atri gave his children to him, but afterwards felt very lonely 
and weak. 

Avanti — The ancient name of Ujein in Central] India, where 
the scene is laid of the popular domestic drama named Mrich- 
chhakato, or Toy Cart. 

Auttama, or Attumi — The name of the third Manu, a 
descendant from Priyavrata. 

Avalokita — A disciple of Kamandaki in the drama of the 
Toy Cart. 

Avantyas— One of the five great divisions of the Haikaya tribe. 
The Avantyas were in Ujein, and preceded the Rajput tribes by 
whom that country is now occupied. There are still vestiges of 
them. — Tod's Rajasthan, /, 39. 

Avarant — From Jvarana, screening or surrounding ; the 
name of a division of the sect of Rdmdnujas who prepare their 
own meals and eat in the strictest privacy : " they must not eat in 
cotton garments, but having bathed must put on woollen or silk ; 
all the Ramanujas cook for themselves, and should the meal during 
this process, or whilst they are eating, attract even the looks of a 
stranger, the operation is instantly stopped and the viands buried 
in the ground." — H, H. Wilson, Vol. /, p, 39. In the Jain system 
the five Avaranas mean the difficulties in acquiring as many grada- 
tions of holy or divine wisdom. 

Avasarpini — The Jains divide time into two cycles or ages, 
viz., the Utasarpini and the Avasarpini time. The Avasarpini time, 
has six stages, viz., super-good time, good time, good-bad *ime, bad- 
good time, bad-time, and super-bad time. The stage in which we 
now live is the fifth, the bad time. Avasarpini means the age of 

Avasthanas —The name of the divisions of the sun's course, 
which are three, viz., Airavata (northern), Jaradgavu (southern), 
and Vaiswauara (ceutral). 


66 AVA— AW 

Avatar — A descent, especially of a deity from heaven ; an incar- 
nation, or birth. Professor Wilson states that the Vedas allude 
occasionally to the avatars of Vishnu. The story of the Ramayana 
and Mahabharata turns wholly upon the doctrine of incarnations. 
All the chief dramatis personw of the poems being impersonations 
of gods and demi-gods and celestial spirits. In the Puranas, Siva 
and Vishnu, under one or other form, are almost the sole objects 
that claim the homage of the Hindus. In native books the most 
frequent references are to the ten avatars of Vishnu, viz : — 

1. — The Matsya, or Fish avatar, under which form Vishnu 
preserved Manu the ancestor of the present human race, during a 
universal deluge. 

2. — The Kurma or Tortoise avatar. 
3. — The Varahu or Boar avatar. 
4. — The Nara Simha or Man-lion avatar. 
5. — The Vamana or Dwarf avatar. 
6. — The Bhargava or Parasu Rama. 
7. — The Rama Chendra or Kodanda Rama. 
8. — As Krishna ; this is the most celebrated of his avatars, 
in which he is supposed to have been completely incarnate. 

9. — As Buddha. The brahmans consider Buddha to have 
been a delusive incarnation of Vishnu, assumed by him to induce 
the Asuras to abandon the Vedas, by which they lost their 

10.— The White Horse, (yet future) an account of each will be 
found under the separate heads. 

Avichi — One of the twenty-eight Narakas or hells enumerated 
in the V. P. They are all said to be situated beneath the earth and 
beneath the waters. 

Avidya-— Ignorance. One of the five afflictions of the Patan- 
jalu philosophy. 

Avveyar — In former times, there existed among the Tamil 
people seven distinguished sages, of whom four were women and 
three men. Among them Avveyar and Tiruvalluvar were the 
most celebrated. Respecting the other five, but little is known 
either of their lives or their writings. 

AW 67 

" The particulars given respecting Avveyar too, are so fabulous 
and so variously related in different books, that it is quite impos- 
sible to come to any true and satisfactory results. I shall attempt 
to state such results as far as I can, and refer the reader for speci- 
mens of the native biography to the history of Kabilar, and to the 
extract translated from the Scanda Puranam as given in the Asiatic 

" Avveyar most probably flourished in the reigns of the three cele- 
brated kings, Ukkiraperuvarithi Pandian and the monarchs of tire 
Seran and Sorhan kingdoms who were his contemporaries. In her 
history as still transmitted by oral tradition, there are many refer- 
ences to these kings, and to the fabulous miracles she performed 
before them. Her father seems to have been a Brahman and her 
mother an outcast, who were united to each other without being 
aware of the wide difference in their cast. Afterwards however, 
on finding it out, the Brahman determined as the only condition on 
which they should live together, that any children who might be 
born to them should be deserted immediately on their birth. 
Avveyar was their second female child, and was born, reared, and 
educated at a village inhabited by Panars. (The business of the 
Panars was to attend on kings and celebrate their praises. But 
the race is now almost extinct.) 

" If we may judge from her character and writings, Avveyar was 
educated by a Panar with great care and talent. One thing is very 
evident, she must have possessed eminent natural abilities. From 
the numerous fables respecting her, we may gather that she was 
not only clever but that she exerted herself to do good. The 
excellent moral maxims she has left, tend for the most part to 
the promotion of good sentiments and good conduct. 

" Her principal productions now extant are as follows : Atthi- 
Orluk-kam, Avve-Kerao, Avve-Kovl, Pilaiyar-Agaval, Ganapathi- 
Asiria-Virutham, and a number of detached verses : but probably 
some of her productions have been lost : she is reputed to have 
been very clever in chemistry and medicine, and to have discovered 
the fabled panacea (or Kafpo) by eating which she lived to the age 
of 240 years. 

68 AVY— AYO 

"Her fame became widely spread abroad, and wherever she went, 
kings and nobles, the learned and the ignorant, alike showed her 
the highest respect. 

*' Her productions are universally read. Some of them are not 
only among the very first reading books put into the hands of 
children in almost every Tamil school, but are also greatly and 
deservedly esteemed." — Sugden. 

Avyaya — A name of Purusha or spirit, it means inconsumable. 

Awiha — The name of the eighteenth heaven of Buddhism. 

Ayana — A period of six months, two Ayanas compose a year. 
The southern Ayana is a night and the northern a day of the gods. 
Twelve thousand divine years, each composed of such days, con- 
stitute the period of four Yugas, or ages. The word is also used 
in the sense of hemisphere ; the uttara-ayana is the apparent course 
of the sun through the northern signs, and the dakshanayana is the 
southerly course ; hence the northern and southern hemispheres 
appear to correspond with the two ayanas. 

Ayatayama — Texts of the Yajur-veda, revealed to Yajnawal- 
kya by the sun in the form of a horse : the Texts thus imparted 
were unknown to Vaisampayana. 

Ayati — One of the descendants of the daughters of Daksha 
who were married to the Rishis. Lakshmi the bride of Vishnu 
was the daughter of Bhrigu by Kayati. They had also two sons, 
Dhatri and Vidhatri, who married the two daughters of the illus- 
trious Meru, Ayati and Niryati ; and had by them each a son 
named Prana and Mrikanda. 

Ayodhya — " The modern Oude, which is situated on the river 
Sarayu, the modern Gogra, about throe hundred and fifty miles to 
the south-cast of Delhi. In the present day the city of Ayodhya 
has disappeared, and little is to be seen of the ancient site beyond 
a shapeless heap of ruins, a mass of rubbish and jungle which 
stretches along the southern bank of the Gogra river. But in 
olden lime this city was one of the largest and most magnificent in 
Hindustan, and itp memory is still preserved in every quarter of 

AYO 69 

the Indian peninsula. Its geographical position is highly signifi- 
cant of the progress of Aryan invasion between two great epochs, 
namely, that of the war of Bharata, and that of the birth of Rama. 
In the Maha Bharata the Aryans had apparently advanced no 
further towards the south-east than the neighbourhood of Delhi ; 
but in the Ramayana they seem to have established a large and 
substantial Raj in the very centre of Hindustan, and to have 
founded a metropolis which must ever be famous in the ancient 
History of India." — Wheeler. 

The Rdmayana gives the following description of Ayodhya : 
" The city of Ayodhya was full of people, and every one was 
healthy and happy, and every one was well fed upon the best of 
rice ; and every merchant in that city had storehouses filled with 
jewels from every quarter of the earth. The Brahmans constantly 
kept alive the sacrificial fire, and were deeply read in the Vedas 
and Vedaugas, and were endowed with every excellent quality ; 
they were profusely generous, and were filled with truth, zeal and 
compassion, equal to the great sages, and their minds and passions 
were under perfect control. All these Brahman sages had three 
classes of disciples ; first, the youths who served them as servants 
serve their masters ; then the students who were receiving instruc- 
tion ; and then the Brahmacharis who maintained themselves and 
their preceptors by collecting alms. Next to the Brahmans were 
the Kshatriyas, who were all warriors, and were constantly exer- 
cised in the practice of arms in the presence of the Maharaja. 
After these were the Vaisyas, or merchants, who sold goods of 
every description, and who came from every corner of the earth. 
Last of all were the Sudras, who were ever engaged in devotion to 
the gods, and in the service of the Brahmans. Besides these there 
were jewellers and artificers, singing men and dancing women, 
charioteers and footmen, potters and smiths, painters and oilmen, 
sellers of flowers, and sellers of betelnut. In all that city of well- 
fed and happy people, no man was without learning, or practised a 
calling that did not belong to his family or caste, or dwelt in a 
mean habitation, or was without kinsmen. There were no misers, 
nor liars, nor thieves, nor tale-bearers, nor swindlers, nor boasters ; 
none that were arrogant, malevolent, mean, or who lived ni 

70 . AYO— AYU 

another's expense ; and no man who had not abundance of children, 
or who lived less than a thousand years." 

Ayomukha— One of the sons of Kasyapa by Dauu, hence 
termed a Danava. 

Ayuaveda— Medical science, as taught by Dhanwantari. 

Ayus— The eldest son of Vikrama and Urvasi ; Vikramorvasi, 
or the Hero and the Nymphs, is the title of a second drama attri- 
buted to Kaliddsa. Urvasi was one of the nymphs of heaven, and 
when love for the king induced her to dwell on earth, she had 
been warned that so soon as the king should see a son of hers she 
must return. From fear of this she kept her infant's birth con- 
cealed. Ayus was not seen by his father until he had grown up 
and was brought from the hermitage of the Rishi Chyavana. 
His inauguration as vice king then took place in circumstances of 
great splendour. The rite being concluded a chorus was heard 
without, invoking blessings upon Ayus — 

*' Son of the monarch the universe filling, 
Son of the god of the mist-shedding night. 
Son of the sage, whom the great Brahma ; willing, 
Called, with creation, to life and to light." 

A. and M. /., p. 205. 

Ayutayus — A descendant of the Kuru princes : also a king 
of Magadha, the name of one of the future kings of Magadha as 
enumerated in the V. P., p, 465. 


Babhru-vahana — The sou of Arjunaby his wife Chitrangacia, 
daughter of the Raja of Manipura. Arjuua dwelt at Manipura 
for three years, and then according to previous arrangements took 
leave of his wife and sou. When Babhru-viihaua came of age and 
ascended the throne he is described as without an equal in prowess 
and manhood. His country was rich and prosperous ; his subjects 
virtuous, contented and happy. In the seventh adventure of the 
horse of Arjuna it is said that the horse was seized by Babhru- 
vahana when it approached the city of Manipura, but on discover- 
ing that it belonged to his father Arjuna he restored the horse 
with many demonstrations of affection and respect. Arjuua how- 
ever considered that his son should not have restored the horse 
without a battle, and attributed it to cowardice, which led to a 
contest in which Arjuua was slain : when the tidings reached 
Chitrangada she wished to ascend a funeral pile. Arjuna was how- 
ever restored to life again. 

Badari — An extensive forest near Benares, celebrated as the 
scene of many mythical austerities. Krishna is said to have stood 
" on the spacious Badari a hundred years with his aims aloft, on 
one foot, subsisting on air." (0. S. T., Vol. iv). Of Arjuna it is 
said, " Thou wast Nara in a former body, and with Narayana for 
thy companion didst perform dreadful austerity at Badari for many 
myriads of years." (O. S. T., Vol. iv, p. 196). 

Badravati — A city about fifty miles from Hastinapur, from 
which Bhima forcibly brought away the horse for the great 
Aswamedha sacrifice performed by Yudhishthira, after the great 

Badhas — There are twenty-eight kinds of badhas, which in the 
Saukya system mean imperfections or disabilities, as defects of the 
senses, blindness, deafness, &c., defects of intellect, as incapacity, 
ignorance, &c., and moral defects, as stubbornness, discontent, &c. 

72 BAH— BAL 

Bahkali, Bahkala, Bashkali— One of the arrangers of the 
Vedas. Paila divided the Rig Veda, and gave the two Sanhitas, 
or collections of hymns, to ludrapramati and to Bashkali. Bash- 
kali sub-divided his Sanhita into four, which he gave to his 
disciples Baudha, Agnim^thara, Yajnawalka^and Par^sara ; and 
they taught these secondary shoots from the primitive branch. 

Bahugara — A descendant of Puru, son of Sudyumna : called 
Bahuvidha in the Agni and Matsya Puranas. 

Bahula — l, The name of one of the Prajapatis, V. P., p. 50 ; 
2, the name of a Prince killed by Abhimanyu, (Liuga. Purana) ; 
and 3, the name of one of the rivers enumerated in the V. P., p. 183. 

Bahulaswa— The last but one of the kings of Mithila. His 
son was Kriti, with whom terminated the family of Janaka. 

Bahuputra — A Prajapati who married two daughters of 
Daksha, their children were the four lightnings, enumerated in 
Astrological works as brown, red, yellow and white ; portending 
severally, wind, heat, rain, famine. 

Bahurupa — One of the eleven Rudras, or lords of the three 

Bahwaswa— Son of Mudgala, and father of Divodasa and 

Bajiarana — One of the eight branches of Medical Science 
which treats of the use of aphrodisiacs. 

Balabhadra — See Balarama. 

Balakhilyas— Pigmy sages, no bigger than a joint of the 
thumb, chaste, pious, resplendent as the sun, whose chariot they 
constantly surround. The wife of the sage Kratu Sannati, brought 
forth the sixty thousand Bdlakhilyas ; another account says they 
were produced from the hair of Brahma. V. P. 

Balarama — An incarnation of a white hair of Brahma, born as 
the son of Vasudeva ; by Devaki, but was transferred from the latter 
to the womb of Rohini, the other wife of Vasudeva ; hence he was 
the half-brother of Krishna. He was brought up by Nanda, 
and is the patron of Agriculture ; the Yddavas, his tribe, being 

BAL 73 

properly herdsraea and shepherds. He is often represented as 
armed with a ploughshare, and sometimes as carrying a pestle- 
like club. By some he is regarded as the eighth avatar of Vishnu j 
by others as an incarnation of the great serpent Ananta. He was 
of great strength and irascible temper. He diverted the course 
of the river Yamuna, and compelled it to attend him. The fierce 
and malignant demon Dhenuka, in the form of an ass, attacked 
Bala Rama when he was a mere boy playing with Krishna ; Rama 
seized him by both hind legs and whirled him round till he expired. 
On another occasion the Asura Pralamba came to the boys and 
attempted to carry off Rdma, who however, so squeezed and beat 
the powerful demon that he fell upon the ground and expired. 
Many other exploits are related of him. Bala Rama was married 
to Revati, to whom he was attached and faithful. When Arjuna, 
by the connivance and help of Krishna, stole away his sister 
Suhadhray Rama collected his retainers and set out in pursuit ; 
but the matter was made up by the intervention of Krishna. One 
of the last feats of his prowess was the destruction of the dreadful 
Asura Dwivida, in the form of an ape. Shortly aftewards Bala 
Rama resumed the form of Sesha. V.P. 

Bali— A celebrated Daitya, the son of Virochana, who rose to 
such an eminence in power that Indra and the other gods had to 
apply for the interference of Vishnu to protect them from the 
destructive effects of Bali's rule. The Mahabharata gives the 
following legend respecting Bali, as related by Viswamitra to the 
two young princes, Rama and Lakshmana, when they visited his 
hermitage : — 

"In ancient days, before the glorious Vishnu became incarnate 
as the Dwarf, this was his holy hermitage, and here he practised 
sacred austerities as an example to all others. And it came to 
pass that Bali, the mighty Raja of the Asuras, conquered Indra 
and the gods ; and the gods came to this hermitage and prayed to 
Vishnu for succour : And Vishnu was born on earth in the form 
of a Dwarf, and he assumed the dress of a mendicant, and went to 
the abode of |Bali, and prayed Bali to give him as much earth as 
he could step over in three steps : And Bali granted his request ; 


74 BAL— BAN 

then Vishnu took upon himself a mighty form, and took three 
steps ; and the first step covered the earth, and the second covered 
the heavens, and the third was on the head of Bali : And Vishnu 
bound Bali, and sent him and all his legions to the realms below 
the earth, and once more restored the universe to the rule of Indra." 

The meaning of this myth is not very obvious. It is said to have 
originated in an obscure Vedic idea that Vishnu as the Sun took 
three steps ; viz., first, on the earth at his rising ; secondly, in the 
heavens at noonday ; and thirdly, on the under-world at his setting. 
(See Wilson's Rig Veda, Vol. I, p. 53, note.) The legend however 
is exceedingly popular, probably on account of the successful trick 
played against the giant ; and a festival is still celebrated in memory 
of the so-called event. 

Bali then became the Sovereign of P^tala. He is said to have 
had a hundred sons. 

Bali — The monkey chieftain of Kishkindya ; he had treated his 
brother Sugriva with great cruelty, and on the latter securing the 
friendship of Rama they both proceeded to Kishkindya, where Bali 
was killed by Rama, and Sugriva installed as sovereign of Kish- 

Bana— The eldest of the hundred sons of Bali. He had a 
thousand arms. His daughter Usha having seen Parvati sporting 
with her lord Sambhu, was inspired with a wish for similar dalli- 
ance. Parvati promised her a husband, who should appear to her 
in a dream on a certain night. This came to pass, and by the 
magic power of her companion Chitralekka, the person she had 
beheld in her dream, Aniruddha, (q. v.) was conveyed from 
Dwaraka to her apartments in the palace. This led to the contest 
narrated in the article Aniruddha, when Bana wounded Krishna, 
but afterwards lost his thousand arms and was nearly killed by 

Banddhas — Those who take nothing upon authority and admit 
nothing that cannot be proved ; or it is explained, those who by 
argument cast a doubt upon the efficacy of acts of devotion. 

Bandhayanas— Followers of a branch of the Vnjasaneiyi, or 
white YnJMsh. 

BAN— BAS 75 

Bandhya — A disciple of Bashkala, who made him a teacher of 
a portion of the Sauhita of the Rig Veda. 

Basava — The name of a bull iu the Canarese and Telugu 
languages, and applied to Nandi the vehicle of Siva. 

Basava — The founder of the Lingait sect. He was originally 
an Aradhya brahman, and evidently a man of great independency of 
mind and possessed of great moral courage. He was born about 
the middle of the eleventh century, iu a village to the east of 
Bijipur in the Collectorate of Kalladighee. *' Having become prime 
minister at the Court of Kalayana, the capital of a great empire, 
which then stretched from ocean to ocean, he succeeded gradually 
in founding a new sect, called the Lingait, from its votaries wear- 
ing the Linga, which they consider to be the true symbol of the 
Creative divine power. This great success may be attributed to 
two, perhaps three causes, Basava had great power, popularity and 
influence, from his high station in life. Converts from Jaiuism to 
Lingaitism were unduly favored, though Basava's master, king 
Bajal, still remained a Jain. Basava is said to have connived at 
the intercourse the king had with a beautiful sister, and had great 
power over him. Pecuniary assistance was largely given to itinerant 
priests of the sect who went about preaching to the people. 
The second cause of Basava's success was that he addressed 
himself chiefly to the lower classes. These were flattered by the 
prospect of their social position being improved if they embraced 
the new religion. And indeed taking the Linga and becoming 
a Lingait, was according to the ideas of the Hindus, a step iu 
advance. For the great privilege of wearing this sacred symbol on 
the body had been to that time confined exclusively to the 
brahmans. In fact Basava at first merely introduced the peculiar 
Linga worship, as it was performed by the Aradhya brahmans, to 
whom he himself belonged, among the different classes of Sudras. 

*' The spread of the sect was wide and rapid, so that even in the 
neighbouring Telugu and Tamil countries, many became the wor- 
shippers of Basava ; and books regarded as sacred, still extant, 
were written iu those tongues in honor of him. The king however 
disapproved of this great change. He hated and persecuted 

76 BAS 

the Lingaits. This led to his assassination in his own palace, by 
two fanatic Lingaits, who it is said were encouraged by Basava. 
A civil war then broke out, and the empire of Kalyana fell to 
pieces. Basava was thus the cause of great revolutions in the 
Deccan. It was to be expected that such a man would, after the 
lapse of sometime, be deified by credulous men, and the real facts 
of his history obscured by a mass of legendary lore." — Woerth. 

Basava Furana — The Purana that narrates the life of Basava, 
the founder or restorer of the Jangama sect. Professor H. H. 
Wilson places the date of the events it records in the early part of 
the eleventh century. 

Basava's parents were both devout worshippers of Siva. In 
recompense of their piety, Nandi, the bull of Siva, w^as born on 
earth as their son, becoming incarnate by command of Siva, on 
his learning from Narada the decline of the Saiva faith and 
prevalence of other less orthodox systems of religion. The child 
was denominated after the Basva or Basava, the bull of the deity. 
On his arriving at the age of investiture he refused to assume the 
thread ordinarily worn by brahmans, or to acknowledge any Guru 
except IswARA or Siva. He then departed to the town of 
Kalydn, the capital of Bijala or Vijala Udya, and obtained in 
marriage Gangdmbd, the daughter of the Dandandyak, or minister 
of police. From thence he repaired to Sangameh'ara, where he 
received from Sangainesvara Svdmi initiation in the tenets of the 
Vira Saiva faith. He was invited back from this place to succeed 
his father-in-law upon his decease in the office he had held. 

After his return to Kalydn, his sister, who was one of his first 
disciples, was delivered of a son, Chenna Basava, who is notunfre- 
quently confounded with his uncle, and regarded, perhaps more 
correctly, as the founder of the sect. 

After recording these events the work enumerates various 
marvellous actions performed by Basava and several of his disciples, 
such as converting grains of corn to pearls — discovering hidden 
treasures — feeding multitudes — healing the sick and restoring the 
dead to life. The following are some of the anecdotes narrated in 
the Parana : — 

Basava having made himself remarkable for the profuse bounties 

BAS 77 

he bestowed upon the Jangamas, helping himself from the Royal 
Treasury for that purpose, the other ministers reported his conduct 
to Bijala, who called upon him to account for the money in his 
charge. Basava smiled, and giving the keys of the Treasury to 
the king, requested him to examine it, which being done, the 
amount was found wholly undiminished. Bijala thereupon caused 
it to be proclaimed, that whoever calumniated Basava should have 
his tongue cut out. 

A Jangama, who cohabited with a dancing girl, sent a slave for 
his allowance of rice to the house of Basava, where the messenger 
saw the wife of the latter, and on his return reported to the dancing 
girl the magnificence of her attire. The mistress of the Jangama 
was filled with a longing for a similar dress, and the Jangama 
having no other means of gratifying her, repaired to Basava, to beg 
of him his wife's garment. Basava immediately stripped Gangamba, 
his wife, and other dresses springing from her body, he gave them 
all to the Jangama. 

A person of the name of Kanapa, who regularly worshipped the 
image of Ekamresvaea, imagining the eyes of the deity were 
affected, plucked out his own, and placed them in the sockets of 
the figure. Siva, pleased with his devotion, restored his worship- 
per his eyes. 

A devout Saiva named Mahddevala Machdya, who engaged to 
wash for all the Jangamas, having killed a child, the Raja ordered 
Basava to have him secured and punished ; but Basava declined 
undertaking the duty, as it would be unavailing to offer any harm to 
the worshippers of Siva. Bijala persisting, sent his servants to 
seize and tie him to the legs of an elephant, but Machdya caught 
the elephant by the trunk, and dashed him and his attendants to 
pieces. He then proceeded to attack the Rdja, who being alarmed 
applied to Basava, and by his advice humbled himself before 
the offended Jangama. Basava also deprecated his wrath, and 
Machdya being appeased, forgave the king and restored the 
elephant and the guards to life. 

A poor Jangama having solicited alms of Kinnardyu, one of 

78 BAS 

Basava's chief disciples, the latter touched the stones about them 
with his staff, and converting them into gold, told the Jangama to 
help himself. 

The work is also in many places addressed to the Jainas in the 
shape of a dialogue between some of the Jangama saints, and the 
members of that faith, in which the former narrate to the latter 
instances of the superiority of the Saiva religion, and the falsehood 
of the Jain faith, which appears to have been that of Bijala Hay a 
and the great part of the population of Kalydna. In order to con- 
vert them, Ekdnta Ramdya, one of Basava's disciples, cut oflf his 
head in their presence, and then marched five days in solemn pro- 
cession through and round the city, and on the fifth day replaced 
his head upon his shoulders. The Jain Pagodas were thereupon, 
it is said, destroyed by the Jangamas. It does not appear, how- 
ever, that the king was made a convert, or that he approved of the 
principles and conduct of his minister. He seems, on the contrary, 
to have incurred his death by attempting to repress the extension 
of the Vira Saiva belief. Different authorities, although they 
disagree as to the manner in which Bijala was destroyed, concur 
in stating the fact : the following account of the transaction is from 
the Basava Purana : — 

" In the city of Kalydna were two devout worshippers of Siva, 
named Allaya and Madhuvaya. They fixed their faith firmly on 
the divinity they adored, and assiduously reverenced their spiritual 
preceptor, attending upon Basava whithersoever he went. The 
king, Bijala, well knew their merits, but closed his eyes to their 
superiority, and listening to the calumnious accusations of their 
enemies, commanded the eyes of Allaya and Madhuvaya to be 
plucked out. The disciples of Basava, as well as himself, were 
highly indignant at the cruel treatment of these holy men, and 
leaving to Jagaddeva the task of putting Bijala to death, and 
denouncing imprecations upon the city, they departed from Kalydna, 
Basava fixed his residence at Sangamesvara. 

Machdya, Bommidevaya, Kiniiara, Kannatha, Bommadeva, 
Kakaya, Masanaya, Kolakila Bommadeva, Kesirajaya, Mathira- 
jaya, and others, announced to the people that the fortunes of 
Bijala had passed away, as indicated by portentous signs ; and 

BAS 79 

accordingly the crows crowed in the night, jackals howled by day ; 
the sun was eclipsed, storms of wind and rain came on, the earth 
shook, and darkness overspread the heavens. The inhabitants of 
Kalydna were filled with terror. 

When Jagaddeva repaired home, his mother met him, and told 
him that when any injury had been done to a disciple of the Saiva 
faith, his fellow should avenge him or die. When Daksha treated 
Siva with contumely, Parvati threw herself into the flames, and 
so, under the wrong offered to the saints, he should not sit down 
contented : thus saying, she gave him food at the door of his man- 
sion. Thither also came Mallaya and Bommaya, two others of the 
saints, and they partook of Jagaddeva' s meal. Then smearing 
their bodies with holy ashes, they took up the speai*, and sword, 
and shield, and marched together against Bijala. On their way a 
bull appeared, whom they knew to be a form of Basava, came to 
their aid, and the bull went first even to the court of the king, 
goring any one that came in their way, and opening a clear path 
for them. Thus they reached the court, and put Bijala to death 
in the midst of all his courtiers, and then they danced, and pro- 
claimed the cause why they had put the king to death. Jagaddeva 
on his way back, recalling the words of his mother, stabbed himself. 
Then arose dissension in the city, and the people fought amongst 
themselves, and horses with horses, and elephants with elephants, 
until, agreeably to the curse denounced upon it by Basava and his 
disciples, Kalydna was utterly destroyed. 

Basava continued to reside at Sangamesvara, conversing with 
his disciples, and communing with the divine Essence, and he 
expostulated with Siva saying : * By thy command have I, and 
thy attendant train, come upon earth, and thou hast promised to 
recall us to thy presence when our task was accomplished.' Then 
Siva and Parvati came forth from the Sangamesvara Linga,m, 
and were visible to Basava, who fell on the ground before them. 
They raised him, and led him to the sanctuary, and all three dis- 
appeared in the presence of the disciples, and they praised their 
master, and flowers fell from the sky, and then the disciples spread 
themselves abroad, and made known the absorption of Basava into 

80 BEE— BHA 

the emblem of Siva." — Mackenzie's Collect., Vol, 2nd; Halakauara 
MSS. [pp. 3-12.] ; Wilson's Works, Vol. I, p. 225. 

Beerbhoom— Properly Vir-bkumi, the hero-land. On the 
frontier of Lower Bengal, between the lofty plateau of Central 
India, and the valley of the Ganges. This country was the theatre 
of one of tl.e primitive struggles of Indian history. It stood as 
the outpost of the Sanscrit race, on the west of Lower Bengal, and 
had to bear the sharp collisions of Aryan civilization, with the 
ruder types prevailing among the aborigines. On its inhabitants 
devolved, during three thousand years, the duty of holding the 
passes between the highlands and the valley of the Ganges. To 
this day they are a manlier race than their kinsmen of the plains, 
and from the beginning of history, one of the two kingdoms has 
borne the name of Mala-bhumi, the country of the Wrestlers, — 
the other the appellation of Vir-bhumi, the Hero-land. — Hunter, 
Rural Bengal. 

Benares — The sacred city of the Hindus. It is called K^si, 
V^ran^si, Atimukta. It was once destroyed by the discus of 
Krishna. " The whole of a city that was inaccessible to gods, 
was wrapped in flames by the discus of Hari, and was totally 
destroyed." V. P., Chap, xxxiv. " The term Kasi, denomi- 
nating, if not a city, a people and its chieftains, occurs repeatedly 

in Sanscrit works of all but the highest antiquity The 

kingdom of the Kasis and its rulers, as is evinced by the frequency 
of reference to them, enjoyed from distant ages, more or less of 
notoriety ; and this is substantially all that the Hindu memorials 
teach us. The Puranas specify but one dynasty of Kasi kings ; a 
goodly catalogue, beginning in the most authoritative of those 
works, with the sou of Kasa. To Kasa, by a lapse of perhaps two 
centuries, succeeded Divodasa, in whose reign Buddhism seems 
still to have been acting on the aggressive. In this synchronism 
there is no discernible improbability ; and with some likelihood it 
rnibodies an historic fact. A reflection of actual events may 
Ijki wise be afforded in the story of the burning of Vardnasi by the 
discus of Vinhnii." — Hall. 

Bhadra— The name of one of the many wives of Vasudeva. 


Bhadrabahu — A son of Vasudeva by his wife Rohini. 

BhadrabahU — The author of the Kalpa Sutra, the most sacred 
religious work of the Jainas. He lived in the early part of the 
fifth century of the Christian era, but nothing is known of his 
personal history, though his work is held in such reverence. 

Bhadrachara — A son of Krishna by his wife Rukmiui. 

Bhadradeah — A son of Vasudeva by his wife Devaki. lie 
and his five brothers were killed by Kansa. 

Bhadrakali — A Rudra sprung from the auger of De\if and 
sent by Siva to destroy the sacrifice of. Daksha, V. P., Chap. viii. 

Bhadrasana — The posture in which the Yogi is directed to 
sit when engaged in meditation : viz., to cross his legs underneath 
him and to lay hold of his feet on each side with his hands. 

Bhadrasena — One of the six sons of Vasudeva, who were 
killed by Kansa. 

Bhadrasrenya — AYadava prince, the son of Mahishmat. He 
is said to have had a hundred sons, all of whom but one, Durdama, 
were slain by Divodasa, the Raja of Benares. Durdama was spared, 
being an infant ; and he lived to recover his patrimonial possessions. 

Bhadraswa — A country to the east of Meru, and Ketumala 
on the west ; and between these two is the region of Ilavrita. 
Four great lakes are near, the waters of which are partaken of by 
the gods. Bhadraswas is one of the eight varshas or countries 
described as places of perfect enjoyment, where happiness is 
spontaneous and uninterrupted. In them there is no vicissitude, no 
dread of decrepitude or death, there is no distinction of virtue 
or vice, no difference of degree as better or worse, nor any of the 
effects produced in this region by the revolutions of ages. 

Bhadravinda— A son of Krishna, who is said to have had in 
all one hundred and eighty thousand. 

Bhaga— One of the twelve Adityas ; in the Manwantara of 

Bhaga— An Aditya ; the fifth of the eight sons of Aditi. 
His eyes were knocked out by Rudra (Siva). " Rudra of dreadful 


82 BRAG 

power then ran up to the gods, and in his rage knocked out the 
eyes of Bhaga with a blow, and incensed, assaulted Pushan with 
his foot, and knocked out his teeth as he was eating the puroddsa 
offering."* See Savitri. 

Bhagavat— Vishnu. The Supreme Being. The letter Bk 
implies the cherisher and supporter of the universe. By ga is 
understood the leader, impeller, or creator. The dissyllable Bhaga 
indicates the six properties, dominion, might, glory, splendour, 
wisdom and dispassion. The purport of the letter va is, that 
elemental spirit in which all beings exist, and which exists in all 
beings. And thus this great word Bhagavat is the name of 
Vasudeva, who is one with the Supreme Brahma, and of no one 
else. V. P., Book vi, Chapter 5, 

Bhagavata— The name of a Purana, generally placed the fifth 
in all the lists, but the Padma Purana ranks it as the eighteenth, 
as the extracted substance of all the rest. According to the usual 
specification it consists of eighteen thousand slokas distributed 
amongst three hundred and thirty-two chapters, divided into twelve 
skandas or books. The Bhagavata is a work of great celebrity in 
India, and exercises a more direct and powerful influence on the 
opinions and feelings of the people than perhaps any other of the 
Puranas. For an analysis of its contents, see Professor Wilson's 
Preface to the V. P. 

Bhagavat Gita— The Bhagavat Gita is an episode of the 
Mahabharata, the great epic poem of India, which, from its popu- 
larity and extent, coiTesponds w^ith the Iliad among the Greeks, 
The leading story occupies only -about a fourth part of the entire 
work ; numerous episodes and legends, chiefly didactic, and believed 
to be interpolations of a later date, make up the other three-fourths 
of the poem. The whole forms a collection of the traditions of 
the early history of the Aryan people during their first settlement 
in India. 

According to the legendary history of India two dynasties were 
originally dominant in the north, called Solar and Lunar, under 

Muir, 0. S. T., Yol, iv, r. 1^8. 

BHAG 83 

whom uumerous petty princes held authority, and to whom they 
acknowledged fealty. The most famous Raja of the Lunar race, 
who reigned in Hastiniipura or ancient Delhi, was Bharata, who is 
designated a Malm Ruja, and whose Raj is said to have included all 
the kingdoms of the earth. To this day the whole continent of 
India is known to the Hindus by the name of Bharata- varsha, or 
the country of Bharata. 

The Kauravas and Pandavas were descendants of Bharata. 
Duryodhana and his brothers were the leaders of the Kauravas or 
elder branch of the tribe ; and the five Pandava princes, Yudhish- 
thira, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva, those of the Pandava 
or younger branch. The latter had been banished from their 
country, and after long wanderings and many hardships, they 
collected their friends around them, and with the help of the 
neighbouring Rajas mustered a great army, and prepared to 
attack their oppressors, who had also assembled their forces. 

The hostile armies met on the plain of Kurukshetra. Bhishma 
had the command of tlie Kaurava faction ; Bhima was the General 
of the other party. The scene of the Bhagavat Gita now opens, 
and remains throughout the same — the field of battle. The poem 
is in the form of a discourse between the Avatar Krishria, and his 
friend and pupil Arjuna. The fight began with a volley of arrows 
from both sides ; when Arjuna desired Krishna to draw up the 
chariot in the space between the two armies, while he examined the 
lines of the enemy. Krishna, who acted as charioteer, did so, and 
pointed out in those lines the numerous relatives of his friend. 
Arjuna, seeing his relatives drawn up in battle array, was suddenly 
struck with compunction at the idea of fighting his way to a 
kingdom through the blood of his kindred, and declared that he 
would rather be killed himself than continue to fight them. 
Krishna replied in a long metaphysical dialogue, full of fine 
passages, the moral of which is that as Arjuna belongs to the 
military caste, his duty is to fight. He said that the renunciation 
of the world ought not to involve the avoidance of action, or the 
neglect of professional duties. He then gave a full and most 
curious exposition of the half-mythological, half-philosophical 

84 BHAG 

pantheism of the Brahraans, and a general view of the mystic 
theology of the Hindus ; following with some modification the 
theories of what is termed the Sankhya School of Philosophy. 

A. W. Schlegel calls this episode " the most beautiful, and 
perhaps the only truly philosophical poem that the whole range of 
literature known to us has produced." Dean Milman says, "It 
reads like a noble fragment of Empedocles or Lucretius, introduced 
into the midst of an Homeric epic." " In point of poetical con- 
ception," he adds, " there is something singularly striking and 
magnificent in the introduction of this solemn discussion on the 
nature of the godhead and the destiny of man in the midst of the 
fury and tumult in which it occurs." 

Arjuna is overruled, if not convinced, by the arguments of the 
god ; the fight goes on, and the Pandavas gain a complete victory 
over their opponents. 

The Bhagavat Gita was first translated into English by Sir 
Charles Wilkins, and published by the East India Company, with 
an Introduction by the then Governor- General of India, Warren 
Hastings. It was eagerly received in Europe, and translated into 
the French, German and Russian languages. Schlegel published 
an excellent Latin version.* More recently a new English transla- 
tion has been published by Mr. J. Cockburn Thompson, with 
valuable notes. 

Bhagiratha — The son of Raja Dilipa, who spent a thousand 
years in severe austerities upon a mountain, by which he propitiated 
Brahma and Siva, and brought the Ganges to the earth ; and with 
it watered the ashes of the sixty thousand sons of Sagara, who 
were at once restored to life, purified by the sacred water from all 
their sins, and ascended to heaven. 

" Soon as the flood their dust bedewed. 

Their spirits gained beatitude. 

And all in heavenly bodies dressed. 

Rose to the skies' eternal rest. 

*The Bhagavat Gitain Sanscrit, Canarese and English, with Schlegel's Latin 
version, and Humboldt's Essay on the Philosophy of the Gita, was published in 
1847 by the Editor of this Volume. 


" Then thus to king Bhagiraih said, 
Brahma, when, coming at the head 
Of all his bright celestial train, 
He saw those spirits freed from stain : 
* Well done ! great Prince of men, well done ! 
Thy kinsmen bliss and heaven have won/ 
The sons of Sagar mighty-souled. 
Are with the Blest, as Gods, enrolled." 

— Griffiths' Rdmdya n . 

Bhagirathi — A name of the Ganges in consequence of having 
been brought to the earth by Bhagiratha. 

Bhaimyekadasi— The eleventh lunar day of the light half of 
Magha ( 1 0th February.) This is also a festival of traditional origin, 
said to have been first observed by Bhima, one of the Pandu princes, 
in honor of Vishnu, according to the instructions of Vasudeva. 
Every eleventh lunar day, it may be observed, is held in extra- 
vagant veneration by the Hindus, but more particularly by the 
Vaishnavas. Fasting on the eleventh is declared to be equally 
efficacious with a thousand aswamedhas, and eating during its 
continuance as heinous a sin as parricide, or the murder of a 
spiritual teacher. This extravagance demonstrates its sectarian 
character, and consequently its more modern origin. The notion 
may have grown, however, out of particular appropriations of the 
lunar day, when the eleventh was set apart, as in the present case, 
to the adoration of Vishnu. — Wilson. 

Bhairava — An inferior manifestation of some portion of Siva, 
with the idea of severity or cruelty. A Bhairava has the head of 
a dog. There are eight Bhairavas named respectively, Asitanga, 
Eiuru, Chanda, Krodha, Unmatta, Kupati, Bhishana, Sanhara, all 
indicative of something fearful. 

Bhajamana— A son of Andhaka, according to all the best 
authorities ; the Agni makes him the son of Babhru. 

Bhajina— A son of Satwata. 

Bhalandana — A son of Nabhaga, who had carried off and 
married the daughter of a Vaisya, in consequence of which he was 


degraded to the same caste, and deprived of his share of the patri- 
monial sovereignty, which his son and successor, Bhalandana, after- 
wards recovered. 

Bhallada, Bhallaka, Bhallatta— A king of Hastindpura, 

the last of the race of Hastin, who had founded the city ; which 
was destroyed by the encroachments of the Ganges. 

Bhanu — A son of Krishna and Satyabhama. 

Bhanu — The daughter of Daksha, wife of Kasyapa, who 
became one of the ten wives of Dharma. 

BhailllS — The sons of Bhanu, who became suns, and deities 
presiding over moments of Muhurtta. 

Bhanumat — A prince, the son of Kusadhwaja, king of Kasi or 
Benares ; or according to the Ramayana of Sankasya. 

Bharadwaja — A sage, the son of Vrihaspati, who being aban- 
doned by his natural parent was brought by the Maruts or winds 
to Bharata, who called the child Vitatha (unprofitable) in allusion 
to the birth and loss of his previous nine sons. Bharata had by 
different wives nine sons who were put to death by their own 
mothers, because Bharata remarked that they bore no resemblance 
to him, and the women were afraid that he would therefore desert 
them. From Bharadwaja, a Brahman by birth and king by adop- 
tion, descended Brahmans and Kshatriyas, the children of two 

Bharadwaja — One of the eight celebrated Rishis, the reputed 
father of Drona. His hermitage was at Prayaga, the modern 
Allahabad ; he is said to have dwelt there surrounded by a band of 
Brahman disciples, * who lead the ideal life of austerity, sacrifice, 
and devotion, which is so frequently described and lauded by 
Brahmanical bards.' He received Rama and Sita when they set 
forth on their exile, and recommended the hill Chitra-kuta as a 
residence. The Rdmayana says, * the great Bharadwaja com- 
manded Bharata to bring his whole army to the hermitage that he 
might feast them.' 

* Bring all thy host,' the hermit cried. 
And Bharat, to his joy, complied. 

BHAR 87 

Then to the chapel went the sire, 
Where ever burnt the sacred fire, 
And first, in order due, with sips 
Of water purified his lips : 
To Visvakarma then he prayed, 
His hospitable feast to aid : 
* Let Visvakarma hear my call. 
The God who forms and fashions all : 
A mighty banquet I provide. 
Be all my wants this day supplied. 
Lord Indra at their head, the three 
Who guard the worlds I call to me : 
A mighty host this day I feed, 
Be now supplied me every need. 
Let all the streams that eastward go, 
And those whose waters westering flow. 
Both on the earth and in the sky. 
Flow hither and my wants supply. 
Be some with ardent liquor filled. 
And some with wine from flowers distilled, 
While some their fresh cool streams retain 
Sweet as the juice of sugar-cane. 
I call the Gods, I call the band 
Of minstrels that around them stand : 
I call the Haha and Huhu, 
I call the sweet Visvavasu. 
I call the heavenly wives of these 
With all the bright Apsarases, 
Alambusha of beauty rare. 
The charmer of the tangled hair, 
Ghritachi and Visvachi fair, 
Hema and Bhima sweet to view. 
And lovely Nagadanta too, 
And all the sweetest nymphs who stand 
By Indra or by Brahmi's hand — 
I summon these with all their train 
And Tumburu to lead the strain. 

88 BHAR 

The troops of Bharat saw amazed 

What Visvakarma's art had raised. 

On every side, five leagues around, 

All smooth and level lay the ground, 

With fresh green grass that charmed the sight 

Like sapphires blent with lazulite. 

There the Wood-apple hung its load, 

The Mango and the Citron glowed, 

The Bel and scented Jak were there, 

And Aonla with fruitage fair. 

There, brought from Northern Kuru, stood, 

Rich in delights, the glorious wood, 

And many a st)*eam was seen to glide 

With flowering trees along its side. 

There mansions rose with four wide halls, 

And elephants and chargers' stalls, 

And many a house of royal state. 

Triumphal arc and bannered gate. 

With noble doorways, sought the sky, 

Like a pale cloud, a palace high. 

Which far and wide rare fragrance shed. 

With wreaths of white en-garlanded. 

Square was its shape, its halls were wide, 

With many a seat and couch supplied. 

Drink of all kinds, and every meat 

Such as celestial Gods might eat. — Griffiths^ Rdmdyan, 

In some of the vernacular versions of the Ramayana the sage is 
represented as having provided a similar entertainment for the 
great army of monkeys and bears. 

Bharadwajas — Inhabitants of the northern regions according 
to the Vayu, but Professor Wilson says they might be thought 
to be religious fraternities from the sages Atri and Bharadwija. 

Bharadwaji — A deep river in Malwa, included in the V. P. list. 
Bharani— A lunar asterism in Nagavithi, the first Vithi in 
Airdvatha, or the northern Avasth^na. 

BHAR 89 

Bharata—See Mahabharata. 

Bharata — The eldest of the hundred sons of Rishabha, prince 
of Himahwa. Rishabha having ruled with equity and wisdom, and 
celebrated many sacrificial rites, resigned the sovereignty of the 
earth to the heroic Bharata. Bharata having religiously discharged 
the duties of his station, resigned the kingdom to his son Samati, a 
most virtuous prince ; and abandoned his life at the holy place 
Salagrama to become an ascetic. His thoughts were now wholly 
on God ; his conduct was distinguished by kindness, and he 
effected in the highest degree the entire control over his mind. 

On one occasion while bathing, a doe, being frightened by a 
lion, suddenly brought forth a fawn, and fell into the river. 
Bharata took the fawn to his hermitage and tended it with great 
care. His affection for it became so strong that it distracted 
his mind and interrupted his devotions. He at last died watched 
by the deer, with tears in its eyes. He was afterwards born again 
as a deer with the faculty of recollecting his former life ; this gave 
him a distaste for the world and he again repassed to the holy 
place S^lagrdma. Upon his death he was next born as a brahman, 
still retaining the memory of his prior existence. Possessed of all 
true wisdom he beheld soul as contra-distinguished from matter, 
(Prakriti) he beheld the gods and all other beings as the same in 
reality. This led him to disregard all castes and distinctions, and 
his conduct was so extraordinary that he was thought to be idiotic, 
and was treated with neglect or contempt : he worked in the fields, 
and on one occasion was pressed as a palankeen bearer for the Raja 
of Sauvira : being rebuked for his awkwardness, he replied and 
entered into a dialogue with the king, who soon discovered his 
merits. Bharata then expounded the nature of existence, the aim 
and object of life, and the identification of individual with univer- 
sal spirit. The king then opened his eyes to truth and abandoned 
the notion of distinct existence. Bharata also obtained exemption 
from future birth. V. P. 

Bharata — One of the four sons of Dasaratha and Kaikeyi. In 
youth he was sent to Girivraja, with his uncle Yudhajit. He was 
there educated in the house of his grandfather Raja Aswapati. 


90 BHAR 

During his absence from Ayodhya, his brother Rama was installed 
as Yuvar^ja (heir apparent). On the death of the Maha Raja he 
returned to Ayodhya and was deeply grieved when he ascertained 
that his mother, in order to secure the kingdom to him, had 
effected the exile of R^ma whose right to the Raj he loudly pro- 
claimed. He then went to Chitrakuta, where Rama resided, and 
offered to go into exile himself if Rama would take the kingdom. 
It was at length decided that Rama should ascend the throne after 
the fourteen years of exile had expired, and Bharata determined to 
govern Kosala in the name of Rama. This he did by carrying 
away a pair of shoes which had been worn by Rama, and which he 
treated as symbolical of Rama's presence. 

Bharata — In the Bhagavat Gita a patronymic from Bharata, 
applied to Arjuna as his descendant. Arjuna is also called Prince 
of the Bharatas, and best of the Bharatas. 

Bharata — " The son of Raja Dushyanta and Sakuntala. The 
legend of his birth forms the ground-work of Kalid^sa's drama of 
Sakuntala, or the Lost Ring. The Raja was hunting in the forest 
when he saw Sakuntala, a brahman's daughter, and fell in love with 
her. He induced her to accept him as her husband by a Gandharva 
marriage, and giving her his ring as a pledge of his troth. She 
afterwards gave birth to a son who was named Bharata, but having 
lost the ring, the Raja in the absence of such evidence, conve- 
niently forgot his engagement to marry the daughter of a priest. 
Ultimately when the ring was found, and he either saw or heard of 
the exploits of Bharata in taming lions, he acknowledged the young 
hero to be his son and made the mother his chief Rani." 

" There is no reliable information as to the extent of the king- 
dom of Bharata, but his wonderful doings and the greatness of his 
empire, have been set forth in the most extravagant terms. To 
this day India is known to the Hindus by the name of Bharata- 
varsha, or the country of Bharata. The Kshatriya bards declared 
that the Rijas of Bharata were descended from the moon, and that 
one of their number conquered Indra, the ruler of the gods.'* All 
that is really known is that an Aryan empire was established by 
Bharata amidst an aboriginal population. The original seat of the 


empire was at the site now occupied by the ruins of Takh-i-Bahi, 
in the country of the Yusufzais to the northward of Peshdwar. 

Bharata-varsha — An ancient name for northern India, which 
was divided into nine portions. 

Bharga — A prince, the son of Vainahotra, descended from 

Bhargas, Bharga vas— A people of the east subdued by Bhima. 

Bhargabhumi— The son of Bharga, the prince who is said to 
have promulgated the four rules of caste. 

Bharika — A son of Krishna and Satyabhama. 

Bhartri-hari — A Sanskrit grammarian who lived in the century 
preceding the Christian era. He was the brother of Viceama- 
DiTYA. He wrote a grammatical treatise, but his Vakya Pradipa 
or Metrical Maxims on the philosophy of Syntax, are the best 
known. They are often cited under the name of Harikarica, aud 
have almost equal authority wilh the precepts of Panini. His 
Satakas or centuries of verses, are also much admired. 

Bhasi — One of the six illustrious daughters of Tamra, the wife 
of Kasyapa. Bhasi gave birth to kites. 

Bhatta — Bhatta. An honorary title given to learned brah- 
mans who commit one of the Vedas to memory so as to be able to 
recite the whole without book. 

Bhatta Murti — A distinguished Telugu poet, one of " the 
eight elephants," so styled of Krishna-rayd's Court. He wrote 
the Narasa Bhtipaliyam during his patron's life ; but his chief 
poem, the Vasu Charitramu, after that patron's death. It contains 
florid descriptions of scenery and love affairs, in recondite versifica- 
tion, much esteemed. Bhatta Murti ranks high as a poet. — Taylor, 

Bhattacharyas — The name of those Hindu scholars who 
not only learn, as the Bhattas do, one of the vedas completely by 
heart, but who study the meaning of each verse and word, so as to 
be able to give orally the explanation of any passage required. 
The number of this class of scholars, who represent the doctors of 


Hindu theology, is now very small. There are three or four, it 
is said at Benares. They are highly respected, and as incarna- 
tions of Vrihaspati (the Pandit of the gods,) at certain occasions 
regularly worshipped. — Haug. 

Bhattoji Dikshita — A grammarian, the son of a Brahman, and 
born in the Mahratta country. He applied to study ; but, his own 
country ranking low in literature, he went to Benares studying 
Sanscrit and philosophy. He is now chiefly known by his cele- 
brated work on grammar, entitled Siddhdnta Kaumudi (moon- 
light of accuracy). PdninVs old sutras obtained three commenta- 
tors. Vara ruchi, Bhattoji, and Pata?ijali ; the latter is the most 
diffuse and perfect ; but the Siddhdnta Kaumudi, holding a 
medium place, has always been in wide and approved use. The 
author lived a studious and contemplative life ; and died at 
Benares, aged fifty-six — Taylor. 

Bhaskaracharya — " A celebrated Brahman astronomer who 
resided at Beder, one of the four ancient Mahomedan principa- 
lities. He applied his mind chiefly to numerical science. His Bija 
ganita was a work on arithmetic. He dedicated it to his only 
child, a daughter named LUdvati, under date S. S. 1036 (a. d. 
1114). Singularly enough for such a work, it came to be called 
by her name ; Bhaskara was also an astronomer, in which science 
his calculations are not to be confounded with Pauranical fables. 
His Siddhdnta Sirbmani, (head jewel of accuracy) is an astro- 
logical work. It was published S. S. 1050 (a. d. 1128). He 
soon after died, aged sixty-five, at Beder. The authors of the 
Siddhdnta and Vdkya systems are no longer known ; but Bhaskara 
has no Indian rival of mediaeval, or modern times." It has been 
said by some that Bhaskara was fully acquainted with the prin- 
ciple of the differential calculus, which was only discovered in 
Europe during the last century. In 1 859 Professor Wilson wrote 
to Mr, Spottiswoode on this subject, and that gentleman replied to 
the inquiry in the following terms : — 

" I have read Bapu Deva Sastrin's letter on Bhaskarachaiya's 
mode of determining the instantaneous motion of a planet, with 
great interest, and think that we are much indebted to him for 


calling our attention to so important an element in the old Indian 
methods of calculation. It still, however, seems to me, that he 
has over-stated the case, in saying that " Bhaskaracharya was fully 
acquainted with the principle of the differential calculus." He has 
undoubtedly conceived the idea of comparing the successive posi- 
tions of a planet in its path, and of regarding its motion as constant 
during the interval ; and he may be said to have had some rudi- 
mentary notion of representing the arc of a curve by means of 
auxiliary straight lines. But on the other hand, in the method 
here given, he makes no allusion to one of the most essential 
features of the differential calculus, viz., the infinitesimal magnitude 
of the intervals of time and space therein employed. Nor, indeed, 
in anything specifically said about the fact, that the method is 
an approximate one. 

Nevertheless, with these reservations it must be admitted, that 
the penetration shown by Bhaskara in his analysis, is in the highest 

degree remarkable ; that the formula which he establishes, and 

his methods of establishing it, bear more than a mere resemblance, 
— they bear a strong analogy, — to the corresponding process in 
modern mathematical astronomy ; and that the majority of scien- 
tific persons will learn with surprise, the existence of such a 
method in the writings of so distant a period and so remote a 
i-egion." — Wilson. 

Bhautya— The son of Bhuti, the Manu of the fourteenth 

Bhauma — * Mars,' whose splendid car is of gold, drawn by eight 
horses of a ruby-red, sprung from fire. 

Bhava— 1, Siva, a Muni or Rudra, the husband of Sati, (Truth) 
who abandoned her corporeal existence in consequence of the dis- 
pleasure of Daksha. She was afterwards the daughter of Himavat, 
(the snowy mountains) by Mena ; and in that character, as the 
only Uma, the mighty Bhava again married her. V. P., p. 59 ; 2, 
The name of a son of Pratihartta, one of the descendants of 
Bharata ; also 3, of a son of Viloman. 

Bhavabhuti — A celebrated Sanscrit author, some of whose 
dramas have been so well translated into English by Professor 

94 BHAV 

Wilson. He was also named Srikanta, or he in whose throat 
eloquence resides, was the son of a native of the South of India, a 
brahman of Berar or Beder, and a member of the tribe of brahmans 
who pretend to trace their descent from the sage Kasyapa. The 
site of Bhavabhuti's birthplace is fully corroborated by the pecu- 
liar talent he displays in describing nature in her magnificence, a 
talent very unusual in Hindu bards, and one which he no doubt 
derived from his early familiarity with the grand mountains and 
forests of Telingana. — Mrs. Manning^ A.fy M, /., Vol. 11, p. 208. 

Bhavana — The mental impression or apprehension following 
upon knowledge. The formation of a fixed idea of the object of 
contemplation. It is also teniied Bhava-bhavana, apprehension of 
the being, the existence or substantiality of the object ; the thing 

Bhavaumanya— The son of Vithatha, and grandson of Bharata. 

Bhavishya —One of the eighteen Pur^nas. " The Purana 
in which Brahma, having described the greatness of the sun, 
explained to Manu the existence of the world and the characters 
of all created beings in the course of the Aghora Kalpa." This 
Purana as its name implies should be a book of prophecies. Dr. 
Wilson says : " It should be rather regarded as a manual of religious 
rites and ceremonies, in which a few legends enliven the series of 
precepts. " 

Bhavishyottara Purana— This is also a sort of manual of 
religious offices, the greater portion being appropriated to vratas, 
and the remainder to the forms with which gifts are to be 

Bhavya — One of the ten sons of Priyavrata, who became king 
of Sakadwipa. Also the name of one of the sons of Dhruva, by 
his wife Sambha. 

Bhavya —A king mentioned in the Rig Veda, who dwelt on the 
banks of the Sindhu or Indus. 

Bhavyas— One of the five classes of demi-gods of the sixth 
Mauwantara, when Chakshusha was the Manu of the period, and 
Manojava was the Indra. 

BHA— BHI 95 

Bhaya — (Fear). Son of Aiiriti (falsehood), and Nikriti (im- 

Bhayada — A prince, the son of Manasya, one of the descend- 
ants of Puru. 

Bhikshuka — A mendicant, the fourth order of men described 
in the V. P. He is to forego the three objects of human existence 
(pleasure, wealth and virtue) — to be constantly occupied with 
devotion, and abstain from all wrong-doing. He is to reside but 
for one night in a village, and not more than five nights at a time 
in a city : for the support of existence he is to apply for alms at 
the houses of the three first castes, when the fires have been 
extinguished and people have eaten. The mendicant is to call 
nothing his own, and to suppress desire, anger, pride and covet- 

Bhils— A tribe of Aborigines who still occupy the hill tracts of 
Rajputana and Central India, and in ancient times seem to have 
dwelt in nearly the same localities ; having Rajas or Chieftains of 
their own, but acknowledging or dreading the supremacy of the 
Kshatriyas. In the Mahabhdrata they appear to the south of 
the Jumna, and in the immediate neighbourhood of the Raj of 
Bharata ; whilst in the Ramayana they make their appearance 
further to the east, near the junction of the Jumna and Ganges. 
They have preserved their rude habits to the present day, and 
are known as cattle-lifters, robbers, hunters like Nimrod and Esau, 
capable of almost any outrage, yet imbued with a sense of truth 
and honour strangely contrasting with their external character. At 
the same time they are perceptibly yielding to the personal 
influence of British administrators and the advancing tide of 
British civilization. — Wheeler, Vol. /, /?, 83. 

Bhima— " Terrible." The second of the five sons of Pdndu, 
but mystically begotten by Vdyu, the god of the wind or air, 
through his mother Kunti, or Pritha. He is the principal General 
of the Pandava army, and is renowned for his strength and swift- 
ness. Duryodhana attempted to take his life by poison when a 
youth, but be escaped through the agency of the Nagas ; he was 
instructed in the use of the club by Drdna, and at the exhibition 


of arms at Hastinapur fought Duryodhana with the club. His 
wars with the Asuras are referred to the old wars between the 
Aryans and Aborigines. The myth of his marrying Hidimbi, 
the sister of the Asura Hidimba, whom he slew in the forest, is 
regarded as a later addition to the original tradition. The Maha- 
bharata also relates his slaughter of Vaka the Asura, his conquest 
of Jarasandha, the Rdja of Magadha, his attempt at interference in 
behalf of Draupadi in the gambling pavilion ; the fearful vow he 
uttered against Duryodhana and Dushasanas ; his interview with 
his mythical brother Hanuman, the son of Vayu ; his pursuit and 
treatment of Jayadratha after the abduction of Draupadi ; his 
appearance in the council hall of Raja Virata with a ladle in one 
hand and a scimitar in the other ; his engagement as head cook ; 
the enormous quantity of provisions he daily eat himself ; his battle 
with Jimuta whom he killed, and the favour he consequently 
obtained from the Raja ; his contest with the prime minister 
Kichaka, whom he killed and rolled into a ball, because of his 
ill-treatment of Draupadi ; how he rescued Raja Virata from 
Susarman who was carrying him into captivity ; his battle with 
Bhishma in the first day of the great war ; his slaughter of the 
Raja of Magadha and his sons ; his conflicts with Droua, with 
Dushasana, with Duryodhana ; his return to the Maharaja Dhrita- 
rashtra at Hastinapur ; his slaughter of the horse at the Aswame- 
dha of Yudhishthira ; his disputes with the Maharaja, and his 
death, along with his four brothers, in the Himalayas. It will thus 
be seen that Bhima belongs to the epic period.^ — Wheeler ^ Vol. I. 

Bhima — The Raja of Vidarbha (Berar), and father of Damayanti. 
Bhima — The fifth of the eight Rudras, to whom was assigned 
the charge of fire : also the name of a son of Amivasa. 

Bhimaratha — Son of Ketumat and grandson of Dhanwantari, 
the author of Medical Science. He was the father of Divodasa, of 
whom many curious legends are narrated. 

Bhimarathi— The ancient name of the river Bhima. 

Bhimasena— One of the four sons of Parikshit, son of Kuru. 

Bhishma— Originally named S^ntanavu, the son of Sdntanu, the 

BHI 97 

RAja of Hastinapur ; the legend ia the Mahabharata is that when 
Rija Santanu was very old he desired to marry a young and beau- 
tiful damsel, but the parents of the girl were unwilling to give her 
to the R^ja, saying, " If our daughter have sons they will not 
succeed to the Raj ; for when Santanu dies, his sou Santanavu will 
become Rdja." Then Santanavu determined to sacrifice himself in 
order to gratify his father ; and he made a vow to the parents of 
the damsel, saying, ** If you will give your daughter in marriage 
to my father, I will never accept the kingdom or marry a wife, or 
become the father of children by any woman ; so that if your 
daughter bear a son to the Raja, that son shall succeed him in the 
kingdom." And the vow of Santanavu was noised abroad, and 
from that day he was called Bhishma, or " the dreadful," because 
of his dreadful vow. Henceforth Bhishma became the patriarch 
of the family, *' and is represented as a model of faithfulness and 
loyalty, and indeed stands forth as one of the leading characters in 
the Mahabharata." 

He educated Dhritarashtra, Pandu and Vidura ; and afterwards 
made Droua the preceptor of the Pandavas and Kauravas ; and at 
a meeting of council proposed that the kingdom should be divided 
between the two parties. In the great war he became tlie gene- 
ralissimo of the Kauravas and their allies. On the tenth day he 
was mortally wounded in a terrible conflict with Arjuna. 

Bhishmaka— The king of Vidarbha (now Berar) who resided 
at Kundina. He had a son named Rukmin, and a beautiful daugh- 
ter named Rukmini. Krishna fell in love with the latter and soli- 
cited her in marriage ; but her brother would not assent to the 
espousals. At the suggestion of Jarasandha, the powerful sove- 
reign, Bhishmaka affianced Rukmini to Sisupila. Krishiia went to 
witness the wedding and contrived to carry off the princess. 
Rukmin, with a large force, pursued and overtook Krishna, who 
with his discus destroyed the host of Rukmin, and would have 
slain him, but was withheld by the entreaties of Rukmini. 

Bhishmashtami— The twenty-third of Magha, and eighth lunar 
day of the light half (7th February). This is a festival which, at 
first sight, appears to be of special and traditional origin, but which 


98 BHI— BHO 

has, probably, its source in the primitive institutes of the Hindus, 
of which the worship of the Pitris, the patriarchs or progenitors, 
the Dii Manes, constituted an important element. According to 
the Tithi Tattwa, this day is dedicated to Bhishma, the son of 
Gangi, and great uncle of the Pandava and Kaurava princes ; who 
was killed in the course of the great war, and dying childless left 
no descendant in the direct line, on whom it was incumbent to 
offer him obsequial honors. In order to supply this defect, persons 
in general are enjoined to make libations of water on this day 
to his spirit, and to offer him sesamum seeds and boiled rice. The 
act expiates the sins of a whole year : one of its peculiarities 
is, that it is to be observed by persons of all the four original castes, 
according to a text of Dhavala, an ancient lawgiver, quoted by 
Raghunandana, " Oh twice-born ! persons of all the Varnas should 
on the eighth lunar day offer water, sesamum seeds and rice, to 
Bhishma. If a Brahman, or man of any other caste, omit to make 
such offerings, the merit of his good deeds during the preceding 
yeai' is annulled." According to a different reading of the text, how- 
ever, it should be rendered : " Let all the twice-born castes make 
the oblations," This excludes Sudras, but extends the duty to the 
Kshatriyas and Vaisyas as well as Brahmans. The intention of the 
rite, as now understood, is expressed in the formulas uttered at the 
time of presenting the offerings : " I present this water to the 
childless hero Bhishma, of the race of Vyaghrapada, the chief of 
the house of Sankriti. May Bhishma, the son of Sdntanu, the 
speaker of truth and subjugator of his passions, obtain by this 
water the oblations due by sons and grandsons," The simple 
nature of the offerings which are sufficient on such occasions, water 
and sesamum seeds, justifies the remark made by Ovid on the 
Feralia, that the manes are easily satisfied, — Parva petunt manes. 

Bhiras — The people about Surat ; called Phauni or Phryni, 
by Sfcrabo. 

Bhogavati — The capital of V^suki in Rasatala, one of the 
seven regions of P^tala. 

Bhojakata — The city near the Narmada, founded by Ruk- 
min, after his defeat by Krishna, as he had vowed never to 
return to Kuudaui but as victor. 

BHO— BHR 99 

Bhojas — luhabitants of the country near the Vindhya range of 
mountains ; a branch of the Yadavas. A Bhoja Raja is amongst 
the warriors of the Mahabharata. 

Bhoja Raja — A prince of Dh^ra ; or Dhar, in Malwa ; supposed 
to be the same as Vikrama. There is some uncertainty as to 
the exact time of Bhoja's reign; the "nine gems" are said to 
have flourished during his reign and that of Vikrama. Tlie period 
is designated the golden age of Hindu literature. Dr. E. F. Hall 
says it is high time to give up speaking of this prince as a great 
patron of literature. His pretensions to be so considered rest on 
the frailest foundation possible. — H, IL Wilson's Works, Vol. V, 


Bhraja — The name of one of the seven suns into which the 
seven solar rays dilate at the consummation of all things when their 
radiance is to set the three worlds and Pdtila on fire. 

Bhrajiras — One of the five classes of demi-gods on the four- 
teenth Manwantara. 

Bhrami — (Revolving.) The daughter of Sisumara (the sphere) 
wife of Dhruva, according to the Bhagavata, which converts the 
family of Dhruva into personifications of divisions of time and of 
day and night. 

BhrigU — A Prajapati, or Rishi, chief of the Maharshis (see 
Bishi,) Also one of the ten Prajapatis, sons of Brahma and 
progenitors of mankind, and teacher of the Dhanurveda, or science 
of war, one of the Upavedas. As such he belongs to the Vedic 
period. In the Puranic period he is called the husband of Khyati, 
or fame, the daughter of Daksha, by Prastiti. — Vishnu Purdna^ 
pp. 49, 284. In Muir's Original Sanscrit Texts there are many 
incidents related of Bhrigu which illustrate the celebrity he had 
attained and the great influence he had acquired. When king 
Nahusha tyrannised over the brahmans and compelled even the 
Rishis to carry him from place to place, it once came Agastya's 
turn to perform the servile office. Bhrigu then said to Agastya 
" Why do wo submit to the insults of this king of the gods ?'* 
Agastya answered that none of the Rishis had ventured to curse 

100 BHR— BHU 

Nahusha because he had obtained the power of subduing to his 
service every one upon whom he fixed his eyes ; and that he had 
nectar for his beverage. However Agastya said he was prepared 
to do anything that Bhrigu might suggest. Bhrigu said he had 
been sent by Brahma to take vengeance on ITahusha, who was that 
day about to attach Agastya to his car, and would spurn him with 
his foot ; and that he (Bhrigu) incensed at this insult, would by a 
curse condemn iN'ahusha to become a serpent. All this accordingly 
happened. Bhrigu however on Nahusha's solicitation, and the 
intercession of Agastya, placed a period to the effects of the curse, 
which Yudhishthira was to be the instrument of terminating. Vol. 
1, p, 315. 

Bhrihaspati — See Vrihaspati. This is not only the name 
of the purohita of the gods, but is also used in the ancient Sanscrit 
hymns as the name of the One Eternal. 

Bhurishena — The third son of the holy sage Chyavdna, accord- 
ing to the Bhdgavata ; the V. P. only mentions one son Anartta. 

Bhudevi — A name of the earth, and fabled to be married to 
Prithu ; the first king who taught the mode of cultivating the 
ground. Hence the earth is named PrWhivL One of the Puranas 
was delivered to JBhu-devi, by Vishnu, as Vardha Swdmi. Bhu- 
devi, or Bhumi-devi, is the secondary wife of Vishnu. 

Bhumimitra — A Kanwa prince, whose father Devabhuti, the 
last Sunga king, was murdered by his minister. 

Bhuri— A son of Somadatta, one of the descendants of Kuru. 

Bhurloka — The sphere of the earth comprehending its oceans, 
mountains and rivers, and extending as far as it is illuminated by 
the rays of the sun and moon. 

Bhuta— A son of Vasudeva by his wife Rohini. 
Bhutadi — The third variety of Ahankara, q. v. 

Bhutas— Evil spirits, said to proceed from Brahma. Children 
of Krodha. Malignant spirits, goblins or ghosts, haunting ceme- 
teries, lurking in trees, animating dead bodies, and deluding and 
devouring human beings. They are generally coupled with the 

BHU— BIJ 101 

Pretas, and in this character belong to the Epic period. In the 
Puranic period they are personified as demi-gods of a particular 
class, produced by Brahma when incensed ; and their mother is 
therefore considered in the Padma-pui-ana as Krodh^, or * Anger,' 
and their father, Kasyapa. — Thompson, 

Bhutasantapana — A powerful Daitya, the son of Hiran- 
ydksha. The descendants of Hiranyaksha are said in the Padma- 
purana to have extended to seventy-seven crores, or seven hundred 
and seventy millions. 

Bhutatma — An appellation of Vishnu, meaning one with 
created things. 

Bhutavidya — The fourth branch of Medical Science, treating 
of maladies referred to demoniac possession, 

Bhutesa — A name of Vishnu, meaning lord of the elements, 
or of created things. 

Bhuti — A sage, the son of Angiras, whose pupil Santi, having 
suffered the holy fire to go out in his master's absence, prayed to 
Agni, and so propitiated him, that he not only re-lighted the flame, 
but desired Santi to demand a further boon. Santi accordingly 
solicited a son for his Guru, which son was Bhuti, the father of 
the Manu Bhautya. Also the name of a goddess, wife of Kavi. 

Bhuvana — The name of one of the eleven Rudras, according 
to the Vayu Pui-dna list. 

Bhuvar-loka — The sphere of the sky, both in diameter and 
circumference, as far upwards as to the planetary sphere, or Swar- 

Bijala Raja — A Jaina king of Kalydtiapura, otherwise Silpa- 
giri, who had the celebrated Basava, for his minister of state. He 
was charged with wasting the state funds, in gathering around him- 
self adherents to a new form of the Saiva religion. When called 
to account, he made up the deficiency in appearance ; but soon after 
caused the king to be assassinated by three men, in his own palace. 
Thereupon, the Jainas were massacred. The exact date is not 
known ; but Professor Wilson places it in the eai'ly part of the 
eleventh century. See Basava, 

102 BIK— BRA 

Bikya — The daughter of the minister of the Raja of Kutuwal 
in the Dekhan, who was married to Chandrahasa, the fortunate 
boy, q. V. 

Bodha— (Understanding). A son of Dharma, by one of 
Daksha's daughters, Buddhi. 

Bodhana — A mountain to the east of Ramghur. 

Bodhas — One of the tribes of Central India, according to the 
Vayu Purana ; it is also read Bahyas. 

Brahma — The first deity of the Hindu triad ; the creator of 
the world ; the great father and lord of all ; the supporter of all : 
yet described as born in the lotus which sprung from the navel of 
Vishnu ; and as born from the golden egg. The Vishnu Purana 
says, the one only god Janardana, takes the designation of Brahma, 
Vishnu and Siva, accordingly as he creates, preserves or destroys. 
Mr. Cockburn Thompson says : " In the ante-mythological age this 
was probably nothing but a name for the sun, considered as pro- 
ducer, vivifier and pervader. He afterwards replaced Surya in 
the triad of elementary gods, and was coupled with Vishnu and 
Siva, who were substituted for Varuna and Vayu, the other com- 
ponents of that triad. In the earliest mythological period, Brahma 
(always masculine) is then first person of the triad, Brahma, Vishnu 
and Siva ; and when later the unity of these personages was 
established by referring them to one Supreme Being, Brahma was 
that being in his character of creator and eniivener, Vishnu in that 
of preserver, and Siva in that of destroyer. Thus in the Pui-d-nas 
(Vishnu P., p. 22,) Brahma is said to live 100 of his own years, 
each of which consists of 360 days and nights. The days are 
called Kalpas, and consist of 4,320,000,000 years of mortals, during 
which the universe exists. During his nights the universe ceases 
to exist, and is reproduced at the commencement of the next day or 
Kalpa. He is described in the Puranas as having four faces, and 
as being produced from the cup of a lotus, which sprang from the 
navel of Vishnu. In this mythological character of creator of the 
universe, he is mentioned in the Bhagavat Gita and Vishnu Pui-ana. 
When, after the period of superstitious mythology, the idea of one 
Supreme Being was again brought forward, Brahma was considered 

BRA 103 

the chief of the existing trinity, and was at first identified with 
that idea of an unknown god ; and though afterwards Siva and 
Vishnu were each in turn identified with the Supreme Being by 
their respective followers, the Saivas and Vaishnavas, the name 
Brahma, in the neuter, was still retained in the language of philo- 
sophy to designate the universal Supreme One. In this sense the 
word occurs throughout the Bhagavat Gita with the exception of a 
few places where it is masculine ; and once where it occurs in the 
neuter, but no longer signifies the Supreme Being in his complete 
character of the essence of both spirit and matter ; but merely that 
portion of him which is the essence of all matter, the universal vital 
energy. We have thus : — * 1st, Brahma, masculine^ the mythological 
personage, first person of the mythological triad, and personification 
of the creative power, considered as a mortal and material deity ; 
2nd, Brahma, neuter, a name used to designate the Supreme Being 
in philosophic language ; and 3rd, Brahma, neuter, the personifi- 
cation, in later philosophical language, of the material portion of the 
Supreme Being. (The word has never been satisfactorily derived, 
though commonly supposed to come from the root vrih, to grow or 
increase." '— Thompson, Dr, Muir in the 5th Vol. of his Original 
Sanscrit Texts, translates a text which he says * is interesting not 
merely as introducing Brahma but as containing what is probably 
one of the oldest extant expositions of the conceptions of nama and 
rlipa (name and form) as comprehending the whole of the pheno- 
minal universe.' 

"1. In the beginning Brahma was this [universe.] He created 
gods. Having created gods, he placed them in these worlds, viz., 
in this world Agni, in the atmosphere Vayu, and in the sky Sorya ; 

(2) And in the w^orlds which were yet higher he placed the gods 
who are still higher. Such as are these visible worlds and these 
gods,— even such were those (higher) visible worlds in which he 
placed those (higher) gods, and such were those gods themselves ; 

(3) Then Brahma proceeded to the higher sphere (pararddha— 
explained by the commentator to mean the Satyaloka, the most 
excellent, and the limit of all the worlds.) Having gone to that 
higher sphere, he considered * how now can I pervade all these 
worlds ?' He then pervaded them with two things— with form 

104 BRA 

and with name. Whatever has a name, that is name. And then 
that which has no name — that which he knows by its form, that 
* such is its form'— that is form. This [universe] is so much as is 
(i. €., is co-extensive with) form and name ; (4) These are the two 
great magnitudes (abhve) of Brahma. He who knows these two 
great magnitudes of Brahma becomes himself a great magnitude ; 
(5) These are the two great manifestations of Brahma. He who 
knows these two great manifestations of Brahma becomes himself 
a great manifestation. Of these two, one is the greater, viz,, form ; 
for whatever is name is also form. He who knows the greater of 
these two, becomes greater than him than whom he wishes to 
become greater ; (6) The gods were originally mortal, but when 
they were pervaded by Brahma they became immortal. By that 
which he sends forth from his mind (mind is form ; for by mind he 
knows, ' This is form') — by that, I say, he obtains form. And by 
that which he sends out from his voice (voice is name ; for by voice 
he seizes name) — by that, I say, he obtains name. This universe 
is so much as is {i. e., is co-extensive with) form and name. A.11 
that he obtains.' Now that all is undecayiug. Hence he obtains 
undecaying merit, and an undecaying world." 

*' The deity who is described in the later hymns of the Big 
Veda, and in the Atharva Veda, under the different titles of Visva- 
karman, Hiranyagarbha and Prajapati, appears to correspond with 
the Brahma of the more modern legendary books. Though this 
god was originally unconnected with Vishnu and Rudra, while at 
a sub?equent period he came to be regarded in systematic mytho- 
logy as the first person in the triad of which they formed the 
second and third members, yet the general idea entertained of his 
character has been less modified in the course of his history than 
is the case in regard to the other two deities." 

" Brahma was from the beginning considered as the Creator, 
and he continued to be regarded as fulfilling the same function 
even after he had sunk into a subordinate position, and had come 
to be represented by the votaries of Vishnu and Mahddeva 
respectively, as the mere creature and agent of one or other of these 
two gods. Tn later times Brahma has had few special worship- 
pers ; the only spot where he is periodically adored being at 

BRA 105 

Pushkara in Rajputana. Two of the acts which the earlier 
legends ascribe to him, the assumption of the forms of a tortoise 
and of a boar are in later works transferred to Vishnu." 

In the fourth Volume of Muir^s Original Sanscrit Texts, from 
which the above extract has been taken, the reader will find the 
life, character and attributes of Brahma fully illustrated. In 
some of the Texts translated it is maintained that Brahma, Vishnu 
and Siva, are three manifestations of the same divinity. *' I shall 
declare to thee that form composed of Hari and Ilara (Vishnu and 
Mahadeva) combined, which is without beginning, middle, or end, 
imperishable, undecaying. He who is Vishnu is Rudrn ; he who 
is Rudra is Pitamaha (Brahma) ; the substance is one, the gods 
are three, Rudra, Vishnu and Pitdmaha." (O. S. T., Vol. iv, 
p. 237.) 

Brahma-Purana — The, gives a description of the creation, au 
account of the Manwantaras, and the history of the solar and lunar 
dynasties to the time of Krishna. It also sets forth the sanctity of 
Orissa, with its temples and sacred groves, dedicated to the sun, to 
Siva and Jaggunath. Its object seems to be the promotion of the 
worship of Krishna as Jagganath. 

Brahmabali — A disciple of Devadersa and teacher of the 

Brahmabhuta — To become identified with the Supreme Spirit : 
to have the conviction that spirit is one, universal, and the same. 

Brahma bodhya — A river mentioned in the Vishnu Purana, 
but not identified. 

Brahmachari— A religious student who has been invested 
with the sacred thread ; he is to prosecute the study of the Vedas 
in the house of his preceptor : and to wait on him constantly ; in 
the morning he is to salute the sun, in the evening fire ; and then 
to address his preceptor with respect. He must stand when his 
preceptor is standing ; move when he is walking, and sit beneath 
him when he is seated : he must never sit, nor walk, nor stand, 
when his teacher does the reverse. He is to read the Veda atten- 
tively, placed before his preceptor ; and to eat the food he has 


106 BRA 

collected as alms, when permitted by his teacher. He is to bathe 
ia water which has first been used for his preceptor's ablutions ; 
and every morning bring fuel and water, and whatever else may 
be required. V. P. 

One of the hymns translated by Dr. Muir in his Original 
Sanscrit Texts ascribes " very astonishing powers to the Brahma- 
charin or religious student." Dr. Muir says : " Some parts of it are 
obscure, bat the translation I give, though imperfect, will convey 
some idea of the contents." 

" The Brahmacharin works, quickening both worlds. The gods 
are joyful in him. He has established the earth and the sky. He 
satisfies his acharya (religious teacher) by tapas ; 2, The Fathers, 
the heavenly hosts, all the gods separately, follow after him, with 
the 6,333 Gaudharvas. He satisfies all the gods by tapas ; 3, The 
acharya, adopting him as a disciple, makes him a Brahmacharin 
even in the womb, and supports him in the belly for three nights. 
When he is born the gods assemble to see him ; 4, This piece of fuel 
is the earth (compare verse 9), the second is the sky, and he satis- 
fies the air with fuel. The Brahmacharin satisfies the worlds with 
fuel, with a girdle, with exertion, with tapas ; o. Born before 
Brahma, the Brahmacharin arose through tapas, clothed with heat. 
From him was produced divine knowledge (bramana), the highest 
Brahma, and all the gods, together with immortality ; 6, The 
Brahmacharin advances, lighted up by fuel, clothed in a black 
antelope's skin, consecrated, long-bearded. He moves straightway 
from the eastern to the northern ocean, compressing the worlds, 
and again expanding them ; 7, The Brahmacharin, generating 
divine science, the waters, the world, Prajapati, Parameshthin, 
Viriij, having become an embryd in the womb of immortality, 
having become Indra, crushed the Asuras ; 8, The Acharya has 
constructed both these spheres, broad and deep, the earth and the 
sky. The Brahmacharin preserves them by tapas. In him the 
gods are joyful ; 9, It was the Brahmacharin who first produced 
this broad earth and the sky as an alms. Making them two pieces 
of fuel (compare verse 4) he worships. In them all creatures are 
contained ; 10, The two receptacles of divine knowledge are 
secretly deposited, the one on this side, the other beyond the 

BRA 107 

surface of the sky. The Brahmacharin guards them by tapas. Wise, 
he appropriates that divine knowledge as his exclusive portion... ; 
16, The Brahmacharin is the Acharya, the Brahmachiirin is Pra- 
japati ; Prajapati shines (virdjati) ; the shining ( FiVo/) became 
ludra, the powerful ; 17, Through self-restraint and tapas a king 
protects his dominions. Through self-restraint an Acharya seeks 
after a Brahmacharin ; 18, By self-restraint a damsel obtains a 
young man as her husband. By self-restraint an ox and a horse 
seek to gain fodder; 19, By self-restraint and tapas the gods 
destroyed death. By self-restraint Indra acquired heaven from 
[or for] the gods ; 20, Plants, whatever has been, whatever 
shall be, day and night, trees, the year, with the seasons, have 
been produced from the Brahmacharin ; 2), Terrestrial and celes- 
tial beings, beasts, both wild and tame, creatures without wings 
and winged, have been produced from the Brahmacharin ; 22, All 
creatures which have sprung from Prajapati have breath separately 
in themselves ; all of these are preserved by divine knowledge 
(Brahma), which is produced in the Brahmacharin ...; 26, These 
things the Brahmacharin formed ; on the surface of the water ho 
stood performing tapas in the sea." 

Brahmadatta — A sage, the son of Anuha. In the Hari 
Vamsam is a curious legend of the different transmigrations of Brah- 
madatta and his six companions, who were successively as many 
brahmans, then forests, then deer, then water fowl, then swans, and 
finally, brahmans again, when with the king they obtained libera- 
tion. According to the Bhagavat, Brahmadatta composed a treatise 
on the Yoga, a yoga tantra. 

Brahmaloka— The highest heaven, the world of infinite 
wisdom and truth, the inhabitants of which never again know 

Brahman — The name of the sacerdotal class ; though a 
priestly tribe, all brahmins are not priests. The true origin of the 
brahmans is not distinctly known. The fabulous tradition current 
amongst them derives them from the head of Brahma. A brah- 
man is in a very differen fc situation from a Kshatriya, a Vaisya or a 
Sudra, These are born in the condition in which they continue to 

108 BRA. 

live. But a Brahman becomes such only by the ceremony of the 
cord with which he is invested at an early age. (See Upanayaua). 
They are after this rite designated Dwija, twice-born. 

The seven castes of the brahmans have for their special origin 
the seven famous Rishis or penitents. Tiiese seven Rishis are 
highly celebrated in the annals of the country. They are the 
holiest and most venerated personages the Hindus acknowledge. 
Their names are held sacred and invoked by all the people. (See 

" If the fabulous stories which are told of the origin of certain 
great families in Europe, shed a lustre upon them by proving their 
antiquity, how much more reason has the brahman to vaunt his 
noble pedigree ? and if the honor of being sprung from an illus- 
trious family sometimes leads its descendants to look down with 
contempt upon the lower ranks, we cannot wonder at the haughti- 
ness of the brahman, and the high disdain which he shows to every 
caste but his own."* 

Every brahman professes to know from which of the seven 
Rishis he has descended. There is another and more general divi- 
sion which separates them into four distinct classes, each of which 
appertains to one of the four Vedas. But in the ordinary inter- 
course of life little attention is paid to this distinction. There are 
several sectarian divisions which are practically more operative. 
These are Vishnuvite, Smarta or Saiva brahmans ; and in different 
parts of India other sub-divisions are found. 

Brahmanas— The portions of the Vedas which comprise pre- 
cepts inculcating religious duties, maxims which explain these 
precepts, and arguments which relate to theology. " The Brah- 
raauas represent no doubt a most interesting phrase in the history 
of the Indian mind, but judged by themselves, as literary produc- 
tions, they arc most disappointing. No one would have supposed 
that at so early a period, and in so primitive a state of society, 
there could have risen up a literature which for pedantry and 
downright absurdity can hardly be matched anywhere. There is 
no lack of striking thoughts, of bold expressions, of sound reason- 

* Abbe Dubois. 

BRA 109 

iug and curious traditions in these collections. But these are 
only like the fragments of a torso, like precious gems set in brass 
and lead. The general character of these works is marked by- 
shallow and insipid grandiloquence, by priestly conceit and anti- 
quarian pedantry. It is most important to the historian that he 
should know how soon the fresh and healthy growth of a nation 
can be blighted by priestcraft and superstition. It is most 
important that we should know that nations are liable to those 
epidemics in their youth as well as in their dotage. These works 
deserve to be studied as the physician studies the twaddle of 
idiots, and the raving of madmen. They will disclose to a 
thoughtful eye the ruins of faded grandeur, the memories of noble 
aspirations. But let us only try to translate these works into our 
own language, and we shall feel astonished that human language 
and human thought should ever have been used for such purposes."* 
Brahmanda Purana — That which has declared in twelve 
thousand two hundred verses, the magnificence of the egg of 
Brahma, and in which an account of the future Kalpas is con- 
tained, is called the Brahmanda Purana, and was revealed by 
Brahma. V. P. 

Brahmas or Brahmarishis —According to the V. P. the 

names of the nine Brahmans, or Brahmarishis, are Brighu, 
Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Angiras, Marichi, Daksha, Atri and 
Vasishta. They are also called Prajapatis and Brahmaputras. 
Considerable variety prevails in the lists of them in the different 
books : but the variations are of the nature of additions made 
to an apparently original enumeration of but seven, whose 
names generally recur. In the V. P. they are termed the 
mind-engendered progeny of Brahma : born from his con- 
tinued meditations. In the South of India they are usually 
termed the Seven Penitents. Two it is said were not originally 
brahmans, but they practised so long and severe a penance that 
they obtained the remarkable favor of being raised to that rank 
by the ceremony of the cord. From penitent Rajas they became 
penitent brahmans : their rise was from a still lower rank accord- 

* Blax Muller. 

110 BRA— BUD 

ing to the philosophical poet Veriiana. These Rishis existed 
prior to the Vedas, in which they are often mentioned. The 
Abbe Dubois thinks they were the seven sons of Japhet. 
Brahma-savarni— The Mauu of the tenth Manwantara. 

Brahmavaivartta-Purana— " That Parana which is related 
by Savarne to Narada, and contains the account of the greatness 
of Krishna, with the occurrences of the Rathantantara Kalpa, 
where also the story of Brahma Vardhais repeatedly told, is called 
the Brahma vaivartta and contains eighteen thousand stanzas." V. P. 

Brahmajna — Sacred Study, that which communicates to 
soul the knowledge of good and evil : one of the five great 
sacrifices or obligations of the Brahmachari. 

Bramharshis — Descendants of the five patriarchs who were 
the founders of races or Gotras of brahmans, or Kasyapa, 
Vasishtha, Angiras, Atri and Brighu. The Brahmarshis dwell in 
the sphere of Brahma. 

Brammedhya — The name of a river in the Vishnu Purana 
not yet identified. 

Buddha — " Buddha, or more correctly, the Buddha, — for 
Buddha is an appellative meaning Enlightened, — Avas born at 
Kapilavastu, the capital of a kingdom of the same name, situated 
at the foot of the mountains of Nepal, north of the present Oude. 
His father, the king of Kapilavastu, was of the family of the 
Sakyas, and belonged to the clan of the Gautamas. His mother 
was Mayadevi, daughter of king Suprabuddha, and need we say 
that she was as beautiful as he was powerful and just ? Buddha 
was therefore by birth of the Kshatrya, or warrior caste, and he 
took the name of Sakya from his family, and that of Gautama 
from his clan, claiming a kind of spiritual relationship with the 
honoured race of Gautama. The name of Buddha, or the Bud- 
dha, dates from a later period of his life, and so probably does the 
name Siddhartha (he whose objects have been accomplished), 
though we are told that it was given hiin in his childhood. His 
mother died seven days after his birth, and the father confided the 
child to the caro of his deceased wife's sister, who, however, laid . 

BUD 111 

been his wife even before the mother's death. The child grew up 
a most beautiful and most accomplished boy, who soon knew more 
than his masters could teach him. He refused to take part in the 
games of his playmates, and never felt so happy as when he could 
sit alone, lost in meditation in the deep shadows of the forest. It 
was there that his father found him when he had thought him lost, 
and in order to prevent the young prince from becoming a dreamer, 
the king determined to marry him at once. When the subject 
was mentioned by the aged ministers to the future heir to the 
throne, he demanded seven days for reflection, and convinced at 
last that not even marriage could disturb the calm of his mind, he 
allowed the ministers to look out for a princess. The princess 
selected was the beautiful Gopa, the daughter of Dandapani. 
Though her father objected at first to her marrying a young prince 
who was represented to him as deficient in manliness and intellect, 
he gladly gave his consent when he saw the royal suitor dis- 
tancing all his rivals both in feats of arms and power of mind. Their 
marriage proved one of the happiest, but the prince remained as 
he had been before, absorbed in meditation on the problems of life 
and death. ' Nothing is stable on earth,' he used to say, * nothing 
is real. Life is like the spark produced by the friction of wood. 
It is lighted and is extinguished — we know not whence it came or 
whither it goes. It is like the sound of a lyre, and the wise man 
asks in vain from whence it came and whither it goes. There 
must be some supreme intelligence where we could find rest. If 
I attained it, I could bring light to man ; if I were free myself, 
I could deliver the world.' The king, who perceived the melan- 
choly mood of the young prince, tried everything to divert him 
from his speculations : but all was in vain. Three of the most 
ordinary events that could happen to any man, proved of the 
utmost importance in the career of Buddha. We quote the 
description of these occurrences from M. Barthelemy Saint Hilaire : 
* One day when the prince with a large retinue was driving 
through the eastern gate of the city on the way to one of his 
parks, he met on the road an old man, broken and decrepit. One 
could see the veins and muscles over the whole of his body, his 
teeth chattered, he was covered with wrinkles, bald, and hardly 

112 BUD 

able to utter hollow and unmelodious sounds. He was bent on his 
stick, and all his limbs and joints trembled. " Who is that man ?" 
said the prince to his coachman. " He is small and weak, his 
flesh and his blood are dried up, his muscles stick to his skin, his 
head is white, his teeth chatter, his body is wasted away ; leaning 
on his stick he is hardly able to walk, stumbliug at every step. Is 
there something peculiar in his family, or is this the common lot 
of all created beings ?" 

* " Si)"," replied the coachman, " that man is sinking under old 
age, his senses have become obtuse, suffering has destroyed his 
strength, and he is despised by his relations. He is without sup- 
port and useless, and people have abandoned him, like a dead tree 
in a forest. But this is not peculiar to his family. In every 
creature, youth is defeated by old age. Your father, your mother, 
all your relations, all your friends, will come to the same state ; 
this is the appointed end of all creatures.' " 

* *' Alas !" replied the prince, " are creatures so ignorant, so 
weak and foolish, as to be proud of the youth by which they are 
intoxicated, not seeing the old age which awaits them ! As for 
me, I go away. Coachman, turn my chariot quickly. What have 
I, the future prey of old age, — what have I to do with pleasure ?' " 
And the young prince returned to the city without going to his 

* Another time the prince was driving through the southern 
gate to his pleasure garden, when he perceived on the road a man 
suffering from illness, parched with fever, his body wasted, covered 
with mud, without a friend, without a home, hardly able to breathe, 
and frightened at the sight of himself and the approach of death. 
Having questioned his coachman, and received from him the 
answer which he expected, the young prince said, *' Alas ! health 
is but the sport of a dream, and the fear of suffering must take 
this frightful form. Where is the wise man who, after having 
seen what he is, could any longer think of joy and pleasure ?" 
The prince turned his chariot and returned to the city. 

* A third time he was driving to his pleasure garden through 
the western gate, when he saw a dead body on the road, lying on 
a bier, and covered with a cloth. The friends stood about crying, 

BUD 113 

sobbing, tearing their hair, covering their heads with dust, strik- 
ing their breasts, and uttering wild cries. The prince, again, 
calling his coachman to witness this painful scene, exclaimed, 
" Oh ! woe to youth, which must be destroyed by old age ! Woe 
to health, which must be destroyed by so many diseases ! Woe 
to this life, where a man remains so short a time ! If there were 
DO old age, no disease, no death ; if these could be made captive 
for ever !" Then betraying for the first time his intentions, the 
young prince said, " Let us turn back, 1 must think how to 
accomplish deliverance.' " 

* A last meeting put an end to Iiis hesitation. He was driving 
through the northern gate on the way to his pleasure gardens, 
when he saw a mendicant who appeared outwardly calm, subdued, 
looking downwards, wearing with an air of dignity his religious 
vestment, and carrying an alms-bowl.' 

* " Who is this man ?' " asked the prince. 

' " Sir," replied the coachman, " this man is one of those who 
are called bhikshus, or mendicants. He has renounced all plea- 
sures, all desires, and leads a life of austerity. He tries to conquer 
himself. He has become a devotee. Without passion, without 
envy, he walks about asking for alms.' " 

* " This is good and well said," replied the prince. " The life 
of a devotee has always been praised by the wise. It will be my 
refuge and the refuge of other creatures ; it will lead us to a real 
life, to happiness and immortality." 

* With these words the young prince turned his chariot and 
returned to the city.' 

After having declared to his father and his wife his intention of 
retiring from the world, Buddha left his palace one night when all 
the guards that were to have watched him were asleep. After 
travelling the whole night he gave his horse and his ornaments to 
his groom, and sent him back to Kapilavastu. * A monument,' 
remarks the author of the Lalita-Vistara (p. 270), * is still to be 
seen on the spot where the coachman turned back.' Hiouen- 
Thsang (II, 330) saw the same monument at the edge of a large 
forest, on his road to Kusinagara, a city now in ruins, and situated 
about fifty miles E. S. E. from Gorakpur. 


114 BUD 

Buddha first went to Vaisali and became the pupil of a famous 
. Brahman, who had gathered round him 300 disciples. Having 
learnt all that the Brahman could teach him, Buddha went away- 
disappointed. He had not found the road to salvation. He then 
tried another Brahman at Ragagriha, the capital of Magadha or 
Behar, who had 700 disciples, and there too he looked in vain for the 
means of deliverance. He left him, followed by five of his fellow- 
students, and for six years retired into solitude, near a village named 
Uruvilva, subjecting himself to the most severe penances, previous 
to his appearing in the world as a teacher. At the end of this 
period, however, he arrived at the conviction that asceticism, far 
from giving peace of mind and preparing the way to salvation, 
was a snare and a stumbling-block in the way of truth. He gave 
up his exercises, and was at once deserted as an apostate by his 
five disciples. Left to himself he now began to elaborate his own 
system. He had learnt that neither the doctrines nor the auste- 
rities of the Brahmans were of any avail for accomplishing the deli- 
verance of man, and freeing him from the fear of old age, disease 
and death. After long meditations and ecstatic visions, he at last 
imagined that he had arrived at that true knowledge which 
discloses the cause, and thereby destroys the fear of all the changes 
inherent in life. It was from the moment when he arrived at 
this knowledge, that he claimed the name of Buddha, the enlight- 
ened. At that moment we may truly say that the fate of millions 
of millions of human beings trembled in the balance. Buddha 
hesitated for a time whether he should keep his knowledge to 
himself, or communicate it to the world. Compassion for the 
sufFeriugs of man prevailed, and the young prince became the 
founder of a religion which, after more than 2,000 years, is still 
professed by 455,000,000 of human beings. 

The further history of the new teacher is very simple. He 
proceeded to Benares, which at all times was the principal seat of 
learning in India, and the first converts he made were the five 
fellow-students who had left him when he threw ofi* the yoke of 
the Brahmanical observances. Many others followed ; but as the 
Lalita-Vistara breaks off at Buddha's arrival at Benares, we have 
no further consecutive account of the rapid progress of his 

BUD 115 

doctrine. From what we can gather from scattered notices in the 
Buddhist canon, he was invited by the king of Magadha, Bimbi- 
sara, to his capital, Ragagriha. Many of his lectures are repre- 
sented as having been delivered at the monastery of Kalantaka, 
with which the king or some rich merchant had presented him ; 
others on the Vulture Peak, one of the five hills that surrounded 
the ancient capital. 

Three of his most famous disciples, Sariputra, Katyayana, and 
Maudgalyayana, joined him during his stay in Magadha, where he 
enjoyed for many years the friendship of the king. That king 
was afterwards assassinated by his son, Agatasatru, and then we 
hear of Buddha as settled for a time at Sravasti, north of the 
Ganges, where Anathapindada, a rich merchant, had offered him 
and his disciples a magnificent building for their residence. Most 
of Buddha's lectures or sermons were delivered at Sravasti, the 
capital of Kosala ; and the king of Kosala himself, Prasenagit, 
became a convert to his doctrine. After an absence of twelve 
years we are told that Buddha visited his father at Kapilavastu, on 
which occasion he performed several miracles, and converted all 
the Sakyas to his faith. His own wife became one of his followers, 
and, with his aunt, offers the first instance of female Buddhist 
devotees in India. We have fuller particulars again of the last 
days of Buddha's life. He had attained the good age of three- 
score and ten, and had been on a visit to Ragagriha, where the 
king, Agatasatru, the former enemy of Buddha, and the assassin 
of his own father, had joined the congregation, after making a 
public confession of his crimes. On his return he was followed 
by a large number of disciples, and w^hen on the point of crossing 
the Granges, he stood on a square stone, and turning his eyes back 
towards Ragagriha, he said, full of emotion, * This is the last time 
that I see that city.' He likewise visited Yaisatli, and after taking 
leave of it, he had nearly reached the city of Kusinagara, when 
his vital strength began to fail. He halted in a forest, and while 
sitting under a sal tree, he gave up the ghost, or, as a Buddhist 
would say, entered into Nirvana. 

This is the simple story of Buddha's life. It reads much better 
in the eloquent pages of M. Bartheiemy Saint Hilaire, than in the 

116 BUD 

turgid lauguage of the Buddhists. If a critical historiau, with the 
materials we possess, entered at all on the process of separating 
truth from falsehood, he would probably cut off much of what our 
biographer has left. Professor Wilson, in his Essay on Buddha 
and Buddhism, considers it doubtful whether any such person as 
Buddha ever actually existed. He dwells on the fact that there 
are at least twenty different dates assigned to his birth, vaiying 
from 2420 to 453 b. c. He points out that the clan of the Sakyas 
is never mentioned by early Hindu writers, and he lays much 
stress on the fact that most of the proper names of the persons 
connected with Buddha suggest an allegorical signification. The 
name of his father means, he whose food is pure ; that of his 
mother signifies illusion ; his own secular appellation, Siddhartha, 
he by whom the end is accomplished. Buddha itself means, the 
Enlightened, or, as Professor Wilson translates it less accurately, 
he by whom all is known. The same distinguished scholar goes 
even further, and maintaining that Kapilavastu, the birth-place of 
Buddha, has no place in the geography of the Hindus, suggests 
that it may be rendered, the substance of Kapila ; intimating, in 
fact, the Saukhya philosophy, the doctrine of Kapila Muni, upon 
which the fundamental elements of Buddhism, the eternity of 
matter, the principles of things, and the final extinction, are 
supposed to be planned. * It seems not impossible,' he continues, 

* that Sakya Muni is an unreal being, and that all that is related 
of him is as much a fiction, as is that of his preceding migrations, 
and the miracles that attended his birth, his life, and his departure.' 
This is goiug far beyond Niebuhr, far even beyond Strauss. If an 
allegorical name had been invented for the father of Buddha, one 
more appropriate than ' clean-food' might surely have been found. 
His mother is not the only queen known by the name of Maya, 
Mayadevi, or Mayavati. Why, if these names were invented, 
should his wife have been allowed to keep the prosaic name of 
Gopa (cowherdess), and his fother-in-law, that of Dandapani, 

* stick -hand ?' As to his own name, Siddhartha, the Tibetans 
maintain that it was given him by his parent, whose wish (artha) 
had been fulfilled (siddha), as we hear of Desires and Dieu-donues 
iu French. One of the miuidters of Dasaratha had the same name. 

BUD 117 

It is possible also that Buddha himself assumed it in after-life, as 
was the case with mauy of the Roman surnames. As to the name 
of Buddha, no one ever maintained that it was more than a title, 
the Enlightened, changed from an appellative into a proper name, 
just like the name of Christos, the Anointed ; or Mohammed, the 
Expected. Kapilavastu would be a most extraordinary compound 
to express * the substance of the Sankhya philosophy.' But all 
doubt on the subject is removed by the fact that both Fabian in 
the fifth, and Hiouen-Tshang in the seventh centuries, visited the 
real ruins of that city. 

Making every possible allowance for the accumulation of fiction 
which is sure to gather round the life of the founder of every great 
religion, we may be satisfied that Buddhism, which changed the 
aspect not only of India, but of nearly the whole of Asia, had a 
real founder ; that he was not a Brahman by birth, but belonged 
to the second or royal caste ; that being of a meditative turn of 
mind, and deeply impressed with the frailty of all created things, 
hebecame a recluse, and sought for light and comfort in the different 
systems of Brahman philosophy and theology. Dissatisfied with 
the artificial systems of their priests and philosophers, convinced 
of the uselessness, nay of the pernicious influence, of their cere- 
monial practices and bodily penances, shocked, too, by their world- 
liness and pharisaical conceit, which made the priesthood the exclu- 
sive property of one caste and rendered every sincere approach 
of man to his Creator impossible without their intervention, 
Buddha must have produced at once a powerful impression on the 
people at large, when breaking through all the established rules of 
caste, he assumed the privileges of a Brahman, and throwing away 
the splendour of his royal position, travelled about as a beggar, 
not shrinking from the defiling contact of sinners and publicans. 
Though when we now speak of Buddhism, we think chiefly of its 
doctrines, the reform of Buddha had originally much more of a 
social than of a religious character. Buddha swept away the web 
with which the Brabmans had encircled the whole of India. 
Beginning as the destroyer of an old, he became the founder of a 
new religion."* 

* Max Muller, Chips from a German Workshop, Vol. I, p. 210. 

118 BUD 

According to Buddhist belief when a man dies he is immediately 
born again, or appears in a new shape, according to his merit or 
demerit, he may be born in the form of a woman, or a slave, a quad- 
ruped, a bird, a fish, an insect, a plant, or even a piece of inorganic 
matter. He may be born in a state of punishment in one of the 
many Buddhist hells ; or in the condition of a happy spirit or even 
divinity in heaven ; but whatever the position be, and however long 
he may live in it, the life will have an end, and the individual must 
be born again, and may again be either happy or miserable — 
" either a god, or it may be the vilest inanimate object. The Bud- 
dha himself, before his last birth as Sakyamuni, had gone through 
every conceivable form of existence, on the earth, in the air, and 
in the water, in hell and in heaven, and had filled every condition 
in human life. When he attained the perfect knowledge of the 
Buddha, he was able to recall all these existences ; and a great 
part of the Buddhist legendary literature is taken up in narrating 
his exploits, when he lived as an elephant, as a bird, as a stag, and 
so forth." — Goldstucker. 

The Buddhist does not regard these various transmigrations, 
whether punishments or rewards, as caused by the Creator or 
Euler of the Universe. " They do not conceive any god or gods 
as being pleased or displeased by the actions, and as assigning the 
actors their future condition by way of punishment or reward." 
The very idea of a god as creating or in any way ruling the world, 
is utterly absent in the Buddhist system. God is not so much as 
denied ; he is simply not known." The power that controls the 
world is expressed by the word Karma, literally action, including 
both merit and demerit. " The future condition of the Buddhist, 
then, is not assigned him by the Ruler of the Universe ; the Karma 
of his actions determines it by a sort of virtue inherent in the 
nature of things — by the blind and unconscious concatenation of 
cause and effect." 

Buddhism inculcates morality. The most essential virtues are 
truthfulness, benevolence, kindness, purity, patience, courage, and 
contemplation. All offensive and gross language is forbidden ; 
nothing is ever to be said to stir up ill-will, or excite enmity, or 
that would cause quarrels ; it is a duty on all occasious to act as a 

BUD 119 

peace-maker. " Humility holds a no less prominent place among 
Buddhist graces than it does among the Christians." — Goldstuckevy 
Chamber's Ency. 

Buddhi — Understanding, synonyme of Mahat ; also the name 
of a daughter of Daksha who became the wife of Dharma. 

Budha — (Mercury.) The son of Soma, the moon. Budha 
married //a, whose sex had been changed by Siva. Thence the 
lunar, as distinguished from the solar, line of kings ; and to that 
point is to be referred many important opinions and results, 
very widely disseminated. See Ila. 

There exists a doubt whether the names of planetary bodies 
were given to early men, or whether the planets were named after 
distiuguished men of the earliest age. The purauas give a brief 
legend, which has been deemed astronomical, but of a doubtful 
school ; such as reduced Abraham to a constellation. This legend 
is that Chandra (the moon) was placed in the house of Vrihas- 
pati (Jupiter) as his pupil, and that T^rd (the lunar path of 27 
asterisms) fell ia love with Chandra, and seduced him while 
Vrihaspati was away at a sacrifice made by Indra (the firmament) ; 
the result was the birth of Budha (Mercury). If there be any 
astronomical meaning, it would imply that the old Chaldeans 
thought that the moon in some part of its orbit attracted a satel- 
lite of Jupiter, detached it from that planet, and was the occasion 
of its finding an orbit around the sun, as a primary planet. How- 
ever, this interpretation has great improbabilities. 

The poets, and especially Telugu poets, have paraphrased the 
legend in their own way ; and very freely too. If the parties 
were men on earth we get at one of the earliest known wars. 
For, the claim to the parentage and right of Budha by Vrihas- 
pati and Chandra, led to a fierce war, dividiug gods and men into 
two parties. 

In a variety of works published, writers, though oriental 
scholars, confound Budha and Buddha. This appears so late 
down as Major Cunningham's book on the Bhilsa Topes ; published 
in 1855. But the persons are distinct, the sense of the words 
different, the spelling different, the pronunciation still more so. — 

Caste — The term Caste, derived from the Portuguese Casta, 
expressive of the Indian vt^ord Jati, has been universally adopted 
by Europeans to denote the different classes or tribes into which 
the people of India are divided. " The permanent division of the 
community into classes, with hereditary professions assigned to 
each, is one of the most remarkable institutions of Hindustan. 
There are four great divisions. The most distinguished of all is 
that of Brahmana or Brahmans, who are said to have come from 
the mouth of Brahma : the second in rank is that of Kshatriya or 
Rajas, from the arm of Brahma ; the third the Vaisya, or 
merchants, from the thigh of Brahma ; the fourth the Sudras, or 
workmen, from his foot : all with their females. Each of these 
four tribes is subdivided into several more ; the Sudras especially 
have an almost endless number of distinctions ; such as herdsmen 
who keep the cows ; shepherds who tend the sheep ; weavers ; 
^ve castes *of Artizans, viz., carpenters, goldsmiths, blacksmiths, 
stone-cutters, founders. The several castes of cultivators take 
precedence of other Sudras, and look with contempt on tradesmen 
and labourers. There is a Caste of Kallaru, or. robbers, who 
consider their profession as no way discreditable to themselves or 
their tribe. Each caste exhibits some particular and local varieties 
of its own by which it is discriminated from the rest : Some 
distinguish themselves by the cut and colour of their clothes ; 
some by the manner in which they put them on. But however 
extravagant their modes and customs are, they never excite from 
castes of the most opposite habits and fashions the least appearance 
of contempt or dislike. Upon this point there seems to be the 
most perfect toleration. 

In the South of India there is another division of the different 
tribes still more general than those which have been yet mentioned. 
It is that of Right-haud and Left-hand Castes. The greater 

CAS 121 

number of Hindu castes belong either to the Right-hand or the 
Left. The Brahmans, the Pariahs (or outcastes) and several 
tribes of the Sudras, are considered neutral, and enjoying all thq 
privileges and honors attached to both hands, they take no part 
with either. These neutral castes are frequently called upon to 
arbitrate in the fierce disputes that occur between the Right and 
Left-hand parties. Both parties lay claim to certain privileges ; 
and when any encroachment is made by cither it is followed by 
tumults that spread through a district, accompanied with every 
excess ; and generally with bloody contests. The Hindu, usually 
so gentle and timid, seems to change his nature. There is no 
danger he fears to encounter in maintaining these rights." — Dubois, 

Dr. Muir in the first volume of his O. S. Texts, has very fully 
investigated the mythical accounts of the creation of man and of 
the origin of the four castes. He says "it will be seen from the 
texts adduced that from a very early period the Indian writers 
have propounded a great variety of speculations regarding the 
origin of mankind, and of the classes or castes into which they 
found their own community divided. The most commonly received 
of these explanations is the fable which represents the Brahmans, 
Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras, to have been separately created 
from the head, the breast or arms, the thighs, and the feet of the 
Creator. Of this mythical account no trace is to be found in any 
of the hymns of the Rig Veda, except one, the Purusha Sukta." 

Dr. Muir is of opinion that this hymn belongs to the most 
recent portion of the Rig Veda. Mr. Colebrook, Professors Max 
Miiller and Weber concur on this view ; which however is con- 
troverted by Dr. Haug. 

After quoting a great number of texts from the oldest authorities, 
Dr. Muir remarks. " When we discover in the most ancient Indian 
writings such different and even discrepant accounts of the origin 
of man, all put forth with equal positiveness, it is impossible to 
imagine that any uniform explanation of the diversity of castes 
could have been received at the period when they were composed, 
or to regard any of the texts which have been cited as more 
orthodox and authoritative than the rest. Even, therefore, if we 
should suppose that the author of the Purusha Sukta meant to 


122 CAS 

represent the four castes as having literally sprung from separate 
parts of Purusha's body, it is evident that the same idea was not 
always or even generally adopted by those who followed him, as 
a revealed truth in which they were bound to acquiesce. In fact, 
nothing is clearer than that in all these cosmogonies, the writers, 
while generally assuming certain prevalent ideas as the basis 
of their descriptions, gave the freest scope to their individual 
fancy in the invention of details. In such circumstances, perfect 
coincidence cannot be expected in the narratives." 

The following are the results of Dr. Muir's careful investiga- 
tion of all the Texts bearing on the subject : — 
• ** The details which I have supplied in the course of this 
chapter must have rendered it abundantly evident that the sacred 
books of the Hindus contain no uniform or consistent account of 
the origin of castes ; but, on the contrary, present the greatest 
varieties of speculation on this subject. Explanations mystical, 
mythical, and rationalistic, are all offered in turn ; and the freest 
scope is given by the individual writers to fanciful and arbitrary 

First : we have the set of accounts in which the four castes are 
said to have sprung from progenitors who were separately created ; 
but in regard to the manner of their creation we find the greatest 
diversity of statement. The most common story is that the castes 
issued from the mouth, arms, thighs, and feet of Purusha, or 
Brahma. The oldest extant passage in which this idea occurs, 
and from which all the later myths of a similar tenor have no 
doubt been borrowed, is, as we Lave seen, to be found in the 
Purusha Sukta ; but it is doubtful whether, in the form in which 
it is there presented, this representation is anything more than an 
allegory. In some of the texts which I have quoted from the 
Bhagavata Pui'ina, traces of the same allegorical character may 
be perceived ; but in Manu and the Purinas the mystical import 
of the Vedic text disappears, and the figurative narrative is 
hardened into a literal statement of fact. In other passages, where 
a separate origin is assigned to the castes, they are variously said 
to have sprung from the words Bhuh, Bhuvah, Svah ; from 
difieient Vcdas j from difl'crcnl sets of piaycrs) i from the gods, 

CHA 123 

and the asuras ; from nonentity, and from the imperishable, the 
perishable, and other principles. In the chapters of the Vishnu, 
Vayu, and Markandeya Pur^uas, where castes are described as 
coeval with the creation, and as having been naturally distinguished 
by different gunas, or qualities, involving varieties of moral 
character, we are nevertheless allowed to infer that those qualities 
exerted no influence on the classes in whom they were inherent, 
as the condition of the whole race during the Krita age is described 
as one of uniform perfection and happiness ; while the actual 
separation into castes did not take place, according to the Vdyu 
Purina, until men had become deteriorated in the Treta age. 

Second : in various passages from the Brahmanas, Epic poems, 
and Puranas, the creation of mankind is, as we have seen, described 
without the least allusion to any separate production of the 
progenitors of the four castes. And whilst in the chapters where 
they relate the distinct formation of the castes, the Puranas, as 
has been observed, assign different natural dispositions to each 
class, they elsewhere represent all mankind as being at the creation 
uniformly distinguished by the quality of passion. In one of the 
texts I have quoted, men are said to be the offspring of Vivasvat ; 
in another his son Manu is said to be their progenitor ; whilst in a 
third they are said to be descended from a female of the same 
name. The passage which declares Manu to have been the father 
of the human race explicitly affirms that men of all the four castes 
were descended from him. In another remarkable text the 
Mahabharata categorically asserts that originally there was no 
distinction of classes, the existing distribution having arisen out of 
differences of character and occupation. Similarly, the Bhagavata 
Purana in one place informs us that in the Krita age there was 
but one caste ; and this view appears also to be taken in some 
passages which I have adduced from the Epic poems. 

In these circumstances we may fairly conclude that the separate 
origination of the four castes was far from being an article of 
belief universally received by Indian antiquity." — Vol. I, p. 160. 

Chaidyas — A race of kings, descendants of Chedi, amongst 
whom were Damagosha and Sisupdla. 

124 CHA 

Chaitra— The name of the third lunar month (Feb. -March). 
Chaitraratah— A large forest, in the east of lUvrita. 

Chakora — One of the thirty Andhrabhritya kings ; he only 
reigned six months. 

Chakora — The name of a mountain in the eastern ghauts. 

Chakra — l, The discus of Vishnu ; a sharp-edged quoit ; 
Arjuna performed wonderful feats with his chakra. It was with 
this weapon that Krishna slew Sisupala. It is always seen in one 
of the four hands of Vishnu. The Chakra has also been converted 
into the prayer wheel of the Buddhists ; 2, The name of one of 
the chanters of the Sam a Veda. 

Chakras — A race of people who about the commencement of 
our era, extended along the West of India, from the Hindu Kosh 
to the mouths of the Indus. 

Chakravartti — One on whom the Chakra, the discus of 
Vishnu, abides ; such a figure being delineated by the lines of the 
hand. The grammatical etymology is ' he who abides in or rules 
over, an extensive country called a chakra.' Chakravartti is there- 
fore a univei'sal emperor. On the death of such an emperor it 
was the custom to collect and deposit the ashes of the body, after 
burning, in a pyramidal monument, — Wilson. 

Chakra vaka — A Brahmani goose : the name of a wise coun- 
sellor in the Pancha Tantra ; Hiranyagarbha, the king of the 
water-fowl, was anxious to make war, when his minister, Chakra- 
vaka, made many speeches to prevent it, suggesting that victory 
was ever doubtful, &c. 

Chakshu — One of the four great rivers, made by the division 
of the Ganges, and which is said in the V. P. to flow into the 
sea after traversing all the western mountains, and passing through 
the country of Kctumala. 

Chakshu— A prince, the son of Puruj^nu, one of the descend- 
ants of Dwimidha. 

Chakshupa— A prince renowned for his valour, the son of 
Khauitra, .one of the descendants of Nedishta. 

CHA 125 

Chakshusha — The Manu of the sixth Manwantara, son of 
Ripu by Vrihati. The Markandeya has a legend of his birth as a 
son of Kshatriya ; of his being exchanged at his birth for the son 
of Visranta Raja, and being brought up by the prince as his own ; 
of his revealing the business when a man, and propitiating Brahma 
by his devotions, in consequence of which he became a Manu ; 
In his former birth he was born from the eye of Brahma ; whence 
his name from Chakshush * the eye.' 

Chakshushas— The first of the five classes of gods in the 
fourteenth Manwantara. 

Chandrayana— Penances, which, according to the Vedanta, 
cause, not the acquisition of any thing positive, but merely the 
removal of sin. They are regulated by the moon's age ; and 
consist in diminishing the daily consumption of food every day, 
by one mouthful, for the dark half of the month, beginning with 
fifteen at the full moon, until it is reduced to one at the new 
moon ; and then increasing in like manner during the fortnight of 
the moon's increase : there are other forms of this penance. 

Champa— The son of Pritulaksha, a descendant of Anu, who 
founded the city of Champapuri, a city of which traces still remain 
in the vicinity of Bhaghulpur. Champa is everywhere recognised 
as the capital of Anga. 

Champa — A town on the Ganges in which is a Vihara, or Bud- 
dhist convent. It is described in the Dasukumaru as notoriously 
abounding in rogues. 

Chamunda — A name of the consort of Siva. Her temple is 
represented as a dreadful place ; whither victims are conveyed to 
be offered in sacrifice to the cruel goddess. In the drama of 
Malati and Madhava, the heroine Malati is kidnapped by the priest 
of Chamunda and carried to the dreaded temple, but is rescued 
by her lover just as the fatal stroke is about to descend on her. 

Chanakko or Chanakya— A brahman of the city of Takka- 
sila who lived about 330 b. c. He is said to have achieved the 
knowledge of the three Vedas ; could rehearse the mantra ; was 
skilful in stratagems, and dexterous in intrigue as well as policy. 

126 CHA 

After his father's death he became celebrated as the filial protector 
of his mother. A long legend is told of the way in which he 
brought up Chaudragupta and ultimately placed him on the throne 
about 315 B. c. When Chandragupta was a wandering adven- 
turer, the ambitious intriguing brahman became his ardent friend, 
and promised to open for him a pathway to the throne. Nine 
brothers, called the nine Nandas, then reigned at Magadha. 
" Chandragupta was looked upon as their half-brother by a Sudra 
mother. He is called a Takshaka, or descendant of the great 
snake Seshanaga. Feeling unsafe amongst his relatives in Behar 
he had wandered forth to seek his fortune elsewhere." It was 
then he met with Clianakya, who in pursuance of his intention to 
place Chandragupta on the throne " contrived to give dire offence 
to the nine Nandas.** He entered their dining-room unannounced, 
and with the cool assumption of a powerful brahman, took posses- 
sion of the place of honour. The kings, having ' their understand- 
ings bewildered by fate,^ regarded him as a mere wild scholar ; and 
not heeding the remonstrances of their wise minister, they dragged 
him from his seat with scorn. 

" Then Chanakya, blind with indignation, stood up in the centre 
of the hall, loosened the knot of hair on the top of his head, and 
thus vowed the destruction of the Nanda race. 

* Until I have exterminated these haughty and ignorant Nandas, 
who have not known my worth, I will not again tie up these hairs.' 
Having thus declared war he sought out the discontented Chau- 

" In the meantime, Rakshasa, who was the prime minister of 
the Nandas, did all for his princes that could be done either by 
valour or sagacity. But all in vain, the Nandas * perished like 
moths in the flame of Chauakya's revenge.' " 

The drama entitled " Mudra Rakshasa," attributed to Visakha- 
datta, is founded on this story of Chanakya. Hindu Theatre. Mrs. 
Manning i A. ^ M. i., Vol II, p. 221, 

Chandana- A river in Bhagulpur. 

Chandana Dasa— A banker and intimate friend of Rakshasa 
in the dramu of the " Signet of the Minister." He was condemned 

CHA 127 

and dressed for execution, bearing the stake upon his shoulder, 
followed by his wife and child ; when he was rescued, pardoned 
and made provost of the merchants. 

Ghandala — An outcaste or pariah ; one of the lowest of the 
mixed tribes descended from a Sudra mother and a Brahman father. 

Chando — The name of the bull that protected Chandragupta 
in infancy. 

Chandanodakadundhubi — A Yadava chief called also 
Bhava, a friend of the Gandharba Tumburu. 

Chandragiri — A prince descended from Kusa, the son of Rama. 

Chandrabhaga — The name of a river, that takes its rise in 
the Himalayas and which Professor Wilson identifies as the Chinab. 

Chadragupta — King of Magadha, a most important name, as 
it has been proved by Professor Wilson and others that he is the 
Sandracoptus of the Greeks, who visited the camp of Alexander 
the Great, and we are thus able to determine the chronology satis- 
factorily. " The relative positions of Chandragupta, Vidmisara, 
or Bimbisdra, and Ajatasatru, serve to confirm the indentification. 
Sakya was contemporary with both the latter, dying in the eighth 
year of Ajatasatru*s reign. The Mahawanso says he reigned 
twenty-four years afterwards ; but the Vayu makes his whole reign 
but twenty -five years, which would place the close of it b, c. 526. 
The rest of the Saisunaga dynasty, according to the Vayu and 
Matsya, reigned 143 or 140 years ; bringing their close to b. c. 
383, Another century being deducted for the duration of the 
Nandas, would place the accession of Chandragupta b. c. 283. 
Chandragupta was the contemporary of Seleucus Nicator, who 
began his reign b. c. 310, and concluded a treaty with him b. c. 
305. Although therefore his date may not be made out quite 
correctly from the Pauranic premises, yet the error cannot be more 
than twenty or thirty years. The result is much nearer the truth 
than that furnished by the Buddhist authorities. According to the 
Mahawanso a hundred years had elapsed from the death of Buddha 
to the tenth year of the reign of Kalasoko (p. 15). He reigned 
other ten years, and his sons forty-four, making a total of 154 years 

128 CHA 

between the death of Sakya and the accession of Chandragupta, 
which is consequently placed b. c. 389, or above seventy years too 
early. According to the Buddhist authorities, Chan-ta-kutta or 
Chandragupta, commenced his reign 396 b. c. Burmese Table ; 
Prinsep's Useful Tables. Mr. Tumour, in his Introduction, giving 
to Kalasoko eighteen years subsequent to the century after Buddha, 
places Chandragupta's accession b. c. 381, which, he observes, is 
sixty years too soon ; dating, however, the accession of Chandra- 
gupta from 323 b. c. or immediately upon Alexander's death, 
a period too early by eight or ten years at least. The discrepancy 
of dates, Mr. Turnour is disposed to think, proceeds from some 
intentional perversion of the Buddhistical chronology." V. P. 

Chandrahasa— In the farthest extremity of the Dekhan there 
lived a Kaja who was doomed to the severest adversity. He had 
a son born at a propitious period, but was himself soon after slain 
in battle, and his Rani perished in the funeral pile. The nurse fled 
away with the infant to Kutuwal, but died herself in three years 
without having made known the secret of the child's birth. The 
boy was now quite destitute and suffered much ; but one day 
happening to go to the house of the prime minister, the astrologers 
present declared that the boy's face had all the signs of royalty. 
The minister hearing this, determined that the lad should be 
assassinated. But the men employed for the purpose took 
compassion on him and resolved not to kill him. He was found 
in the jungle and adopted by a certain dependant of the Minister, 
who called the boy Chandrahasa because when he laughed it was 
said his face resembled the moon. 

As Chandrahasa grew up he was distinguished for his skill and 
courage, and his achievements came to the ears of the Raja. The 
Minister became jealous and determined to visit the Zamiudar who 
had adopted Chandrahasa, when he discovered that the young man 
was the very boy he had scut into the jungle to be murdered. 
Still bent on the youth's destruction he wrote a letter to his son 
Madan and requested Chandrahisa to carry it to the city ; the 
letter was as follows : — 

*' May nay son cat the fruits of youth, and know that this same 

CHA. 129 

Chandrahasa is my enemy, and that he is eager to get possession 
of all my property : Look not you to his youth or comeliness, nor 
trouble yourself as to whose son he is, or whether he be a man of 
rank or learning or abilities, but give him poison'^ 

As he approached the city he entered a pleasant garden belong- 
ing to the Minister, and being very weary, he tied his horse to 
a tree, laid down in the shade and fell asleep. That very morning 
the Minister's daughter Bikya, with the Princess and her maids, 
had come to amuse themselves in the garden. Bikya, wandering 
away from the others, saw a young man asleep with such a charm- 
ing face that her heart burnt towards him. Seeing a letter falling 
from his bosom and perceiving that it was in her father's hand- 
writing, and addressed to her brother, she opened and read it. 
Having compassion on the youth she determined to alter the 
letter, and as the word signifying enemy was such that by taking 
away a single letter she could turn it into a word meaning friend, 
she did so. The word signifying poison was Bika, which, as the 
young man was very good-looking, she altered into her own name 
of Bikya ; and re-sealing the letter placed it again on the youth's 
bosom, and returned to her companions. 

Soon after Chandrahasa rose from his sleep, found his way to the 
house of the Minister, and gave the letter to his son. Madan read 
the letter with great surprise, but saw that the orders were very 
positive and that he must obey them without delay. 

Chandrahasa who was more confounded than any one, was pre- 
sented with a bridegroom's dress, and directed to prepare himself 
to be married that evening to the beautiful daughter of the 
Minister. There was the usual distribution of presents, tind great 
rejoicing throughout the city. 

The Minister on his return home was congratulated by every 
one he met, and " entered his house in a state bordering on mad- 
ness," when he found what had occurred. His own letter was 
produced, and as he could not discover the alterations that had 
been made, he " could only wonder at the greatness of his own 
blunder." Early next morning he hired some assassins to secrete 
themselves in the temple of the goddess Durga which was outside 
the city, and murder the man who should come at evening time to 


130 CHA 

present a golden-pot of incense to the goddess. He then told Chan- 
drahasa it was the fixed rule for every man who married into his 
family to offer a golden-cup of incense at the temple of Durga, 
and Chandrahdsa readily promised to comply with the custom that 
same evening. 

But that very day, the Rdja, in consequence of a dream, deter- 
mined to resign his kingly authority, and not knowing of the 
minister's return sent for Madan, to whom he communicated his 
intention, and his determination to make Chandrahasa his successor. 
He desired Madan to bring his new brother-in-law to the palace 
with all speed. Madan gladly set out in search of Chandrahasa and 
found him in the road to the temple of Durga with the golden-cup 
in his hand ; and having briefly explained to him the urgent neces- 
sity for his immediate presence at the palace, he took the cup from 
his hand and promised to present it himself to the goddess. 
Madan thus sent back Chandrahasa to the palace of the Raja and 
proceeded alone with the golden-cup to the temple of Durga. On 
entering it he was cut down by the swords of the assassins and 
killed on the spot. Chandrahasa on arriving at the palace, was 
crowned by the Rlja himself. The minister on hearing how his 
plot had been again defeated, and his own son killed, destroyed 
himself in the same temple. — Wheeler's Mahdbhhrata, 

ChandraketU — The son of Lakshmaua, and king of Chandra- 
vaktra, a country near the Himalaya. 

Chandrama — A river mentioned in the V. P., but which has 
not been identified. 

Chandrasri— One of the thirty Andhrabhritya kings, who 
reigned three years. V. P. 

Chandrasukta — One of the islands into which the Varsha of 
Bharata is divided, as enumerated in the Bhagavata and Padma. 
It has not been identified. 

Chandravaloka — A prince descended from Kusa, the son of 

Chandraswa — One of the three sons of Dhundhum^ra, who 
survived the conflict with Ihc demon Dhundu. Dhundu hid himself 

CHA 131 

beneath a sea of saud which king Kuvalayaswa, aided by twenty- 
one thousand sous, dug up, undeterred by the flames which checked 
their progress and finally destroyed all but three of them. Kuva- 
layaswa was hence called Dhundumara. Professor Wilson thinks 
that the legend originates probably in the occurrence of some 
physical phenomena, as an earthquake or volcano. 

Chanura — A demon who was killed by Krishna, after a very 
severe contest, in which Chanura was whirled round a hundred 
times, until his breath was expended in the air, and Krishna 
dashed him on the ground with such violence as to smash his body 
into a hundred fragments, and strew the earth with a hundred 
pools of gory mire. V. P. 

Charaka — A renowned medical writer of great antiquity. 
" Charaka appears to have been a person of varied thought and 
culture, and to have had an earnest desire to teach men so to 
manage their bodies, as not only to avoid all unnecessary pain on 
earth ; but so as to ensure happiness after death. Charaka states 
that originally the contents or material of his work was communi- 
cated by Atreya to Agnivesa. By Agnivesa it was taught to 
Charaka, and by him condensed " where it was too prolix and 
expanded where it seemed too brief." The result of Charaka's 
labour was a work of considerable extent, no less than one hundred 
and twenty chapters in eight divisions. — Mrs. Maiming ; A. and 
M. /., vol. i, p. 342, where the reader will find an abstract of 
Charaka's work ; made from the Sanskrit manuscripts of the India 
Office Library. 

Charakas — The students of a Sakha so denominated from its 
teacher Charaka. 

Oharana— A sect pledged to the reading of a certain Sakha of 
the Vedas. Charana means an ideal succession of pupils and 
teachers who learn and teach a certain branch of the Veda. See 

Charana vyaha— The name of a * Parisishta' work, which is 
considered to have been composed later than the Sutras, and 
representing a distinct period of Hindu literature. See Parisishta. 

132 CHA 

Chariot — The sun, moon and planets are all represented in the 
Puranas as having chariots or cars. That of the sun is stated in 
the V. P. to be nine thousand leagues in length, and the pole of 
twice that longitude : that of the moon has three wheels and is 
drawn by ten white horses. The chariot of Mercury is composed 
of air and fire and is drawn by eight bay horses. The chariots of 
Mars and Jupiter are of gold. 

Charishnu — A son of the sage Kirttimat. 
Charudatta — An impoverished brahman who is one of the 
principal characters in the drama of the Toy Cart. On one 
occasion Charudatta says : — 

My friend, 
The happiness that follows close on sorrow, 
Shows like a lamp that breaks upon the night. 
But he that falls from aflSiuence to poverty, 
May wear the human semblance, but exists 
A lifeless form alone. 
On being further questioned, Charudatta declares that he would 
much prefer death to poverty. 

" To die, is transient suffering, to be poor 
Interminable anguish." 

And he further explains that he does not grieve for the lost 
wealth : 

" But that the guest no longer seeks the dwelling 
whence wealth has vanished. 


And then with poverty comes disrespect ; 
From disrespect does self-dependence fail ; 
Then scorn and sorrow following, overwhelm 
The intellect ; and when the judgment fails 
The being perishes. And thus from poverty 
Each ill that pains humanity proceeds." 

— A. and M, /., vol. 2, p, 157. 

Charmamandalas — A northern people, living in the district 
of Maudala or Khanda of Charma. Pliny mentions a king of a 
people so called, Charmaru rex. 

CHA— CHE 133 

Charmanvati — The name of a river, the Chambal. 

Charu, Charudeha, Charudeshna, Charugupta, Charu- 
vinda — Five sons of Krishna by Rukmini, one is termed in the 
V. P. the mighty Charu. 

Charumati — A daughter of Krishna by Rukmini. 

Charvaka— A philosopher who about the third century, 
founded a new scliool of undisguised materialism — maintaining that 
perception is the one only source of knowledge and means of proof : 
that while there is body there is thought and sense of pleasure and 
pain ; none when body is not ; and hence, as well as from self- 
conciousness, it is concluded that self and body are identical. In 
the Vedinta S^ra there is a refutation of no less than four followers 
of Charvdka, who assert his doctrine under various modifications ; 
one maintaining that the gross corporeal frame is identical with 
soul ; another that the corporeal organs constitute the soul ; a 
third affirming that the vital functions do so ; and the fourth 
insisting that the mind and the soul are the same. 

Charvaka— A Rakshasa who disguised himself as a mendicant 
brahman and reviled Yudhishthira at his installation as Raja. The 
real brahmans, says the Mahabharata, were so enraged with 
Charvaka that they looked upon him with such angry eyes that he 
fell upon the ground like a tree struck with lightning, and was 
burnt to ashes on the spot. 

Chatakas — Pupils of Vaisampayana. The Vayu states that 
they were styled Chdtakas from Chat *to divide,' because they 
shared amongst them their master's guilt. Those pupils of 
Vaisampayana were called Chatakas by whom the crime of 
Brahmauicide was shared. 

Chaturunga — A Prince, the son of Romapada, one of the 
descendants of Anu. 

Chaturmasya — Sacrifices every four months. 

Chedi — Son of Kaisika, whose descendants were called the 
Chaidya kings. 

134 CHE— CHH 

Chedyas — The inhabitants of Chedi, which is usually consi- 
dered as Chandail, on the west of the Jungle mehals, towards 
Nagpore. It is known in times subsequent to the Puranas as 

Chhala — A Prince, the son of Dala, one of the descendants of 

Chhandajas — The vasus and similar divinities. They have 
the epithet Chhandaji as born in different Manwantaras of their 
own will. 

Chhandas— An Anga of the four Vedas, the one which relates 
to metre. 

Ohhaya — The wife of the sun. Sanjna, daughter of Viswakar- 
man, was the wife of the sun and bore him three children, the 
Manu Vaivaswata, Yama, and the goddess Yami (or the Yamuna 
river.) Unable to endure the fervours of her lord, Sanjna gave 
him Chhaya* as his handmaid, and repaired to the forests to 
practice devotion. The sun supposing Chhaya to be his wife, 
Sanjna, begot by her three other children, Sanaischara (Saturn) ; 
another Manu (Savarni), and a daughter Tapti (the Tapti river.) 
Chhaya upon one occasion being oifended with Yama, the son 
of Sanjna, denounced an imprecation upon him, and thereby let it 
be seen that she was not Sanjna, his mother. Chhaya informed 
the sun that his wife had gone to the wilderness, and he brought 
her back to his own dwelling. V. P. 

Chhandoga-brahmana — In the Brahmaua of the Chhau- 
dogas it is evident that, after the principal collection was finished 
(called the praudha or Panchaviusa-brahmana, i. e., consisting of 
twenty-five sections,) a twenty-sixth Brahmana was added which 
is known by the name of Shadviusa-brahmana. This Brahmana 
together with the Adbhuta-brahmana must be of very modern 
date. It mentions not only temples (Devayatanani,) but images 
of gods (daivata-pratima) which are said to laugh, to cry, to sing, 
to dance, to burst, to sweat and to twinkle. These two have long 
been supposed to be the only Brahmanas of the Chhandogas, 

* That is her shadow or image. It also means shade. 

CHH— CHI 135 

and they constitute, no doubt, the most important part of that 
class of literature. It is curious, however, that whenever the 
Brahmanas of the Chhaudogas are quoted, their number is invari- 
ably fixed at eight. Kumarila Bhatta says, " in the eight Brah- 
manas, together with the Upanishads, which the Chhandogas read, 
no single accent is fixed." — A. S. L. 

Chhandoga-priestS— The second class of priests at sacrifices. 

Chikitsa — One of the eight branches of medical science ; that 
which treats of the administration of medicines, or medical treat- 
ment in general. 

Chintamani — An Epic poem in Tamil, of considerable merit, 
and regarded as the highest classical authority in that language. 
It contains the heroic story of a king named Jivagan, and is 
probably founded on a similar story found in the Maha Purana, a 
sacred work of the Jains written in Sanscrit. 

Chintdmani is a compound of two Sanscrit words Chintd, thought 
or reflection, and mani a jewel. It is generally applied to a 
fabulous gem which is supposed to yield its possessor whatever 
may be required. The design of the work is to represent the 
Jaina system in an attractive form. 

Chitar — A chief mentioned in the Rig Ve(Ja as living with 
other chiefs near the Sarasvati. 

Chiti — Synonyme of Mahat, " is that by which the consequences 
of acts and species of knowledge are selected for the use of soul." 
^Wilson, V. P. p. 15. 

Chitra — The name of a lunar mansion in Govithi, in the 
Central Avasthana. 

Chitrabaha — A Purina river, not identified. 

Chitragupta—The Registrar of Yama ; all that die appear 
before Yama, and are confronted with Chitragupta by whom their 
actions have been recorded. " Chitragupta is described in the 
following tasteless and extravagant style in the Vrihanndradiya 
Purana. * The dreadful Chitragupta with a voice like that 
issuing from the clouds at the mundane dissolution, gleaming like 
a mountain of colJyrium, terrible with lightniug-like weapons, 

136 CHI 

having thirty-two arms, as big as three yojanas, red-eyed, long- 
nosed, his face furnished with grinders and projecting teeth, 
his eyes resembling oblong ponds, bearing death and disease.' *' 
O. S. T., Vol. V, p. 302. 

Chitraka — A prince, the son of Prisni, a descendant of Sini. 

ChitraketU — A son of Vasishtha, the great sage, according to 
the list in the Bhagavata. 

Chitrakuta — An isolated hill situated on a river called the 
Pisani, fifty miles south-east of the town of Banda in Bundelkund. 
It is a sacred spot crowded with temples, and shrines of Rama and 
Lakshmana ; celebrated too as the seat of Valmiki, the sage and 
poet, who became famous in after years as the author of the 

" We have often looked on that green hill : it is the holiest 
spot of that sect of the Hindu faith who devote themselves to this 
incarnation of Vishnu. The whole neighbourhood is Rama's 
country. Every head-laud has some legend, every cavern is 
connected with his name ; some of the wild fruits are still called 
Skdpkalf being the reputed food of the exiles. Thousands and 
thousands annually visit the spot, and round the hill is a raised 
foot-path, on which the devotee, with naked feet, treads full of 
pious awe." — Calcutta Revieiv, Vol. XXIII. 

The following extracts from Mr. Griffith's translation of the 
Ramayana will serve to show how this sacred character has been 
acquired : — 

" Then, as he saw the morning break, 

In answer Bharadvaja spake, 
' Go forth to Chitrakuta's hill. 

Where berries grow, and sweets distil : 

Full well, I deem, that home will suit 

Thee, Rama, strong and resolute. 

Go forth, and Chitrakuta seek, 

Famed mountain of the Varied Peak. 

In the wild woods that gird him round, 

All creatures of the chase are found : 

CHI 137 

Thou in the glades shalt see appeal' 
Vast herds of elephants and deer. 
With Sita there shalt thou delight 
To gaze upon the woody height ; 
There with expanding heart to look 
On river, table-land, and brook, 
And see the foaming torrent rave 
Impetuous from the mountain cave. 
Auspicious hill ! where all day long 
The lapwing's cry, the Koil's song 

Make all who listen gay : 
Where all is fresh and fair to see, 
Where elephants and deer roam free. 
There, as a hermit, stay.^' 
" Then on from wood to wood they strayed. 
O'er many a stream, through constant shade. 
As Bharadvaja bade them, till 
They came to Chitrakuta's hilL 
And Rama there, with Lakshman's aid, 
A pleasant little cottage made. 
And spent his days with Siti, dressed 
In coat of bark and deerskin vest. 
And Chitrakuta grew to be 
As bright with those illustrious thi^ee 
As Meru's sacred peaks that shine 
With glory, when the gods recline 
Beneath them : Siva's self between 
The Lord of Gold and Beauty's Queen." 

Chitralekha — The companion and friend of tlie princess 
Usha, to whom Usha related her dream, and who by her magic 
power brought Aniruddha to the palace. 

Chitrangada—The son of Sdntanu by his wife Satyavati. He 
was killed when young, in a conflict with a Gandarbha, who was 
also named Chitrangada. 

Ohitrangada— The daughter of the Raja of Manipura who 


188 CHI— CHR 

was married to Arjuna in his travels, but remained in her own 
city with her son Babhru-vahana, when Arjuna returned to 

Chitraratha— The king of the celestial choristers ; 
" On Chitraratha, true and dear 
My tuneful bard and charioteer 
Gems, robes, and plenteous wealth confer 
Mine ancient friend and minister." 

— Griffith's Rdmdyana. 

Chitraratha was also the name of the son of Rushadru and father 
of Sasavinda who was lord of the fourteen great gems. There was 
another Chitraratha, son of the Dharmaratha, who drank the Soma 
juice along with Indra. A fourth Chitraratha is mentioned in the 
V. P. as the son of Ushna, a descendant of Parikshit. 

Chitraratha, Ohitrasena, Chitropala— The names of three 
rivers in the V. P. which have not been yet identified. 

Chitravarna — The name of the peacock king in the Pancha- 
tantra stories. 

Cholas — The inhabitants of the lower part of the Coromandel 
coast ; so called after them Cholamandala. 

Chronology — The Vishnu Purana says, " Time is a form of 
Vishnu : hear how it is applied to measure the duration of Brahma, 
and of all other sentient beings. Fifteen twinklings of the 
eye make a Kash'tha ; thirty Kdsh'th^s, one Kalti ; and thirty 
Kalas, one Muhurtta. Thirty Muhurttas constitute a day and 
night of mortals : thirty such days make a month, divided into 
two half-months : six months form an Ayana (the period of 
the sun's progress north or south of the ecliptic :) and two 
Ayanas compose a year. The southern Ayana is a night, and 
the northern a day, of the gods. Twelve thousand divine years, 
each composed of (three hundred and sixty) such days, constitute 
the period of the four Yugas, or ages. They are thus distributed : 
the Krita age has four thousand divine years ; the Treta three 
thousand ; the Dwapara, two thousand ; and the Kali age, one 
thousand : so those acquainted with antiquity have declared ," The 

CHU— CHY 139 

peiiod that precedes a Yuga is called a Saodhya, aud it is 
of as mauy huudred years as there are thousands in the Yuga : 
and the period that follows a Yuga, termed the Sandhyausa, 
is of similar duration. The interval between the Sandhya and 
the Sandhyansa is the Yuga, denominated Krita, Treta, &c. Tlie 
Krita, Treta, Dwapara and Kali, constitute a great age, or 
aggregate of four ages : a thousand such aggregates are a day of 
Brahma, and fourteen Manus reign within that term. Hear the 
division of time which they measure. 

Seven Rishis, certain (secondary) divinities, Indra, Manu, and 
the kings his sous, are created aud perish at one period ; and 
the interval, called a Manwantara, is equal to seventy-one times 
the number of years contained in the four Yugas, with some 
additional years : this is the duration of the Manu, the (attendant) 
divinities, and the rest, which is equal to 8,52,000 divine years, or 
to 3,06,720,000 years of mortals, independent of the additional 
period. Fourteen times this period constitutes a Brahma day, that 
is, a day of Brahma ; the term (Brahma) being the derivative 
form. At the end of this day a dissolution of the universe occurs, 
when all the three worlds, earth, and the regions of space, are 
consumed with fire. The dwellers of Maharloka (the region 
inhabited by the saints who survive the world,) distressed by the 
heat, repair then to Janaloka (the region of holy men after 
their decease.) When the three worlds are but one mighty ocean, 
Brahma, who is one with Narayana, satiate with the demolition of 
the universe, sleeps upon his serpent-bed — contemplated, the lotus 
born, by the ascetic inhabitants of the Janaloka — for a night of 
equal duration with his day ; at the close of which he creates anew. 
Of such days aud nights is a year of Brahma composed ; and a 
hundred such years constitute his whole life. One Pararddha, 
or half his existence, has expired, terminating with the Maha Kalpa 
called Padraa. The Kalpa (or day of Brahma) termed Varaha 
is the first of the second period of Brahma's existence/' 

Chunchu— A prince, the son of Harita, a descendant of Haris- 

Chyavana—A celebrated sage, who in old age was restored to 

140 CHY 

youth by the Asvins. The legend is related at length in the 
Satapatha Brahmana, and translated by Muir in O. S. T., Vol. V, 
p. 250. The substance of the story as told in the Mah^bharata is 
thus given by Muir : " We are there told that the body of 
Chyavana, when performing austerity in a certain place, became 
encrusted with an ant-hill ; that king Saryati came then to 
the spot with his 4,000 wives and his single daughter Sukanya ; 
that the rishi, seeing her, became enamoured of her and endeavoured 
to gain her affections, but without eliciting from her any reply. 
Seeing, however, the sage's eyes gleaming out from the ant-hill, 
and not knowing what they were, the princess pierced them with 
a sharp instrument, whereupon Chyavana became incensed, and 
afflicted the king's army with a stoppage of urine and of the 
necessary functions. When the king found out the cause of the 
infliction, and supplicated the rishi for its removal, the latter 
insisted on receiving the king's daughter to wife, as the sole 
condition of his forgiveness. Sukanya accordingly lived with the 
rishi as his spouse. One day, however, she was seen by the 
Asvins, who endeavoured, but without effect, to persuade her 
to desert her decrepit husband, and choose one of them in 
his place. They then told her they were the physicians of the 
gods, and would restore her husband to youth and beauty, 
when she could make her choice between him and one of them. 
Chyavana and his wife consented to this proposal ; and, at 
the suggestion of the Asvins, he entered with them into a 
neighbouring pond, when the three came forth of like celestial 
beauty, and each asked her to be his bride. She, however, 
recognized and chose her own husband. Chyavana, in gratitude 
for his restoration to youth, then offered to compel Indra to admit 
the Asvins to a participation in the Soma ceremonial, and fulfilled 
his promise in the course of a sacrifice which he performed for 
king Saryati. On that occasion Indra objected to such an honor 
being extended to the Asvins, on the ground that they wandered 
about among men as physicians, changing their forms at will ; but 
Chyavana refused to listen to the objection, and carried out his 
intention, staying the arm of Indra when he was about to launch a 
thunderbolt, and creating a terrific demon, who was on the point 

CLE— CLO 141 

of devouring the king of the gods, and was only prevented by the 
timely submission of the latter." — Vol. V, p. 254. 

Clepsydra — A water-clock, is thus described in an extract from 
a commentary, given in a note to the Vishnu Purina. *' A vessel 
made of twelve Palas and a half of copper, and holding a Prastha, 
Magadha measure, of water, broad at top, and having at bottom a 
tube of gold, of four Mashas weight, four fingers long, is placed in 
water, and the time in which the vessel is filled by the hole in the 
bottom, is called a Nadika. The common measure of the Nadi is 
a thin shallow brass-cup, with a small hole in the bottom. It is 
placed in the surface of water, in a large vessel, where nothing can 
disturb it, and where the water gradually fills the cup and sinks 
it." Page 631. 

Clouds — Clouds, in the Puranas, arc of three classes : — 1, 
Agneya, originating from fire or heat, or in other words evapora- 
tion : they are charged with wind and rain and are of various 
orders ; 2, Brahmaja, born from the breath of Brahma ; these 
are the clouds whence thunder and lightning proceed : and 3, 
Pakshaja, or clouds which were originally the wings of the 
mountains, and which were cut off by ludra ; these are the largest 
of all, and are those which at the end of the Kalpas and Yugas, 
pour down the waters of the deluge. The shell of the egg of 
Brahma, or of the universe, is formed of the primitive clouds. 
The Vishriu Purana states that *' during eight months of the year 
the sun attracts the waters and then pours them upon earth as 
rain." Consequently the Linga Purana observes there is no waste 
of water in the universe as it is in constant circulation. The 
Vishnu Purana adds, "The water that the sun has drawn up 
from the Ganga of the skies he quickly pours down with his rays, 
and without a cloud ; and men who are touched by this pure rain 
are cleansed from the soil of sin and never see hell : this is termed 
celestial ablution." " The water which the clouds shed upon the 
earth is the Ambrosia of living beings, for it gives fertility 
to the plants which are the support of their existence. By this, 
all vegetables grow and are matured, and become the means of 
maintaining life." 


Dabhiti — A king mentioned in the Rig Vetia who was saved 
by Indra from being carried off by the Asuras or Dasyus. *' Indra 
burnt all their weapons in a kindled fire, and enriched Dabhiti 
with their cattle, horses and chariots." 

Dadhicha — A celebrated sage who reproved Daksha on the 
occasion of his great sacrifice, saying, " The man who worships 
what ought not to be worshipped, or pays not reverence where 
veneration is due, is guilty of heinous sin." 

Dadhikra— The name given in the Rig Veda to a divine horse, 
described as the straight-going, the graceful-moving, the resplen- 
dent, the rapid, the destroyer of* enemies like a heroic prince. In 
a second hymn the Rishi says, " May Aditi, consentient with Mitra 
and Varuna, render him free from sin who has performed the 
worship of the steed Dadhikra, when the fire has been kindled at 
the opening of the dawn." 

Dadhividarchas, Dahas —Two tribes of people mentioned in 
the Vishnu Purana but not identified. 

Dadu — The founder of a Vaishnava sect, who taught that 
Bhakti, or implicit faith, was more efficacious than subjugation of 
the passions, charity, or knowledge. Dadii was originally a cotton- 
cleaner at Ajmir. 

Dadu-panthis — The designation of the disciples or followers 
of the above. One of the Vaishnava sects in Hindustan. It had 
its origin from Dadu, a cotton-cleaner by profession, who, having 
been admonished by a voice from heaven to devote himself to 
a religious life, retired with that view to the Baherana mountain, 
Avhere, after some time, he disappeared, and no traces of him could 
be found. His followers believed him to have been absorbed into 
the Deity. He is supposed to have flourished about a. d. 1600. 
The followers of Dadu wear no peculiar mark on the forehead, 
but carry a rosary, and are further distinguished by a round while 

DAG 143 

cap accordhig to some ; but, according to others, one with four 
corners, and a flap hanging down behind. This cap each man is 
required to manufacture for himself. — Wilson. 

Dagoba — A conical erection surmounting relics among the 
Buddhists. The name is said by Mr. Hardy to be derived from 
da, diitu, or dhatu, an osseous relic, and geba or garbha, the womb. 
These buildings are sometimes of immense height, of circular 
form, and composed of stone or brick, faced with stone or stucco. 
They are built upon a platform, which again rests upon a natural 
or artificial elevation, which is usually reached by a flight of steps. 
The utmost respect is felt fordagobas among the Buddhists, chiefly 
because they contain relics of different kinds. Professor Wilson, 
in his * Ariana Autiqua,' thus describes the ordinary contents of 
a dagoba : " The most conspicuous objects are, in general, vessels 
of stone or metal ; they are of various shapes and sizes ; some of 
them have been fabricated on a lathe. They commonly contain a 
silver box or casket, and within that, or sometimes by itself, a 
casket of gold. This is sometimes curiously wrought. One found 
by Mr. Masson at Deh Bimaran is chased with a double series of 
four figures, representing Gautama in the act of preaching ; a 
mendicant is on his right, a lay-follower on his left, and behind the 
latter a female disciple ; they stand under arched niches resting 
on pillars, and between the arches is a bird ; a row of rubies is set 
round the upper and lower edge of the vessel, and the bottom is 
also chased with the leaves of the lotus : the vase had no cover. 
Within these vessels, or sometimes in the cell in which they are 
placed, are found small pearls, gold buttons, gold ornaments and 
rings, beads, pieces of white and coloured glass and crystal, pieces 
of clay or stone with impressions of figures, bits of bone, and teeth 
of animals of the ass and goat species, pieces of cloth, and folds of 
Tuz or Bhurj leaf, or rather the bark of a kind of birch on 
which the Hindus formerly wrote ; and these pieces bear some- 
times characters which may be termed Bactrian ; but they are in 
too fragile and decayed a state to admit of being unfolded or read. 
Similar characters are also found superficially scratched upon the 
stone, or dotted upon the metal vessels. In one instance they 
were found traced upon the stone with ink. Within some of the 

144 DAG 

vessels was also found a liquid, which upon exposure rapidly 
evaporated, leaving a brown sediment, which was analysed by Mr. 
Prinsep, and offered some traces of animal and vegetable matters." 

The principal dagobas in Ceylon, as we learn from Mr. Hardy, 
are at Anuradhapura, and it would appear that it was accounted a 
ceremony of great importance amoug the ancient ascetics to walk 
round one of these sacred structures. It is regarded by the Hindu 
Brahmans as a most meritorious walk to circumambulate a temple, 
raising the person who performs this pious act to a place in the 
heaven of the god or goddess to whom the temple belongs. The 
Nepaulese also account it one of the most devout employments 
in which a Buddhist can be engaged to march round a dagoba, 
repeating 'mental prayers, and holding in his right hand a small 
cyliader fixed upon the upper end of a short staffer handle, which 
he keeps in perpetual revolution. The reverence in which these 
structures are held is thus noticed by Mr. Hardy, in his valuable 
work, entitled * Eastern Monachism :' " Any mark of disrespect to 
the dagoba is regarded as being highly criminal, whilst a contrary 
course is equally deserving of reward. When Elaro, one of the 
Malabar sovereigns, who reigned in Ceylon b. c. 205, was one day 
riding in his chariot, the yoke-bar accidentally struck one of these 
edifices, and displaced some of the stones. The priests in attend- 
ance reproached him for the act ; but the monarch immediately 
descended to the ground, and prostrating himself in the street, said 
that they might take off his head with the wheel of his carriage. 
But the priests replied, * Great king! our divine teacher delights 
not in torture ; repair the ddgoba.' For the purpose of replacing 
the fifteen stones that had been dislodged, Elaro bestowed ] 5,000 
of the silver coins called kahapana. Two women who had worked 
for hire at the erection of the great dd.goba by Dutu gamin i were 
for this meritorious act born in Tawntisa. The legend informs us 
that on a subsequent occasion they went to worship at the same 
place, when the radiance emanating from their persons was so great 
that it filled the whole of Ceylon." 

The ground on which a dagoba is held in so high estimation is 
simply because it contains relics which have from remote times been 
worshipped by the Buddhists. As far back as the fourth century, 

DAH— DAI 145 

Fa Iliau, a Chinese traveller, mentions such a practice as then 
prevailing. "The bones of Gautamn, the garments he used, the 
utensils he used, and the ladder l)y which he visited heaven, were 
worshipped by numbers of devout pilgrims ; and happy did the 
country consider itself that retained one of these precious remains." 
The most celebrated relic which is still to be found among the 
worshippers of Gautama Buddha is the Dal ad A (which see). To 
make a present or offering to a dagoba is viewed as an act of the 
highest virtue, which will be rewarded both in this world and the 
next, and will lead to the attainment of Niricana or annihilatioyi. 
Buddha himself declared while on earth, " Though neither flowers 
nor anything else should be offered, yet if any one will look with a 
pleasant mind at a dagoba or the court of the bo-tree, he will 
undoubtedly be born in a Deva-loka (which see) ; it is unneces- 
sary to say that he who sweeps these sacred places, or makes offer- 
ings to them, will have an equal reward ; furthermore, should any 
one die on his way to make an offering to a dagoba, he also will 
receive the blessedness of the Deva-lokas." Some dagobas are 
alleged to have the power of working miracles, but this privilege is 
almost exclusively confined to those which have been built in honor 
of the rahats, or beings who are free from all evil desire, and 
possess supernatural powers. 

"It was not till the year 1837 in which Mr. Jas. Prinsep deci- 
phered the written character of king Asoka's edicts, that anything 
was known of the Buddhism of ancient India. Then first was it 
understood when and by whom, and for what purpose, these 
dagobas were erected." — A. a?id 31. I. 

Dahana — The name of one of the eleven Rudras, according to 
the enumeration in the Matsya Parana. 

Dahragni — A name of the sage Agastya. 

Daityas— Demons. The Daityas are thought to have been, in 
the epic period, personifications of the Aborigines of India, more 
particularly of the southern part of the Peninsula ; who, to increase 
the glories of the heroes who conquered them, were represented as 
giants and demons. They are associated with the Danavas, who 
bear the same character. In the Purdnic period they play a very 


146 DAK 

importaut part, as the enemies who are constantly at war with the 
deities for the sake of obtaining the sovereignty of heaven. They 
are there considered as the descendants of Kasyapa and Diti (from 
whom the name Daitya is called a matronymic). At the churning 
of the ocean they attempted to seize the cup of Amrita or Ambrosia 
which was then produced, and was in the hand of Dhanwantari : 
but Vishnu, assuming a female form, fascinated and deluded them ; 
and recovering the Amrita from them delivered it to the gods. 
Sakra and the other deities quaffed the Ambrosia. The incensed 
demons, grasping their weapons, fell upon them ; but the gods, 
into whom the ambrosial draught had infused new vigour, defeated 
and put their host to flight ; they then fled through the regions of 
space, and plunged into the subterraneous realms of Patala. The 
gods thereat greatly rejoiced, did homage to the holder of the 
discus and mace, and resumed their reign in heaven. The Daityas 
then inhabited Patala. Hiranyakasipu was their king, but when 
deposed by Vishnu, his illustrious son Prahlada received the 
sovereignty. The Vishnu Purana relates other legends of the 
Daityas obtaining the sovereignty of the earth, and being deluded 
from the tenets of the Vedas were easily conquered. 

Daksha — A celebrated Prajapati, born from the thumb of 
Brahma ; he was the chief of the patriarchs. He had twenty- 
four daughters by his wife Prasuti, and twenty-seven other 
daughters who were afterwards stellarised in the lunar mansions. 
The Vayu Purana contains a full account of the great sacrifice 
offered by Daksha. One of his daughters, Sati, was married to 
Siva; but neither she nor her husband were invited to the 
sacrifice, as Daksha had been offended with Siva not long before. 
Sati, however, attended, and on being affronted threw herself into 
the flames of the sacrifice and perished.* Siva exasperated, tore 
off a lock of his hair and cast it with violence to the ground. It 
started up in the shape of Vira Bhadra with a thousand hands, 
Avhom Siva sent to destroy the sacrifice. He did so, and according 
to some accounts cut off Daksha's head. According to the Vishnu 

* Hence in modern times a widow consentary to be bound with the corpse 
of her husband is called a Sati. The common word suttee is not the act 

of burijin£r. but the feni:ile burnt. 

DAK 147 

Purana, Vira Bhadra, was created from Siva's mouth, a being 
like the fire of fate, a divine being with a thousand heads, a 
thousand feet, &c., &c. It is only the Kasi Khanda, however, 
that makes Sati throw herself into the fire, and Professor Wilson 
thinks this an improvement indicative of a later age. In other 
legends she is represented as killing herself on account of a quarrel 
with her father. The conduct of Vira Bhadra in interfering with 
and destroying the sacrifice, displeased the gods who were present, 
and they complained of it to Brahma ; whereupon he with them 
proceeded to Siva, interceding on behalf of Daksha. Siva then 
went personally to the scene of disorder, and having resuscitated 
Daksha, whose head could not be found, replaced it by the head of 
a ram. The exploits of the Rudras on the occasion are parti- 
cularly specified in the Kurma and Bhagavata Purauas. Indra is 
knocked down and trampled on ; Yama has his staff broken ; 
Saraswati and the M^tris have their noses cut off. Mitra or 
Bhaga has his eyes pulled out : Piisha has his teeth knocked down 
his throat; Chandra is pummelled ; Vahni's hands are cut oflf ; 
Bhrigu loses his beard ; the Brahmans are pelted with stones ; 
the Prajapatis are beaten ; and the gods and demi-gods are run 
through with swords or stuck with arrows. Other accounts state 
that Daksha himself propitiated the mighty god, the holder of the 
trident, Maheshwara." V. P. 

" The sacrifice of Daksha is a legend of some interest, from its 
historical and archceological relations. It is obviously intended to 
intimate a struggle between the worshippers of Siva and of Vishnu, 
in which at first the latter, but finally the former, acquired the 
ascendancy. It is also a favourite subject of Hindu sculpture, 
at least with the Hindus of the Saiva division, and makes a 
conspicuous figure both at Elephanta and Ellora. A representa- 
tion of the dispersion and mutilation of the gods and sages by 
Virabhadra, at the former, is published in the Archaeologia, vir, 
326, where it is described as the Judgment of Solomon ! a figure 
of Virabhadra is given by Niebuhr, Vol. II, tab. 10: and the 
entire group in the Bombay Transactions, Vol. I, p. 220. The 
legend of Daksha therefore was popular when those cavern temples 
were excavated." V. P. 

148 DAK— DAL 

" Daksha," " says Mrs. Mauniug," is a shadowy god. He is 
an Aditya, one of the sons of Aditi. 

" Daksha sprang from Aditi, and Aditi from Daksha. In the 
Rig Veda, Mitra and Varuna are celebrated as the sons of 

'* Mr. Muir relieves us from some of our perplexity concerning 
this mysterious Daksha, by suggesting that possibly in some 
of these passages, the word Daksha was used figuratively for 
strength." — A. and M. I. 

Daksha-savarni — The name of the Manu of the Ninth Man- 
wantara ; described in the Ydyu as one of the mind-engendered 
sons of a daughter of Daksha, by himself and the three gods 
Brahma, Dharma and Rudra, to whom he presented her on Mount 

Dakshayana — One of the names of the goddess Parvati. It 
is also the name of a lunar asterism in general. The grammarian 
Vyadi, author of the Sangraha, is sometimes called Dakshayana. 

Dakshi — The name of the mother of the celebrated Sanscrit 
grammarian Panini. 

Dakshina — One of the twin daughters of Rnchi and Akuti. 
These descendants of the first pair are evidently allegorical : thus 
Yajni (the name of the other twin daughter) is 'sacrifice;' and 
Dakshina, ' donation' to brahmaus. See V. P., Chap. viii. 

Dakshinacharis— A leading division of the sect of Saktas, 
the followers of the right-hand ritual ; often popularly called the 
right-hand caste ; the followers of the left-hand ritual being 
termed Vamacharis. 

Dala — A prince, the son of Kusa, a descendant of Rama. 

Dalada— The left canine tooth of Buddha, the most highly 
venerated relic among the Buddhists, particularly in Ceylon. To 
preserve this, the only portion which remains of the body of the 
holy sage, a temple has been erected, in which it is deposited, 
being placed in a small chamber, enshrined in six cases, the largest 
of them being upwards of five feet in height and formed of silver. 

DAL 14;9 

All the cases are constructed in the conical shape of a dagoba, and 
two of them are inlaid with rubies and precious stones. The outer 
case is ornamented with gold and jewels, which have been offered 
by devotees. Mr. Hardy describes the relic itself as ' a piece of 
discoloured ivory or bone, slightly curved, nearly two inches in 
lenglh, and one in diameter at the base ; and from thence to the 
other extremity, which is rounded and blunt, it considerably 
decreases in size.' The vihara or temple which contains the 
sanctuary of this relic, is attached to the palace of the former 
kings of Kandy. From a work composed on the subject of 
Buddha's tooth, dating as far back as a. d. 310, it is said that one 
of the disciples of the sage procured his left canine tooth when his 
relics were distributed. This much-valued treasure he conveyed 
to Dantapura, the chief city of Kalinga, where it reminded for 800 
years. Its subsequent history we quote from Mr. Hardy's 
* Eastern Monarchism :' " The Brahmans informed Paudu, the lord 
paramount of India, who resided at P^taliputra, that his vassal, 
Guhasiwa worshipped a piece of bone. The monarch, enraged at 
this intelligence, sent an army to arrest the king of Kalinga, and 
secure the bone he worshipped. This commission was executed, 
but the general and all his army were converted to the faith of 
Buddhism. Pandu commanded the relic to be thrown into a 
furnace of burning charcoal, but a lotus arose from the flame, and 
the tooth appeared on the surface of the flower. An attempt was 
then made to crush it upon an anvil, but it remained embedded in 
the iron, resisting all the means employed to take it therefrom, 
until Subaddha, a Buddhist, succeeded in its extraction. It was 
next thrown into the common sewer ; but in an instant this 
receptacle of filth became sweet as a celestial garden, and was 
mantled with flowers. Other wonders were performed, by which 
Pandu also became a convert to Buddhism. The relic was 
returned to Dantapura ; but an' attempt being made by the princes 
of Sewet to take it away by force, it was brought to Ceylon, and 
deposited in the city of Auuradhapura. In the fourteenth century 
it was again taken to the continent, but was rescued by Prakrama 
Bahu, IV. The Portuguese say that it was captured by Constantiue 
de Bragauza, in 1560, and destroyed ; but the native authorities 

150 DAL— DAM 

assert that it was concealed at this time at a village in Saffragam. 
In 1815, it came into the possession of the British Government ; 
and although surreptitiously taken away in the rebellion of 1818, 
it was subsequently found in the possession of a priest, and 
restored to its former sanctuary. From this time the keys of the 
shrine in which it was deposited were kept in the custody of the 
British agent for the Kandian provinces, and at night a soldier 
belonging to the Ceylon Rifle Begiment mounted guard in the 
temple, there being from time to time public exhibtions of the 
pretended tooth, under the sanction of the British authorities. 
The relic has since been returned to the native chiefs and priests, 
by a decree from the Secretary of State for the Colonies." 

The Dalada is worshipped with great reverence by all Buddhists, 
but the inhabitants of Kandy more especially attach the highest 
importance to the possession of the sacred relic, regarding it as in 
fact the very glory and security of their country. 

Dalaki — One of the four pupils of Sikapurni, and teacher of 
the Rig Veda. 

Dama — A prince, the son of Narishyanta, whose father Marutta, 
was a Chakravartti or universal monarch. The Markandeya has 
the following curious story of Dama. His bride Sumaua, daughter 
of the king Dasarha, was rescued by him from his rivals. One 
of them Bapushmat, afterwards killed Marutta, who had retired 
into the woods after relinquishing his crown to his son. Dama 
in retaliation killed Bapushmat, and made the Pinda or obsequial 
offering to his father, of his flesh : with the remainder he fed the 
brahmans of Rakshasa's origin ; such were the kings of the solar 
race. See Vishnu Purina, Book IV. 

Damaghosha — The Raja of Chedi and father of Sisupala, q. v. 

Damanaka — The name of one of the jackals in the Pancha- 

Damaliptas, or Tamaliptas — The people at the western 
mouth of the Ganges, in Medinipur and Tamluk. Tamralipti 
was a celebrated seaport in the fourth century and retained its 
character in the ninth and twelfth. 

DAM 151 

Damayanti— The daughter of Bhima, Raja of Vidarbha. The 
name is already familiar to many English readers through Dr. 
Milman's metrical translation of the story, "Nala and Dama- 
yanti" — and a translation in blank verse by Mr. Chas. Bruce, 
which appeared in Fraser^s Magazine a few years ago. The story 
itself is referred to the Vedic period of Hindu history. Dama- 
yanti was famous amongst all the Rajas for her radiant charms 
and exceeding grace. Nala, the Raja of Nishadha, had so often 
heard of the exquisite loveliness of Damayanti, the pearl of 
maidens, that he was enamoured without having seen her ; and 
the soul-disturbing Damayanti had in like manner, so often been 
told of the god-like comeliness and virtues of the hero Nala, that 
she secretly desired to become his bride. Nala one day wandering 
in a grove, caught a swan of golden plumage ; the bird cried out, 

* Slay me not O gentle Raja, and I will so praise thee to Damayanti 
that she shall think of no other man but thee. So Nala set it free, 
and the bird flew away with its companions and entered the garden 
of Raja Bhima. It took an opportunity of saying to Damayanti, 

* O Damayanti, thou art the loveliest of maidens, and Nala is 
the handsomest of heroes ; if the peerless wed the peerless how 
happy will be the union.' Then the royal maiden whispered, 

* Say the same words to Nala.' And the bird flew away to 
Nishadha and told all to Nala. 

Meantime the beautiful maiden grew pale and dejected. She 
could not sleep, she often wept, she found no joy in banquets 
or in conversation. The father saw that she must be married, and 
at the proclamation of her Swayamvara all the Rajas assembled. 
Nala repairs as a suitor to Vidarbha ; but Indra and three other 
gods become incarnate for the same purpose, and, meeting Nala in 
the way, they beg him to be the bearer of their message of love. 
He remonstrates, but at last consents. He delivers it, but 
Damayanti declares that, even in the presence of the gods, she 
shall select the noble Nala. The assembly meets, and all the 
royal suitors are in array ; but Damayanti discovers, to her 
dismay, five Nalas, each of the deities having assumed the form, 
features, and dress of the king of Nishadha. She utters a suppli- 
catory prayer to the gods to reveal to her the true object of 

152 DAM 

her choice. They are moved with compassion, and stand con- 
fessed, their spiritual bodies being distinguished from that of the 
human hero by their casting no shadow, nor touching the ground, 
and otherwise. Daraayanti throws the wreath of flowers around 
the neck of the real Nala in token of her choice. The assembly 
breaks up amid the applause of the gods, and the lamentations of 
the disappointed suitors. The nuptials are celebrated and Nala 
and his bride are blessed with two lovely children. 

Nala, the model of virtue, and piety, and learning, at length 
performs the Aswameda, or sacrifice of a horse, the height of 
Indian devotion. In the course of time, however, Nala is induced 
by an evil spirit to play at dice with his brother, Pushkara, and 
loses his kingdom, his wealth, his very clothes. One stake only 
remains, — Damayanti herself. This Pushkara proposes, but Nala 
refuses. The ill-fated pair are driven together into the wilderness 
all but naked. Nala persuades his wife to leave him, and return 
to her father's court, but she will not forsake him. The frantic 
man, however, resolves to abandon her while asleep. He does so. 
Each passes through a series of strange and stormy adv^entures, 
ending in Nala becoming master of the horse to the King of 
Ayodhya (Oude,) and Damaj^anti returning to her father's house. 
After some time, Damayanti, in order to discover the retreat of 
Nala, proclaims her intention to hold another Swayamvara, and 
to form a second marriage, though forbidden by the laws of Manu. 
Rituparna, the King of Oude, resolves to become a suitor, and sets 
forth with his charioteer — the disguised Nala. As they enter the 
city of Bhima, Damayanti recognises the sound of her husband's 
trampling steeds, his driving could not be mistaken by her ear. 
She employs every artifice to discover her lord ; she suspects the 
charioteer ; she procures some of his food, and recognises the 
flavour of her husband's cookery ; she sends her children to him. 
Nala can conceal himself no longer ; but the jealous thought that 
his wife was about to take a second husband, rankles in his heart, 
and he rebukes her with sternness. Damayanti solemnly denies 
any such design, declaring that she had only employed the 
artifice to win back her lord. Nala re-assumes his proper 
form and character — wins back his wife and all that ho had 

DAM— DAN 153 

lost to his unprincipled brother, and, re-ascending his ancestral 
throne, recommences a reign of piety, justice and felicity. — 
Mrs. Manning, A. Sf M. I. 

Dambha — Hypocrisy. The son of Adharma (vice,) and Hinsa 

Damodas — The name of one of the nine divisions of the 
Atharva Veda. 

Danavas — Enemies of the gods, v<rho, " incapable of steadiness 
and animated by ambition, put forth their strength against the 
gods. They were the descendants of Kasyapa by his wife Danu, 
hence their name. They were a class of mythological giants ; in 
the Epic period they were probably personifications of the 
Aborigines of India ; in the Puranic period they are regarded 
as the inhabitant of Patala and enemies of the gods. See Daityas. 
— Thomson. 

Danda — The name of a son of Dharma by Kriya. Also the 
name of one of the hundred sons of Ikshwaku. Professor Wilson 
thinks that by these sons of Ikshwaku we are to understand 
colonies or settlers in various parts of India. In thePadma P., and 
the Uttara Khanda of the Ram^yana, there is a detailed narrative 
of Danda, whose country was laid waste by an imprecation of 
Ijhargava, whose daughter Danda had violated. His kingdom 
became in consequence the Dandaka forest. The Hari Vansa 
states that Danda was killed by Sudyumna. 

Danda — A measure of time — sixty Vikalas. Sixty Dandas 
make one siderial day. 

Dandaka — An extensive forest near the Godavery, frequently 
mentioned in the Ramayana as the scene of Rama's wanderings. 
Rama was living in a hermitage in this forest when Ravana 
carried off Sita. The river which the unhappy Sita loved was a 
tributary to the Godavery, running through the dense forests and 
wild districts not yet entirely explored, which lie to the north of 
Bombay and stretch away towards Orissa. The plash of the 
water-fowl bathing in the bright waters of the Godavery is the 
most cheerful feature of the scene ; but, unlike the Gogra, it is 


154 DAN 

skirted by sea-bright hills, with flashing torrents, but hemmed in 
by the weary woods of " the pathless Dandaka ;" where twining 
creeper plants, hanging and climbing from bough to bough, alone 
relieve the " forest gloom." The country is said to be still the 
"pathless Dandaka." A. and M. I., vol II, p. 22. 

DandclkSl — " A class of metre in Sanskrit which admits an 
inordinate length of the verse, which may consist of any number 
of syllables from twenty-seven to nine hundred and ninety -nine ; 
and the specific name varies accordingly. The construction of the 
metre requires that the first six syllables be short, and the 
remainder of the verse be composed of cretic feet, or the bacchus. 
These two kinds of metre are distinguished by dijQferent names. 
A verse consisting of any number of anapaests within the limitation 
above mentioned, is also comprehended under this general designa- 
tion ; as are verses of similar length consisting exclusively of 
iambic or trochaic feet. They have their peculiar denominations." 

Dandaniti — Policy ; one of the four branches of royal know- 
ledge ; originally written by Vishnugupta in six thousand stanzas 
for the use of the Maurya kings. 

Dandis — One of the Vaishnava or Saiva sects among the 
Hindus, and a legitimate representative of the fourth Asrama or 
mendicant life, into which the Hindu is believed to enter after 
passing through the previous stages of student, householder, and 
hermit. A Brahman, however, does not require to pass through 
the previous stages, but is allowed to enter at once into the fourth 
order. The Dandi is distinguished by carrying a small dand or 
wand, with several projections from it, and a piece of cloth dyed 
with red ochre, in which the Brahmanical cord is supposed to be 
enshrined, attached to it ; he shaves his hair and beard, wears only 
a cloth around the loins, and subsists upon food obtained ready- 
dressed from the houses of the Brahmans once a day only, which 
he deposits in the small clay-pot that he always carries with him. 
He should live alone, and near to, but not within a city ; but this 
rule is rarely observed, and, in general, the Dandis are found in 
cities, collected like other mendicants in Maths. The Dandi has 
no particular time or mode of worship, but employs himself chiefly 

DAN 155 

in meditation and in the study of the Vedanta works. He reverences 
Siva and his incarnations in preference to the other members of 
the Hindu Triad, and hence the Dandis are reckoned amoucr the 
Saivas. They bear the Siva mark upon the forehead, smearing 
it with the Tripundra, that is, a triple transverse line formed 
with the ashes of fire made with burnt cow-dung. This mark, 
beginning between the eyebrows and carrying it to their extremity, 
is made with the thumb reverted between the middle and third 
fingers. The genuine Dandi, however, is not necessarily of the 
Siva or any other sect, and in their establishments they are 
usually found to adore Nirguna or Niranjana, the deity devoid of 
attribute or passion. The Dandis have usually great influence and 
authority among the Siva Brahmans of the North of India, and 
they are the Sanyasis or monastic portion of the Smarta sect of 
Brahmans in the south. 

It is not so much the speculative as the practical Dandis that are 
worshippers of Siva, and the form in which they adore him is that 
of Bhairava (which see), or Lord of Terror. In the case of those 
who thus worship Siva, part of the ceremony of initiation consists 
in inflicting a small incision on the inner part of the knee, and 
drawing the blood of the novice as an acceptable offering to the 
god. The Dandis of every description differ from the great mass 
of Hindus in their treatment of the dead, as they put them into 
coffins and bury them, or when practicable cast them into some 
sacred stream. Hindus of all castes are occasionally found assuming 
the life and emblems of the order of Dandis. There are even 
Brahmans who, without connecting themselves with any com- 
munity, take upon them the character of this class of mendicants. 
There is, however, a sect of Dandis termed Da sn amis (which see), 
which admit none but Brahmans into their order. — Wilson. 

Danshtrinas — The progeny of Krodavasa, carnivorous animals, 
birds and fishes — all sharp-toothed monsters. 

Dantavaktra — A fierce Asura,the son of prince Vriddhasarman. 
Danu — The daughter of Daksha and mother of the Danavas. 
Danu~The mother of Vrittra who was slain by Indra, along 

156 DAN— DAR 

■with her sod, and when slaughtered, lay over him like a cow over 
her calf. O. S. T. Vol. v, p. 95. 

DailllS — Another name for Danavas, the sons of Ddnu. 

Danusha— An unerring bow ; — one of the fourteen gems 
obtained at the churning of the milk sea in the second or Ktirma 
Avatar of Vishnu. 

Dapple-skin — The name of the wonderful cow of plenty 
belonging to the great sage Vasishtha, and which Raja Viswimitra 
took away by force. 

Daradas — The inhabitants of the country along the course of 
the Indus above the Himalaya, just before it descends to India. 
This is the locality they occupied in the days of Strabo and 
Ptolemy, and at the date of the V. P. They reside there still and 
are now called Durds. 

Dabhasayana — A place between Rameshwara and Cape 
Comorin, where R^ma, reclining on a couchof sacred grass, prayed 
to the sea for a passage. 

Darpa — (Pride). The name of one of the sons of Dharma. 

Darsapaurnamasa — One of the five great sacrificial cere- 
monies : viz., new and full-moon, those at which four priests officiate. 

Darsanas — The name given to the six systems of Hindu 
Philosophy : — 

I. The Saukya system of Kapila, to which is appended 

II. The Yoga system of Patanjali. 

III. The Nyaya system of Gautama, to which is appended 

IV. The Vaiseshika system of Kanada. 

V. The Purva Mimansa system by Jaimini. 
VI. The Uttara Mimansa, or Vedd-nta, by Veda Vydsa. 

A. ^ M, L 

Darsapumamasa — The small festivals held at the new moon 
and full moon. " In the beginning of the Darsapurnamdsa sacrifice, 
the Adhivaiya priest having called the cows and calves together, 
touches the calves with a branch, and says, *You are like the 
winds.* "^Max Muller, 

DAR— DAS 157 

Daruka — The charioteer of Krishna. He was sent to apprise 
Arjuna of Krishna's approaching end, when he was about to quit 
the body, and "unite himself to his own pure, spiritual, inex- 
haustible, imperishable and universal spirit — to become Nirguna, 
devoid of all qualities." 

Daruna — The name of one of the Narakas, or hells, described 
in the Purauas. 

Darvan — The son of Usinara, one of the descendants of Anu. 

Dasa-bala — Ten powers or modes of wisdom possessed by 
Buddha. Mr. Spence Hardy, to whose excellent works we are 
indebted for our information on the principles and rites of the 
Buddhists, thus enumerates the Dasabala, in his ' Manual of 
Buddhism :' — " 1, The wisdom that understands what knowledge 
is necessary for the right fulfilment of any particular duty, 
in whatsoever situation ; 2, That which knows the result or 
consequences of karma, or moral action ; 3, That which knows 
the way to the attainment of nirwana or annihilation ; 4, That 
which sees the various sakwalas or systems of worlds ; 5, That 
which knows the thoughts of other beings ; 6, That which knows 
that the organs of sense are not the self ; 7, That which knows 
the purity produced by the exercise of the dhyanas or abstract 
meditation ; 8, That which knows where any one was born in 
all his former births ; 9, That which knows where any one will be 
born in all future births ; 10, That which knows how the results 
proceeding from karma, or moral action, may be overcome." 

Dasa-dandu — Ten prohibitions which are eujoined upon the 
Buddhist monks to be studied during their noviciate. Mr. Hardy, 
in his * Eastern Mona^chism,' thus describes them : — " 1, The 
eating of food after mid-day ; 2, The seeing of dances or the 
hearing of music or singing ; 3, The use of ornaments or 
perfumes ; 4, The use of a seat or couch more than a cubit high ; 
5, The receiving of gold, silver, or money ; 6, Practising some 
deception to prevent another priest from receiving that to which 
he is entitled ; 7, Practising some deception to injure another 
priest, or bring him into danger ; 8, Practising some deception in 
order to cause another priest to be expelled from the community ; 

158 DAS 

9, Speaking evil of another priest ; 10, Uttering slanders, in order 
to excite dissension among the priests of the same community. 
The first five of these crimes may be forgiven, if the priest bring 
sand and sprinkle it in the court-yard of the vihara, and the second 
five may be forgiven after temporary expulsion." 

Dasnami Dandis — The primitive members of the order of 
Dandis. They are said to refer their origin to Sankara 
AcHARYA, a remarkable individual who acted a conspicuous part 
in the religious history of Hindustan. The vs^ord Dasnami means 
ten-named, there being ten classes of mendicants descended from 
this remarkable man, only three of them, however, having so far 
retained their purity as to entitle them to be called Sankara's 
Dandis. These are numerous, especially in and about Benares. 
The chief Vedantist writers belong to this sect. The most 
sturdy beggars, as we learn from Professor Wilson, are 
members of this order, although their contributions are levied 
particularly upon the Brahmanical class, as whenever a feast is 
given to the Brahmans, the Dandis of this description present 
themselves, though unbidden guests, and can only be got rid of 
by bestowing upon them a share of the viands. Many of them 
practise the Yoga, and profess to work miracles. The author of 
the * Dabistan' speaks of one who could keep his breath suspended 
for three hours, bring milk from his veins, cut bones with hair, and 
put eggs into a narrow-mouthed bottle without breaking them. 

The remaining members of the Dasnami class, though they have 
degenerated from the purity of the practice necessary to the original 
Dandis, are still religious characters, only they have given up the 
staff or wand, the use of clothes, money, and ornaments ; they 
prepare their own food, and admit members from any order of 
Hindus. These Atits, as they are often called, are frequently 
collected in Maths, as well as the Dandis, but they mix freely in the 
business of the world ; they carry on trade, and often accumulate 
property, and some of them even enter into the married state, when 
they receive the name of Samyogi." — Wilson, vol. I, p. 204. 

Dasa-Sil — Dasasikhay Dasa-parijiy Dasa-nasanUf Dasa-dandUf 
Dasa-sil, the ten obligations binding on the Buddhist priest— to 

DAS 159 

abstain from murder, theft, sexual intercourse, falsehood, intoxi- 
cating drink, eating after mid-day, dancing, perfumes, luxury, 
receiving of gold or silver. The other Dasas relate to the same 
rules with slight modifications. The Dasa-dandu forbid deceiving 
or speaking evil of other priests. 

Dasaratha — The son of Aja, and father of Rama. He was the 
sovereign of Ayodhya or Oude, whose car bore him to the ten 
quarters of the universe, that is, to the eight points of the compass, 
and to the zenith and nadir. He was a descendant from Surya, 
and one of his ancestors, Raghu, had conquered the seven dwipas, 
or the whole earth. 

" There reigned a king of name revered, 
To country and to town endeared, 
Great Dasaratha good and sage 
Well read in Scripture's holy page ; 
Upon his kiogdom's weal intent, 
Mighty and brave and provident : 
The pride of old Ikshvaku's seed 
For lofty thought and righteous deed. 
Peer of the saints for virtues famed, 
For foes subdued and passions tamed ; 
A rival in his wealth untold 
Of Indra and the Lord of Gold. 
Like Manu first of kings, he reigned, 
And worthily his state maintained. 
For firm and just and ever true, 
Love, duty, gain he kept in view ; 
And ruled his city rich and free. 
Like Indra's Amaravati." — Griffiths' Ramayan. 

Another Dasaratha was the son of Mulaka ; a third, the son of 
Navaratha ; a fourth, the son of Suyasas. The name of Dasaratha, 
in a similar ancient character to that of Piyadasi's inscriptions, 
has been found at Gaya amongst Buddhist remains, and like them 
deciphered by Mr, Prinsep. V. P. 

Dasagriva — A name of Ravana, meaning the ten-n^^/'Vnri 

160 DAS 

Dasakumara — The name of a popular collection of stories 
containing the Adventures of Ten Princes. " They are storiesof 
common life, relating the adventures of a lively set of people, who 
kill, cheat, and rob, as it were for diversion ; — something indeed 
after the fashion of pantomimes and farces, which are still popular 
in Europe." — Mrs. Manning. For extracts from these stories. 
See Works of Professor Wilson, vol. iv. 

Dasara — -An Annual Festival, called in the north of India the 
Durga Puja. It is the most popular, splendid and expensive of 
any of the Hindu festivals, and takes place in the month Aswiyaj 
(the end of September or beginning of October). The preliminary 
ceremonies occupy several days previous to the three days of 
worship. " During the whole of this period all business, in many 
parts of the country, is suspended, and pleasure and festivity 
prevail... The artisans and labourers offer sacrifices to the tools 
and implements which they use in their daily work. The labourer 
brings his plough, hoe, and other instruments, piles them together, 
and offers to them a sacrifice consisting of incense, flowers, fruits, 
rice, and similar articles ; after which he prostrates himself before 
them, and then returns them to their places. The mason offers 
the same adoration and sacrifice to his trowel, his rule, and other 
instruments. The carpenter is no less pious with regard- to his 
hatchet, his adze, and his plane. The barber, too, collects his 
razors in a heap, and worships them with similar rites. The 
writing-master or copyist sacrifices to the iron pencil or style with 
which he writes ; the tailor to his needles ; the weaver to his loom ; 
the butcher to his cleaver. The women, at the same time, heap 
together their baskets, the rice mill, the wooden cylinder with 
which they bruise the rice, and the other household implements ; 
and fall down before them after having offered the sacrifices above 
described. In short, every person adores the instrument or tool 
which he principally uses in gaining his livelihood. The tools are 
now considered as so many deities ; to whom they present their 
supplications that they would continue propitious, and furnish them 
still with the means of living. The festival is concluded by erecting 
a shapeless statue in each village, composed of paste from grain. 
It is intended to represent the goddess Pdrvati ; and, being placed 

DAS 16t 

under a sort of canopy, is carried about and receives the homage 
of the inhabitants, who flock to render it their adorations." 

Many other usages prevail at this festival in different parts of 
the country. Amongst the Mahrattas, sheep and buffaloes are 
sacrificed. The chiefs often give money to enable their soldiers to 
buy sheep to perform sacrifices, which from furnishing them with 
a good dinner, are by many considered as the most essential 
ceremonies of the Dasara. The cannon belonging to the army are 
planted, praised, invoked, and propitiated by several species of 
offering. Sir John Malcolm states that on the morning of the 
tenth day, the Peshwa with all his officers and soldiers, used to 
move out to the camp in the vicinity of the city, each mounted on 
his best horse, drest in his finest clothes, and with his arms highly 
polished. Horses, elephants, and camels Avere all arranged in 
their gayest trappings, and every corps spread its gaudiest flags 
and banners. The whole population of the capital, either as actors 
or spectators, joined in this grand procession, which moved towards 
the sacred tree, the object of adoration. After the offerings and 
prayers the Peshwa plucked some leaves of the tree, in which all 
the cannon and musketry commenced firing. The Peshwa then 
plucked from a field, purchased for the occasion, a stalk of jowri, 
on which the whole crowd fired off their arms or shot arrows, and 
rushing to the field, tore up all the stalks, each person securing 
some share of the spoil, which he carried home with joy. 

Dasarha — A Prince, the son of Nirvriti. In the Liuga Purana 
it is said that Dasarha was the destroyer of the host of copper 
(faced) foes. 

Dasarna — A river mentioned in the Pui-anas, and identified la 
the Dhosaun in Bundlekund. 

Dasarna — A place mentioned in Kalidasa's Cloud Messenger. 
*' Dasarna's fields await the coming shower." Dr. F. E. Hall 
says it was situated to the east of Chandeyru. Vidisa is described 
as the capital of the District. Dasarna is said to be derived from 
Dasa, ten ; and Rina, a stronghold or Durga, the Droog of the 
Peninsula, and means the District of the ten citadels. — Wfhon. 


162 DAS—DEV 

Dasa-Rupaka — Ten varieties of dramatic performance. See 
Wilson's Hindu Theatre, vol. i. 

Dasra — The name, in later literature, of one of the two Asvins. 

Dasyus — A name given to the aborigines of India by the first 
Aryan settlers. The name often occurs in the Big Veda, where 
they are described as enemies to be slain. 

Dattatreya — An ascetic ; one of the three sinless sons of the 
patriarch Atri by his wife Anasuya [Atri]. 

Dattdi — A name of Agastya, in a previous Manwantara. 

Dayabhaga — A celebrated Sanscrit treatise on the Hindu Law 
of Inheritance. Mr. Colebrooke first published a translation of 
this Avork, in 1810 ; and a new edition, with valuable notes, was 
published in I860 by Mr. Whitley Stokes. 

Deva — A divine being, whether resident upon earth or in a 
deva-loka. Deva is also a divine epithet variously applied but 
rarely to the superior deities if alone. Maha deva is sometimes 
met with. The most frequent use of the term is in the plural, 
and may be translated " Celestials." The Hindu books say there 
are thirty-three crores of them ; that is, three hundred and thirty 
millions of celestials ; but this is probably only a figurative 
expression to denote a great number. They are not demi-gods, as 
has been stated ; that is not deified human heroes. Rama or 
Krishna is not one of them, but of a higher order. The devatas 
people the paradise of Vishnu j but they especially belong to the 
Sverga, the paradise of Indra. They are usually ranged under 
eight divisions, with a vasu, as leadei", at the head of each division. 

Devabhaga — The son of Sura and one of the nine brothers of 

Devabhuti — The last Sunga prince, the dynasty having 
consisted of ten, who governed the kingdom for a hundred and 
twelve years. Devabhuti being addicted to immoral practices, 
was murdered by his minister, the Kanwa named Vasudeva, who 
usurped the kingdom. 

DEV . 16S 

Devadarsa — A teacher of the Atliarva-Veda, a pupil of 
Kahandha. He had four disciples who taught this veda. 

Devagiri — Deogur or Ellora ; the mountain of the gods ; the 
Apocopie are said hy Ptolemy to be also called mountains of the 

Devahuti — A third daughter, according to theBhigavata of the 
Mauu Swayambhuva. She was married to the Rishi Kardama, 
and was mother of the sage Kapila. 

Devaka — One of the sons of Ahuka. Also the name of one of 
the sons of Yudhishthira, the Pandava. 

Deva-loka — The six celestial worlds between the earth and the 
Brahma lokas. 

Devaki — The daughter of Devaka, who Avas married to 
Vasudeva. No person could bear to gaze upon Devaki, from the 
light that invested her : the gods, invisible to mortals, celebrated 
her praises continually from the time that Vishnu was contained in 
her person. Before the birth of Krishna " the quarters of the horizon 
were irradiate with joy as if moonlight was diffused over the whole 
earth. The virtuous experienced new delight, the strong winds 
were hushed, and the rivers glided tranquilly, when Janardana was 
about to be born. The infant was brought forth and conveyed to 
a place of safety, to escape from the enraged Kansa who had vowed 
his destruction. Kansa made unavailing search for the child, and 
ordered that every boy in whom there were signs of unusual vigour 
should be slain without remorse." See Krishna. 

Devakshatra — A prince, the son of Devarata, one of the 
descendants of Jyamagha. 

Devala — a Rishi, the son of Krisaswa. He was a legislator, 
and has acquired additional celebrity as the grandfather of Panini. 

Devamidha — An ancient Raja of the solar race, one of the 
ancestors of king Janaka. 

Devamidhusha — The son of Vrishni ^ also the name of a son 
of Hridika, 

164 DEV 

Devamitra — Also called Sdkalya, a teacher of the Rig Veda. He 
died in consequence of his being defeated by Yajnavalkya in a 
disputation at a sacrifice celebrated by Janaka. 

Devanampriya-Tish3ra — A king of Ceylon from 307 to 267 

B. c. He adopted Buddhism and made it, like Asoka, with whom 
he was contemporary, the State religion of the island. 

Devanika — A prince, the sou of Kshemadhanawan, one of the 
descendants of Kusa. 

Devapi — The son of Pratipa, who abdicated the throne and 
adopted in childhood a forest life ; while an ascetic in the forest he 
was perverted from the doctrines of the Vedas. The Vishnu 
Purana states that he is still in existence. 

Devarakshita — The daughter of Devaka, sister of Devaki and 
aunt of Krishna ; also the name of a prince who reigned in a city 
on the sea-shore over the Kosalas and Tamraliptas. 

Devarata — l, A royal sage of the solar race, the name given 
to Sunasepha when he was adopted by Viswamitra. Sunasepha 
refused to return home with his father Ajigartha, who had offered 
for 300 cows, to sacrifice him (See Sunasepha) and was afterwards 
enrolled as the adopted son of Viswamitra by the name of Devarata 
(Theodotus) ; 2, Also a son of Raja Suketu ; 3, The name of a 
son of Karambhi, one of the descendants of Jyamagha ; 4, also a 
name of Bhishma. 

Devarshis — Divine sages, demi-gods ; their dwelling is the 
region of the gods. 

Devasarman — The name of a brahman who figures in the 
Panchatantra ; he had no child and his wife was very unhappy in 
consequence : at length by some mantram the promise of a son was 
obtained ; the child when born proved to be a snake. It was 
proposed that the monster should be destroyed, but maternal 
affection prevailed, and it was reared with tenderness. At the 
proper age it was married to a brahman girl, and one night was 
changed into a man, intending to resume its serpent form next 

DEV 185 

morning ; but the girl's father discovering the deserted skin threw 
it into the fire, and the son-in-law ever after remained in the figure 
of a man. 

Devasavarni — The thirteenth Manu according to the Bhaga- 
vata, which differs from the other Puranas in the enumeration. 

Devasravas — One of the sons of Sura, and brother of Vasudeva. 
Devatithi — A Kuru prince, one of the sous of Akrodhana. 
Devavat — A son of Akrura, also a son of Devaka. 

Devavriddha — One of the sons of Satwata, said in the Vishnu 
Puraua to be equal to the gods. 

Devayani — The daughter of a Brahman priest named Sukra ; 
she fell in love with her father's pupil Kanju, and finding her 
advances rejected, became soured in temper and vindictive in 
character. One day when out in the jungle with Sarmishta, 
daughter of the Raja of the Daityas and a number of other 
young damsels, on reaching a pleasant pool they all threw off 
their garments and went into the water to bathe, when it so 
happened that Vayu the god of the wind passed by, and seeing 
their clothes upon the bank he mingled them up together. Then 
when the damsels came out of the water, Devayani and Sarmishta 
by mistake put on each others' clothes and quarrelled. At last 
Sarmishta pushed Devayani into a well and left her there. A Raja 
named Yayati, who was hunting in the forest discovered her in the 
well and extricated her from it. Devayani, on meeting her maid, 
said she would never enter the city again. Her father Sukra went 
to the Raja of the Daityas to obtain an apology from him for his 
daughter's conduct. Devayani said to the Raja, "I shall be satisfied 
upon one condition, that when my fixther shall give me to a 
husband, your daughter who pushed me into a well, shall be given 
to me as a servant." To this the Raja assented, and Devayani 
had afterv/ards the daily attendance of Sarmishta and her maids. 
One day the whole party were surprised by the Raja Yayati, who 
in hot pursuit of a stag burst in upon the damsels. The sight of 
so much loveliness almost deprived Yayati of his senses ; but the 

166 DEV— DHA 

adventure terminated in Devayini proposing that ' he should 
espouse her, which, on obtaining her father's consent, he did. 
Two or three years afterwards Sarmishta obtained her revenge by 
stealing away Yayati's affections, and Devaydui left him and 
returned to her father's house.— f Wheeler^ s Mahdbhdrata). In the 
V. P. an entirely different account is given. 

Devi — The female of a deva. They also may reside either in 
earth or in a deva loka, and leave the one for the other at will for 
any important purpose. Also the name of Uma the wife of Siva. 

Devika — The name of a river, the Deva or Goggra. 

Devikota — A Puranic city, usually considered to be the 
modern Devicottah in the Carnatic, which is commonly believed 
to be the scene of Bana's defeat. 

Dhamajaya — A Vyasa, the arranger of the Vedas in the 
sixteenth Dwapara. 

Dhanaka — A prince, the son of Durdama, a descendant of 

Dhananjaya — A fierce and venomous many-headed serpent, 
one of the progeny of Kadru. 

Dhanamitra — The name of a wealthy merchant in Kaliddsa's 
drama of Sakuntala ; the merchant, trading by sea, was lost in a 
shipwreck ; and as he was childless, the whole of his property 
became by law forfeited to the king. The king ascertained that 
the merchant's widow was expecting to give birth to a child, and 
declared that the unborn child had a title to his father's property ; 
a proclamation which was received with acclamations of joy. 

Dhana-nando — The youngest son of Kalasoka, king of Pata- 
iiputra. The nine sous succeeded their father in the order of their 
seniority. The youngest was called Dhana-nando from his being 
addicted to hoarding treasure. He collected money to the amount 
of eighty kotis ; and to keep it securely he diverted the Ganges from 
its course, by constructing a dam across it : and in a rock in the 
bed of the river having caused a deep excavation to be made, he 

DHA 167 

buried the treasure there. Over this cave he laid a layer of 
stones, and to prevent the admission of water poured molten lead 
in it. Repeating this process, which made it like a solid rock he 
restored the river to its former course. This prince was afterwards 
killed by the brahman Chanakko, who raised Chandragupta to the 
throne in his stead. As everything in India Chronology depends 
on the date of Chandragupta, great pains have been taken by 
Wilson, Max Miiller, and others, to determine it accurately. 

Dhaneyu — A prince ; one of the ten sons of Raudraswa, a 
descendant of Puru. 

Dhanishta — An asterism, or lunar mansion, in Migravithi, in 
the southern Avashtana. 

Dhanur-veda — The science of archery or arms, taught by 

Dhanwantara — A sage produced from the churning of the 
ocean, robed in white, and bearing in his hand the cup of Amrita, 
which was afterwards seized by the Daityas. He is called the 
physician of the gods. In a second birth he was the son of 
Dirghatamas, and taught the Ayur Veda, or medical science. He 
was exempt from human infirmity, and master of universal 
knowledge. The only work at present existing under the title of 
Ayar Veda is said to have been revealed by Dhanwantari to his 
pupil Susruta ; Dhanwantari having himself, as he declares, received 
it from Bramha. 

Dhara — A city to the south of the river Godavery, where the 
celebrated Raja Vikraraa resided. 

Dharana — Steady thought; retention or holding of the image 
or idea formed in the miod by contemplation ; one of the eight 
stages by which " Yoga" must be accomplished. See Yoga. 

Dharani— A daughter of the Pitris, and wife of Meru. In 
the Vishnu Purana she is said to have been well acquainted with 
theological truth ; addicted to religious meditation ; accomplished 
in perfect wisdom, and adorned with ail estimable qualities. 

168 DHA 

Dharbaga — The sou of Ajatasatru, king of Maghada, one of 
the ten Saisunagas, the aggregate of whose united reigns amounted 
to three hundred and sixty-two years. 

Dharma— The god of justice ; the Hindu Pluto. See Yama. 

Dharma — A Prajapati, one of the mind-engendered sons of 
Brahma, with form and faculties derived from his corporeal nature. 
He married thirteen daughters of Daksha. It is evident from the 
names of these daughters (faith, devotion, &c.) that they are 
allegorical personages, being personifications of intelligences and 
virtues and religious rites, and being therefore appropriately 
wedded to the probable authors of the Hindu Code of religion and 
morals, or to the equally allegorical repi'esentation of that code, 
Dharma, moral and religious truth. V. P. 

Dharma — Virtue, religion, duty, law, moral and religious truth 
according to the law and the Vedas. Any peculiar or prescribed 
practice or duty ; thus giving alms, &c., is the dharma of a 
householder : administering justice is the dharma of a king ; 
piety is the dharma of a brahman ; courage is the dharma of a 
kshatriya, &c. 

Dharma Raja— A name of the eldest of the five Pandavas, 
Yudhishthira, (q. v.) son of Kunti Devi, by Yama ; Pandu, the 
nominal father, being impotent. 

Dharmadhris — One of the sons of Swaphalka, a descendant 
of Sini. 

Dharmadhwaja— 1, A king of Mithila,— who is also called 
Janaka ; 2, The name of a king of Burdwan, mentioned in the 
Belata Paucliavinsati, as having restored Brahmanism, which had 
been put aside for the Jaiua religion. 

DharmaketU — A prince, the son of Suketana, (according to 
the Bhagavata list) a descendant of Alarka. In the Vishiiu 
Purina he is made the -son of Sukumara, and in (he Agni he 
appears as the sou oi' Alarka himself. 

DHA 169 

Dharmanetra— The son of Haihaya, a descendant of Yadu— 
the tribe in which Krishna was born. 

Dharmapal — One of the ministers of justice of Mahdrija 

Dharmaranya — A Puranic city in the mountainous part of 
Magadha, the residence of Amurtarajas. 

Dharmaranya — Is also the name of the wood to which the god 
of justice is said to have fled through fear of Soma the moon-god. 

Dharmaratha — A prince, the son of Divaratha. He is said to- 
have drank the Soma juice along with Indra. 

Dharma-sastra — A law book ; the three principal topics of all 
such are dchdra, rules of conduct ; vyavahara^ judicature ; and 
prdyaschitia^ penance. The Code of Yajjnawalka is termed 
Dharmasastra ; as is also the Code of Manu. 

Dharma-savarni — The Manu of the eleventh Manwantara. 
One of the mind-engendered sons of a daughter of Daksha, by 
himself and the three gods Brahma, Dharma, and Rudra, to whom 
he presented her on Mount Meru. 

Dharshtakas — A race of Kshatriyas, some of whom obtained 
brahmanhood upon earth. V. P. 

Dhata — A Rudra, the son of Bhrigu by Khyati. 

Dhataki—A prince, the son of Savana, king of Pushkara — an 
island without mountains or rivers in which men live a thousand 
years without sickness or sorrow. V. P, 

Dhatri — A son of Vishnu and Lakshmi, married to Ayati, 
daughter of Meru. 

DhatU — A linguistic root. In European languages if grammar 
attempts to reduce a word to its last limit, it calls such a limit its 
*root,* and a root in grammar thus answers to an element in 
chemistry, representing the farthest result of analysis attainable by 
the analyser ; but in Sanskrit grammar, — dhatu, though generally 
translated root, does not imply that which is expressed by the 


170 DHA— DHI 

European term. The former designates that theoretical form, 
from which, by conjugational affixes, verbal bases, and by krit 
affixes nominal bases may be derived. Yet as such derivations 
may not only be made from those forms which have been collected in 
lists called Dh^tupatha, and may be called primary Dh^tus, but also 
from those derivative forms, — the passives, intensives, causals, 
desideratives, and denominatives ; — even these derivative forms are, 
to the Hindu gmmmarian Dhdtus. To his mind therefore a dhdtu 
is not an absolutely last linguistic element ; but even a primary 
dhatu, or that form from which passive and other secondary dhatus 
could be derived, is to him only that form which, to the popular 
understanding, appeared to be a last limit of derivation."* 

DhatU-Parayana — A celebrated commentary on Dhatus, 
written by Hemachaudra. 

Dhauxnya — The name of the brahman who was engaged by the 
Pandavas to be their Purohita or family priest. He also officiated 
as Hotri and cooked the sacrifice when it was offered. He 
accompanied the Pdndavas on their exile ; and on their return 
performed the inauguratory ceremonies for Raja Yudhishthira ; 
and at the great Aswamedha squeezed milk out of the horse's ear. 

Dhava — (Fire). A deity of the class teraied Vasu ; because 
they are always present in light or luminous irradiation. 

Dhenuka — A demon, fierce and malignant, who in the form of an 
ass, attacked Bala Eima when a boy, and began to kick him on the 
breast with his hinder heels. Bala R^ma however, seized him by 
both hind legs, and whirling him round till he expired, tossed his 
carcase to the top of a palm tree from the branches of which it 
struck down abundance of fruit, like rain drops poured upon earth 
by thfe wind. Vishnu Purana, 517. 

Dhi — The wife of the Rudra Manyu. 

Dhimat — One of the six sons of Pururavas ; the name also of 
the valiant son of Virat. 

Dhishana — A princess of the race of Agni, and wife of Havir- 

"^MrB. Manning, A, and M, 1. 

DHI— DHR 171 

Dhishnyas — The seven little circles extending in a straight line 
from the Marjala to ih-e Agnidhra fire.— ^t^. JBraL 

Dhoti or Dhotra — The cloth wrapped round the loins, and 
universally worn by Hindus. It is spoken of by Nearchus as 
reaching to the middle of the leg. It is from 2^ to 3^ yards long 
by 2 to 3 feet broad. "Native sepoys march thirty or forty 
miles a day in dhotis without fatigue." " In the frescoes on the 
caves of Ajanta this costume is carefully represented." — Edin, 
Rev., Jan. 1868. 

Dhridhaswa — One of the three sons of KuvaUyaswa, who 
©scaped from the conflict with the demon Dhundu. 

Dhrishta — One of the sons of the Manu Vaivaswata. Before 
their birth the Manu, being desirous of sons offered a sacrifice for 
that purpose to Mitra and Varuna ; but the rite being deranged 
through an irregularity of the ministering priest, a daughter, Ila, 
was produced. See Ila and Manu. From Drishta sprang the 
Kshatriya race of Dharshtakas. 

Dhrishtadyumna — A prince, the son of R^ja Drupada, in 
whose reign th€ possessions of the Panchdlas were divided. Dhrish- 
tadyumua was the brother of Draupadi, who proclaimed the terms 
of her Swayamvara. 

** The gallant Dhrishtadyumna on the plain 
Descended, and his father's will proclaimed ; — 
Princes, this bow behold ! Yon mark — these shafts — 
Who'er with dextrous hand at once directs 
Five aiTOws to their aim ; and be his race, 
His person, and his deeds, equivalent 
To such exalted union, — He obtains 
My sister for his bride. My words are truth. 
Thus said, he to the Princess next described 
Each royal suitor by his name and lineage. 
And martial deeds ; and bade her give the wreath 
To him whose prowess best deserved the boon. 

Arjuna was the successful suitor, and Draupadi became the wife 
of the five Pandu brothers, Dhrishtadyumna followed the brothers 

172 DHR 

home, and ascertained that they were not brahmans but Kshatriyas 
of the royal house of Hastindpura, and soon acquainted his father 
with the tidings. At the beginning of the great war Dhrishtadyumna 
was elected commander-in-chief; after several days' fighting, Raja 
Drupada was slain by Drona, and Dhrishtadyumna vowed that he 
would be revenged for his father's death by killing Drona. This 
he did the following day, aided by Bhima. He was afterwards 
surprised by AswatthAma, the son of Drona, while sleeping in the 
tents of the Papdavas and was barbarously murdered. See Drupada. 

DhrishtaketU — l. The son of Dhrishtadyumna, he commanded 
the troops of Chedi and Malwa in the great war ; 2, The name 
of a son of Satyadhriti or Sudhriti, king of Mithila, who was 
celebrated for his piety, and received the designation of "royal 
saint." 3, A son of Suketu, a descendant of Alarka. 

Dhrishtasarman— A prince, one of the sons of Swaphalka, of 
the family of Anamitru. 

Dhrishti — The war minister of Mahdraja Dasaratha. 
Dhrita — A prince, the son of Dharma. 

Dhritamati — A river among those enumerated in the Vishnu 
Purana as one of the rivers of Bharata. 

Dhritarashtra — The elder son of Krishna Dwaipayana and the 
widow of Vichitravirya (see Bhishma), king of Hastinapura, and 
father of Duryodhana and his ninety-nine brothers. Being blind 
from birth, he eventually delivered his sceptre to Duryodhana, at 
whose suggestion he banished the Pandava princes, his own 
nephews, from his kingdom. It is to him that his charioteer and 
bard (sdta), Saujaya, relates the Bhagavat Gita, or dialogue 
between Krishna and Arjuna, having received, as he says, from the 
Vyfisa, the mystic power of being present while it was earned on. 
His wife's name was Gdndhari, and the chief of her hundred 
sons were Duryodhana, Duhsasana, Vikarna, and Chitrasena. 
(Dhritardshtra is derived from dhrita, * held firm ;' and rashtra, a 
'kingdom,' * who tenaciously maintains the sovereignty.' The name, 
Schlegel observes, may have arisen from his remaining on the throne 
in spite of his blindness.) {J, C, Thomson.) OuthedeathofDuryod- 

DHR 173 

hana, who was killed by Bhima, he meditated revenge, and caused 
an instrument of strongly constrictive power to be made, which he 
wore on his person ; and then expressed a strong desire to embrace 
Bhima, his nephew, before he died, Krishna being aware of the 
device (the hug as of a bear) caused a stone image to be substituted ; 
and as the blind king could not distinguish the difference, he was 
deceived, and Bhima escaped. 

Dhritarashtra was also the name of a powerful many-headed 
serpent, of immeasurable might ; one of the progeny of Kadru. 

Dhritarashtri — The daughter of Kasyapa, one of the wives of 
Garuda and mother of geese, ducks, teal and other water-fowl. 

•Dhritavrata — One of the eleven Rudras. Also the name of a 
prince, one of the descendants of Anu. 

Dhriti — Steadiness. One of the twenty-four daughters of the 
patriarch Daksha, married to Dharma (righteousness), their son 
was Niyama (precept). Dhriti was also the name of several 
princes — of a son of Vethavya, king of Mithila ; of a son of Babhru ; 
and of a son of Vijaya. The wife of Manu, one of the eleven 
Rudras, was named Dhriti. 

Dhritimat — A celebrated sage, the son of Kirthimat, by his wife 
Dheuuka. Also the name of a son of Yavinara. 

Dhruva — The polar star, the pivot of the atmosphere ; on it 
rests the seven great planets, and on them depend the clouds : the 
rains are suspended in the clouds and fall for the support of created 
beings. This source of rain is termed the sacred station of Vishnu, 
and the support of the three worlds. Vishnu Purana, Ch. VIII. 
From it proceeds the stream that washes away all sin, the river 
Gunga, embrowned with the unguents of the nymphs of heaven, 
who have sported in her waters. Having her source in the nail of 
the great toe of Vishnu's left foot, Dhruva receives her and 
sustains her day and night devoutly on his head. V. V,—lhid, 

As Dhruva revolves it causes the moon, sun and stars to turn 
round also ; and the lunar asterisms follow in its circular path, for 
all the celestial luminaries are bound to the polar star by aerial 
cords. The rain is evolved by the sun ; the sun is sustained by 

174 DHR 

Dhruva ; and Dhruva is supported by the celestial porpoise-shaped 
sphere, which is one with N^rayana. Narayana, the primeval 
existent, and eternally enduring, seated in the heart of the stellar 
sphere, is the supporter of all beings. V. P., Ch. IX. 

Dhruva was the son of Uttanapada and Suniti ; when a child 
he observed his half-brother Uttama in the lap of his father as he 
was seated on his throne, and was desirous of ascending to the 
same place. He was reproved for this by the mother of Uttama, 
Suruchi, the favorite wife of his father. The boy being angry 
went to the apartment of his own mother, who took him on her 
lap and asked what had vexed him. Suniti, distressed by the 
narrative of the boy, said, Suruchi has rightly spoken ; thine, child, 
is an unhappy fate ; those who are born to fortune are not liable 
to the insults of their rivals. Yet be not afflicted my child. That 
the king favors Suruchi is the reward of her merits in a former 
existence. It is not proper for you to grieve ; a wise man will be 
contented with that degree which appertains to him ; be amiable, 
be pious, be friendly, be assiduous in benevolence to ail living 
creatures ; for prosperity descends upon modest worth as water 
flows towards low ground, 

Dhruva answered : " Mother, the words that you have addressed 
to me for my consolation, find no place in a heart that contumely 
has broken. 1 will exert myself to attain such elevated rank that 
it shall be revered by the whole world." The youth then went 
forth from his mother's dwelling and applied to seven Munis, whom 
he found sitting in an adjoining thicket. By their advice he 
devoted himself entirely to the service of Vishnu, concentrating 
his whole mind on this one object. He comnfenced a course of 
religious austerities ; resisted all the attempts made to change his 
purpose ; and was finally elevated by Vishnu to the skies as the 
pole-star. V. P. 

Dhruva sandhi — One of the sous of Rija Tresandhi, king of 
Ay6dhya, and father of Bharata. 

Dhruvasandhi — A prince, the son Pushya, a descendant of 

Dhrujru— The eldest son of king Yay4ti, by his wife Sannishta : 

DHU 175 

called in some of the Puranas, the handmaid of his first wife 
Devayani. Dhruyu became king of the western part of his father's 

DhumaketU— (Comet). An allegorical personage, the son of 
Krisaswa, by his wife Archish (flame). The deified weapons of the 
gods were the progeny of Krisaswa. Dhumaketu is also the name 
of one of the sons of Trinavindu by the celestial nymph Alambush£, 
who became enamoured of Trinavindu. 

Dhlimrakesa — One of the five sons of the celebrated Prithu, 
the universal emperor or Chakra-vertti. 

Dhumraksha — One of Havana's generals, who was killed at 
the siege of Lanka. 

Dhumraswa — The son of Suchandra and king of Vaisali— the 
city founded by Vaisali, son of Trinaviuda. The Buddhists consider 
Vaisdli to be Prayaga, or Allahabad. Among them it is celebrated 
as a chief seat of the labours of Sakhya and his first disciples. 

Dhundu — An Asura, or demon, represented as most formidable. 
The pious sage Uttanka was much harassed by this demon, and 
king Kuvalayaswa, inspired with the spirit of Vishnu, determined 
to destroy it. In the conflict the kiug was attended by his sons to 
the number of twenty-one thousand, and all these with the exception 
of three perished in the engagement, consumed by the fiery breath 
of Dhundu. The demon hid himself beneath a sea of sand, which 
Kuvalayaswa and his sons dug up, undeterred by the flames which 
checked their progress and finally destroyed most of them. The 
king was afterwards entitled Dhundumara. The legend is supposed 
to have originated in some physical phenomena as an earthquake 
or volcano. V. P. 

Dhundumara—The name of Kuvalayaswa, after the conflict 
above described. In the Ramayana he is termed the son of 

Dhuti — One of the twelve Adityas who in a former 
Manwantara were deities called Tushitas ; they entered the 
womb of Aditi, daughter of Daksha, and were born as the sons of 
Kasyapa, and named the twelve Adifcva?. 

176 DHY— DIK 

Dhyana — Profound meditation on Vishnu, When the image 
(of Vishnu) never departs from the mind of the sage, whether he 
be going or standing, or be engaged in any other voluntary act, 
then he may believe his retention to be perfect. There are six 
stages in the attainment of this object : 1, Yama, acts of restraint 
and obligation ; 2, Asana, sitting in particular postures ; 3, 
Pranayama, modes of breathing ; 4, Praty^hara, exclusion of all 
external ideas ; 5, Bhavana, apprehension of internal ideas ; 6, 
Dhdrana, fixation or retention of those ideas. Those who thus 
devote themselves to meditation, must divest their minds of all 
sensual desire, and have their attention abstracted from every 
external object, and absorbed with every sense in the prescribed 
subject of meditation. Patanjali says, * Eestraint of the body, 
retention of the mind, and meditation, which thence is exclusively 
confined to one object, is Dhyana.' See V. P., p. 657. 

DigSbinbara — A naked ascetic, or gymnosophist. The Jains 
are divided into two principal divisions, Digambaras and Svetam- 
baras ; the former of which appears to have the best pretensions 
to antiquity, and to have been most widely difi^used. The discrimin- 
ating difference is implied in these terms, the former meaning the 
sky-clad, that is, naked ; and the latter the white-robed, the 
teachers being so dressed. In the present day, however, the 
Digambara ascetics do not go naked, but wear coloured garments ; 
they confine the disuse of clothes to the period of their meals, 
throwing aside their wrapper when they receive the food given 
them by their disciples. — Wilson. 

Diksha — Certain ceremonies preliminary to a sacrifice. It also 
means a new birth— and a rite of initiation, 

Diksha — The wife of Ugra, one of the eight Rudras or 
manifestations of Brahma ; or according to the Bhagavata, the 
wife of Vamadeva, another Rudra. 

Dikshaniya Ishti- A curious sacrificial ceremony, apparently 
suggested by " a feeling nearly akin to belief in original sin. The 
gods, and especially Vishnu and Agni, are invoked to come to the 
offering with the Diksha. * Grant the Diksha to the sacrifice. 
Agni as fire, and Vishnu as the sun, are invoked to cleanse the 
sacrificer, by the combination of their rays, from all gross and 

DIK— DIL 177 

material dross. The worshipper is then covered up in a cloth, on 
the outside of which is placed the skin of a black antelope ; and, 
after a certain time has elapsed, and specified prayers have been 
recited, the coverings are removed, the new birth is considered 
to have been accomplished, and the regenerated man descends 
to bathe."* 

Dikshavisarjane— A religious ceremony amongst brahmans ; 
it is customary for a man to allow his hair to grow for six months 
after his marriage, and then go to his father-in-law's house to have 
his head shaved ; this act, and the observances which accompany it, 
is termed Dikshavisarjane. 

Dilipa — The son of Ansumau and father of Bhagiratha who 
brought Ganga down to the earth. 

Ansuman's son, Dilipa famed, 
Begot a son Bhagirath named, 
From him the great Kakutstha rose ; 
From him came Raghu feared by foes. 

Dilipa is described in the Raghuvausa as a grand ideal of what 
H king should be. 

" Tall and broad-shouldered, stout and strong of limb, 
Valour incarnate fixed her throne in him. 
Matchless in beauty and heroic might, 
He towers like Meru in his lofty height. 
Meet for his god-like form, his noble mind 
To worthy studies in his youth inclined. 
Thence great designs inspired his generous soul, 
And mighty deeds with glory crowned the whole." 

This monarch was the delight of his subjects, who followed him 
as their guide, and thereby obeyed the laws of Manu. 

" And well they knew the tax they gladly paid, 
For their advantage on the realm was laid. 
The bounteous sun delights to drink the lakes, 
But gives ten thousand-fold the wealth he takes." 

*Mrs. Manning, A. and M. I. 


178 DIL 

Just as the earth and water, fire and ether, were given by the 
good Creator for the benefit of all mankind ; so was the king, 
Dilipa, sent to bless his subjects, and find his own happiness in 
that of others. Theft was unknown in his dominions, and 

" He ruled the earth, from rival sceptre free. 
Like one vast city girdled by the sea." 

But one boon was wanting. He had a lovely queen, but no son. 
" Oh ! how he longed, that childless king, to see 
A royal infant smiling on her knee ; 
With his dear mother's eyes and face divine, — 
A second self to ornament his line !" 
In the hope of attaining this boon he resolves to seek his holy 
guide, the renowned Vasishtha, who now lived far away in a 
secluded hermitage. His queen goes forth with him, and they 
travel in a car, which " tells his coming with the music of its bells.'* 
" Fresh on their cheeks the soft wind gently blows, 
Wafting the perfume of the woodland rose : 
And, heavy with the dust of rifled flowers. 
Waves the young branches of the mango bowers. 
They hear the peacock's joyous cry ; his head 
Lifted in wonder at the courser's tread. 
They watch the cranes in jubilant armies fly, 
Crowning, like flowers, the portals of the sky. 
From shady coverts by the way, the deer 
Throw startled glances when the car is near. 

Through towns they pass, and many a hamlet fair. 
Founded and cherished by their royal care." 

Peasants bring them curds and milk ; the king calls attention 

to the varied beauties of the woodland scene ; and, lost in delight, 
they reach the end of their journey quite unexpectedly. 

" Evening is come, and, weary of the road, 
The horses rest before the saints' abode." 
The hermitage reminds one of that described in Kalidasa's play, 
Sakuntala. Hermits from the neighbouring forest have come for 

DIL 179 

grass and fuel ; playful fawns are waiting to be fed with rice ; 
young girls are watering the roots of trees, &c. 
The king and the queen are most kindly received. 

After " food and rest," the sage inquires of the king his wishes, 
and having heard that 

"Mother earth, whom tears nor prayers have won, 
Is still ungracious, and denies a son," 
and that " the spirits of his fathers pine," seeing no hope of funeral 

offerings, the great Vasishtha falls into profound meditation, 

and, after a few minutes, announces the cause of the misfortune. 
The king, Dilipa, had once, thoughtlessly and unconsciously, 
omitted to pay reverence to " the holy cow," which was lying under 
a celestial tree near the falls of the Gauges.... Therefore, by way of 
penance, he and his queen must tend a cow, called Nandini, in the 
sacred woods close by ; and when they have gained the love of 
this descendant of the affronted cow, the curse will be removed. 
The attendance is given faithfully : the queen worships the cow, 
by walking round her and scattering grain ; and the king cannot 
be persuaded, even by illusive phantoms, to desert his trust. He 
hastens to the queen ; 

" And though she read at once his looks aright, 
He told her all again with new delight. 
Then, at the bidding of the saint, he quaffed 
Of Nandint's pure milk a precious draught, 
As though, with thirst that rises from the soul. 
He drank eternal glory from the bowl." 

At the dawn of day, 

" Swift towards their home the eager horses bound ; 
The car makes music o'er the grassy ground. 
They reach the city, where the people wait, 
Longing to meet their monarch, at the gate. 
Dim are his eyes, his cheek is pale, his brow 
Still bears deep traces of his weary vow." 

In due time a son was born. 

" There was a glory round the infant's head ; 

180 DIN— DIP 

And e'en the unlit torches seemed to shine 
As in a picture, with that light divine." 
And, when all rites had been duly performed, — 

" Still greater glory crowned Dilipa's son." 

—A. and M. /., vol II, pp. 99—101. 
Kalidisa in the Raghuvansa hoiakes Raghu the son of Dilipa and 
great grandfather of Rama. 

Dina-chariyawa — The daily observances of Buddhist priests. 
These are very numerous, and are prescribed with minute detail. 
At the conclusion it is said the priest must maintain a course of 
good behaviour, he must keep under the five senses, with matured 
wisdom, and without any haughtiness of either body, speech or 

Dipaka — The Illuminator. A figure of poetical rhetoric, throw- 
ing " a quickening ray of light upon the colouring of the poet's 
pictures ; for its power it is indebted to arrangement in general, 
especially to the connection of the single verb, which (to use the 
expression of the commentator) lights up the whole description." — 

Dipavali-habba — A festival instituted in memory of two 
celebrated giants, Bala-chakravarti and Narak-asura. The latter 
had become the scourge of the human race and infested the earth 
with his crimes. Vishnu at length delivered both gods and men 
from the terror of this monster, whom he slew after a dreadful 
combat. The contest ended but with the day. Thus Vishnu not 
having it in his power to make his diurnal ablutions before the 
setting of the sun, had to perform them in the night. The 
Brahmans in commemoration of this great event, put off their 
ablutions to the night ; and this is the only occasion, in the course 
of the year, in which they can transgress the ordinance of never 
bathing after sunset. But this exception of the nocturnal bathing, 
possesses a high degree of merit, and is conducted with solemnity. 

The word Dipavali-habha signifies the Feast of Lamps ; and 
the Hindus actually light a great number of lamps round the door 
of their houses. They make paper lanterns also, which they hang 
in the streetp. The husbandmen celebrate this festival in a different 


DIP— DIT 181 

way. Being then the harvest time for grain they assemble in the 
ragi fields and offer prayers or sacrifices. Some sacrifice to the 
dunghill which is afterwards to enrich the ground. The offerings 
consist of burning lamps, fruits, or flowers which are deposited in 
the mass of ordure. — Abbe Dubois. 

Diptimat— One of the sons of Krishna by Kohini. The 
Vishnu Purana says that Krishna had one hundred and eighty 
thousand sons, but the names of only a few are given. 

Dirghabahu — A prince, the son of Khatwanga. 

Dirghamukha — A crane that figures in the Panchatantra ; 
the name means " long bill." 

Dirghatamas — The son of Kasiraja and father of Dhanwantari. 
Another Dirghatamas was the son of Utathaya, and some of the 
Purdnas have an absurd story of the circumstances attending 
his birth. 

Dis — Space, which is said in the Bhagavata to be the deity 
which presides over the ear. Dis is also the name of a river in 
the Vishnu Purana. 

Disa — The wife of Bhima, one of the eight Rudras. 

Dishta — One of the sons of Manu Vaivaswata, the son of the 
celestial luminary. 

Diti — A daughter of Daksha, who became one of the wives of 
Kasyapa, and mother of the Daityas, q. v. She is termed the 
general mother of Titans and malignant beings. Diti having lost her 
children propitiated Kasyapa ; and the best of ascetics promised her 
a boon : on which she prayed for a son of irresistible prowess who 
should destroy Indra. The Muni granted his wife the gift on one 
condition, "You shall bear a son," he said, if with thoughts wholly 
pious, and person entirely pure, you carry the babe in your womb 
for a hundred years." Diti consented, and during gestation, observed 
the rules of mental and personal purity. Indra, aware of what was 
going on, tried to prevent it ; and in the last year of the century 
an opportunity occurred. Diti retired one night to rest without 
performing the prescribed ablution of her feet, and fell asleep : on 
which the thunderer divided the embryo in her womb into seven 

182 DIV— DRA 

portions. The child thus mutilated, cried bitterly. Indra not 
being able to console and silence it, divided each of the seven 
portions into seven, and thus formed the swift-moving deities 
called Maruts, (winds). " In this myth of Indra destroying 
the unborn fruit of Diti with his thunder-bolt, from which 
afterwards came the Mdruts or gods of wind and storm, geological 
phenomena are, it seems, represented under mythical images. In 
the great mother of the gods is, perhaps, figured the dry earth : 
Indra the god of thunder rends it open, and there issue from its 
rent bosom the Maruts or exhalations of the earth, But such 
ancient myths are difficult to interpret with absolute certainty." — 

Divakara — A prince, the son of Prativyoman, of the family of 
Ikshwaku, q. v. 

Divaratha — A prince, the son of Para, a descendant of Anu. 

Divaspati — The Indra of the thirteenth Manwantara. 

Divijata — One of the sons of Pururavas, according to the list 
in the Matsya. 

Divodasa — l, A king mentioned in the Rig Veda who coveted 
one of the hundred impregnable cities of the black-skinned Sambara. 
Indra hurled Sambara from the mountain ; he destroyed ninety- 
nine cities and gave the hundredth to Divodasa ; 2, A king of Kasi 
(Benares) — the son of Bhimaratha. There are some curious legends 
connected with this prince. It is said that Siva and Parvati, 
desirous of occupying Kasi, which Divodasa possessed, sent a 
teacher named Nikumbha, to lead the prince to ihe adoption of 
Buddhist doctrines ; in consequence of which he was expelled from 
the sacred city, and founded another on the banks of the Gomti ; 
or according to other accounts, he took a city on that river from 
the family of Bhadrasrenya ; that Durdama the son of Bhadrasrenya, 
recovered the country ; that the son of Divodasa Pratarddana, 
subsequently conquered it from his descendants. 

Divya — One of the eons of Satwata. 
Dosha — The wife of Kalpa, the son of Dhruva. 
Dragons — These are represented in the Vishnu Purina to be 
the progeny of Surasd ; one of the Daityas. 

DRA 18S 

Dravidian — The term applied to designate the five languages 
of Southern India, viz : — the Tamil, the Telugu, the Canarese, the 
Malayalim, and the Toulava. South India was formerly called the 
Dravida country. The Tamil is the most cultivated of the 
Dravidian tongues ; it contains the largest portion and the richest 
variety of undoubtedly ancient forms, and the smallest infusion of 
Sanskrit terms. It is the vernacular of about 1 2 millions of people. 
The Telugu ranks next to the Tamil in respect of culture and 
copiousness ; in point of euphonic sweetness it ranks in the first 
place. It is the vernacular of about 14 millions. The Canarese 
occupies the third place. Sanskrit words have been extensively 
introduced into the modern dialect, and during the reigns of Hyder 
and Tippu in Mysore, Hindustani words became common ; but the 
ancient dialect, spoken from about 800 to 1500 a. d. was free from 
any admixture of foreign terms. It is the vernacular of about 10 
millions. The Malayalim ranks next in order and is spoken along 
the Malabar Coast from Cannanore to Trevandrum by about 3 
millions of people. The Toulava is the least important of the five, 
and is spoken by the smallest number of people. 

Drauni — The Vyasa of the Dwapara which immediately follows 
the twenty-eight Dwaparas enumerated in the Vishnu Purana. 

Draupadi — The daughter of Raja Drupada of Panchala, whose 
capital was Kampilya. " She is the heroine of the Mahabhdrata." 
" She is of dark complexion but of exceeding loveliness ; and the 
only wish we have for her is that we could change her name, — 
Draupadi ; for it is almost beyond the power of art to invest a 
heroine with so uncouth an appellation with the poetic charm 
belonging to her in the Sanskrit."* The reports of the extraordinary 
beauty of Draupadi attracted many Rajas and chieftains to her 
Swayamvara. The young Princess was led into the arena, 
elegantly dressed, adorned with radiant gems, and carrying in her 
hand the garland which she was to throw over the neck of the hero 
who might have the fortune to win her to be his wife. Prince 
Dhrishtadyumna stood by the side of his resplendent sister, and 
proclaimed that whoever shot the arrow through the revolving 

* Mrs. Manning. A. and M. I., Vol. ii. 

184 DRA 

chakra on the first attempt, aud struck the eye of the golden fish, 
should have the princess for his wife. Many Rajas tried to bend 
the bow but could not. Then the ambitious Kama entered the 
lists and to the surprise of all bent the bow and fitted the shaft to 
the string ; but the proud Draupadi resolved that no son of a 
charioteer should be her lord, and cried out, "I wed not with the 
base-born." Kama was abashed and walked angrily out of the 
area. Then Sisupala, the Raja of Chedi ; and Jarasandha, the Raja 
of Magadha, tried one after another to bend the bow, but they both 
failed. All this time the Pandavas had been standing amongst the 
crowd disguised as brahmans : suddenly Arjuna advanced and 
lifted the bow, bent it and drew the cord, then fitting the arrow to 
the string, he discharged it through the centre of the chakra and 
struck the eye of the golden fish. A roar of acclamation arose 
from the vast assembly ; the beautiful Draupadi was filled with 
joy and wonder at the youth and grace of the hero ; as commanded 
by her brother she came forward and threw the garland round the 
neck of Arjuna, and permitted him to lead her away according to 
the rule of the Sway am vara. 

In the works ofH.H. Wilson, Vol.iii, pp. 328—335, the follow- 
ing poetical version of the account of the Swayamvara is given 
In Panchala's spacious realm 

The powerful monarch Drupada observes 

A solemn feast ; attending princes wait 

With throbbing hearts, his beauteous daughter's choice ; 

The royal Draupadi, whose charms surpass 

All praise, as far as her mild excellence 

And mind transcend the beauties of her person. 
##** ***** 

And now the day of festival drew nigh ; 
When Drupada, whose anxious hopes desired 
A son of P^ndu for his daughter's lord. 
And who had sent his messengers to search 
The banished chiefs, still sought by them in vain. 
Devised a test— no other force but theirs 
He deemed could umlcr^o, lo win the bride. 

DRA 185 

A ponderous bow with magic skill he framed, 
Unyielding but to more than mortal strength. 
And for a mark he hung a metal plate 
Suspended on its axle, swift revolving 
Struck by a shaft that from the centre strayed. 
This done he bade proclaim — that he whose hand 
Should wing the arrow to its destined aim, 
Should win the Princess by his archery. 

Before the day appointed, trooping came 
Princes and chiefs innumerous : 'midst the throng 
Duryodhana and all the hundred sons 
Of Dhritarashtra, with the gallant Karna, 
In haughty cohort at the court appeared. 
With hospitable act the king received 
His royal guests and fitting welcome gave. 

Between the North and East without the gates 
There lay a spacious plain ; a fosse profound 
And lofty walls enclosed its ample circuit, 
And towering gates and trophied arches rose. 
And tall pavilions glittered round its borders : 
Here ere the day of trial came, the sports 
Were held : and loud as ocean's boisterous waves, 
And thick as stars that gem the Dolphin's brow, 
The mighty city here her myriads poured. 
Around the monarch's throne on lofty seats 
Of gold with gems emblazoned sat the kings. 
Each lowering stern defiance on the rest. 
Without the barriers pressed the countless crowd 
Or clambering upon scaffolds clustering hung. 
Skirting the distance multitudes beheld 
The field from golden lattices, or thronged 
The high house-tops, whose towering summits touched 
The clouds, and like the mountain of the gods 
With sparkling peaks streamed radiant through the air. 
A thousand trumpets brayed, and slow the breeze 
With incense laden wafted perfume round. 
Whilst games of strength and skill — the graceful dance, 


186 DRA 

The strains of music, or dramatic art, 
. Awoke the gazer's wonder and applause. 

Thus sixteen days were passed, and every chief 
Of note was present — and the king no more 
Could with fair plea his daughter's choice delay. 
Then came the Princess forth in royal garb 
Arrayed and costly ornaments adorned : 
A garland interwove with gems and gold 
Her delicate hands sustained — from the pure bath 
With heightened loveliness she tardy came. 
And blushing in the princely presence stood. 
Next in the ring the reverend Priest appeared 
And strewed the holy grass and poured the oil, 
An offering to the God of Fire, with prayer 
Appropriate, and with pious blessings crowned. 
Then bade the king the trumpets' clangor cease 
And hush the buzzing crowd — while his brave son 
The gallant Dhrishtadyumna on the plain 
Descended and his father's will proclaimed. 
"Princes, this bow behold— yon mark — these shafts- 
Whoe'er with dexterous hand at once directs 
Five arrows to their aim, and be his race. 
His person and his deeds equivalent 
To such exalted union. He obtains 
My sister for his bride — my words are truth." 
Thus said, he to the Princess next described 
Each royal suitor by his name and lineage 
And martial deeds, and bade her give the wreath 
To him whose prowess best deserved the boon. 
Quick from their gorgeous thrones the kings uprose, 
Descending to the conflict, and around 
The lovely Draupadi contending pressed ; 
Like the bright gods round Siva's mountain bride. 
Love lodged his viewless arrows in their hearts, 
And jealous hatred swelled their haughty minds ; 
Each on his rivals bent a lowering glance. 
And friends till now, they met as deadliest foes. 


DRA • 187 

Alone the kindred bands remained aloof 

Who owned Janardana their glorious chief. 

He and the mighty Halayudha curbed 

Their emulous zeal, — and tranquil they beheld 

Like furious elephants the monarchs meet ; 

Their rage by courteous seeming ill represt 

Like fire amidst the smouldering embers glowing. 

And now in turn the Princes to the trial 
Succeeding past, in turn to be disgraced- 
No hand the stubborn bow could bend — they strained 
Fruitless each nerve, and many on the field 
Recumbent fell, whilst laughter pealed around. 
In vain they cast aside their royal robes 
And diamond chains and glittering diadems, 
And with unfettered arm and ample chest 
Put forth their fullest strength — the bow defied 
Each chief nor left the hope he might succeed. 
Karna alone the yielding bowstring drew 
And ponderous shafts applied, and all admired. 
The timid Draupadi in terror cried, 
I wed not with the base-born — Karna smiled 
In bitterness and upwards turned his eyes 
To his great Sire the Sun — then cast to earth 
The bow and shafts and sternly stalked away. 

Thus foiled the Princes, through the murmuring crowd 
Amazement spread — then Arjuna from where 
He and his brethren with the Brahmans placed 
Had viewed the scene, advanced to prove his skill— 
The priestly bands with wonder struck beheld 
Who seemed a student of their tribe aspire 
To triumph where the mightiest chiefs had failed— 
They deemed the like disgrace would shame the attempt, 
And ridicule their race and name assail, 
And many a venerable elder strove 
To turn the stripling from the hopeless task : 
They strove in vain— nor did they all despair — 
For many marked his elephantine strength, 

188 DRA— DRI 

His lion port and self-collected soul ; 
And fancied that they saw revived in him 
The son of Jamadagni : to o'erthrow 
Once more the haughty Kshatriya's power and pride. 
Unheeding praise or censure, Arjuna 
Passed to the field : with reverential steps 
He round the weapon circled, next addressed 
A silent prayer, to Mahadeo, and last 
With faith inflexible on Krishna dwelt. 
One hand the bow up bore, the other drew 
The sturdy cord, and placed the pointed shafts — 
They flew — the mark was hit — and sudden shouts 
Burst from the crowd long silent : flattering waved 
The Brahman scarfs, and drum and trumpet brayed, 
And Bard and Herald sung the hero's triumph. 
The Pandavas took Draupadi home to their mother, and told 
her that Arjuna had won the damsel at her Swayamvara, and she 
became the wife of the five brothers according to the institutions 
of polyandry, which seemed to have prevailed at a very remote 
period. The history of Draupadi is henceforth connected with 
that of the Pandavas. See Arjuna, Bhima, &c. She at last 
accompanied her husbands to the Himalaya mountains in the garb 
of a devotee and died. 

Dravina — One of the sons of Prithu, the universal emperor. 
Also the name of one of the sons of the sage Dhava. 

Draviras — The people of the Coromandel Coast, from Madras 
southwards ; those by whom the Tamil language is spoken. 

Dravya — Substance ; thing ; the receptacle or substratum of 
properties, one of the six Padkrihas^ or categories, into which 
Kanida distributes the contents of the universe. 

Dridhadhanash — A prince, the sou of Senajit, of the family 
,i '^ii/#»^oi' Hastin. 

./^'••, i|JDridh?-'ietra — The youngest of the four sons of Viswamitra, 
jf . , ■; lA]iu when he had retired to the jungles of the south to practice 
'^•'» l-^^ aimterities. 
i*\i\$t(.t And in that solitary spot, 

I'onr virtuous sons the king begot, 

DRI— DRO 189 

Havishyaud from the offering named, 
And Madhushyand for sweetness famed, 
Mabarath, chariot-borne in fight. 
And Dridhanetra, strong of sight." — Griffiths. 
Dridhasona— A king of Magbada, the son of Susam ; he 
reigned 48 years. 

Dridhayas— One of the sons of Pururavas, according to the 
Matsya list. 

Drishadwati — A river of considerable importance in the 
history of the Hindus, although no traces of its ancient name 
exist. V. P., p. 181. 

This river is also called Hiraavat, and is said to be the mother 
of Prasenajit. 

Drishtanta — An illustration, example, or familiar instance ; in 
the Nyaya system of Gautama, it is a topic on which in controversy 
both disputants consent ; or " that on regard to which, a man of an 
ordinary and a man of a superior intellect, entertain the same 

Drona — Son of the Rishi Bharadwaja, by birth a Brahman, but 
acquainted with military science, which he received as a gift from 
Parasurama (see Rama.) " Drona was no ascetic, and having in 
childhood shared the lessons and sports of the royal heir of the 
neighbouring kingdom of Pauchala, he felt inclined to live again 
at that court, now that his old playfellow had become king. Never 
doubting of a hearty welcome, he presented himself to king 
Drupada quite unceremoniously, merely saying, * Behold in me 
your friend.' His reception however was totally different to what 
he anticipated. 

" the monarch sternly viewed 

The sage, and bent his brows, and with disdain 

His eyeballs reddened ; silent awhile he sat, J^^^^ ft 

Then arrogantly spoke : Brahman, methinks .Jf j'"'^^: jj* 

Thou showest little wisdom, or the sense w H^ 2 li 

Of what is fitting, when thou call'st me friend. f* vS^^^' 

What friendship, weak of judgment, can subsist (|)iitMlt< 

Between a luckless pauper and a king ?" "*^ *** 

190 DRO— DRU 

" The king of Paucbala stares at the idea of friendship between 
a learned brahman and one to whom the Vedas are a mystery, or 
between a warrior and one who cannot guide a chariot through the 
ranks of war ; and continues — 

he to whose high mandate nations bow, 

Disdains to stoop to friends beneath the throne. 
Hence then with idle dreams ; dismiss the memory 
Of other days and thoughts ; I know thee not." 
Drona was too much astonished to speak, but he instantly 
withdrew from Panchala to Hastinapura, where he was most 
reverentially welcomed, and was at once entrusted with the 
instruction of the five young Pandu and the hundred young Kuru 
princes." Drona had in youth been equally instructed in wisdom 
and in arms ; and he taught the young princes to rein the steed, 
to guide the elephant, to drive the chariot, launch the javelin, hurl 
the dart, wield the battle-axe, and whirl the mace."* In the 
Vishnu Pui-^na, p. 454, Drona is called the husband of Kripi, and 
father of Aswatthdma ; afterwards king of the north part of the 
Panchala country, and a general in the Kuru army. After Bhishma 
had been mortally wounded, Drona was elected to the command of 
the army. He promised Duryodhana that he would take 
Yudhishthira prisoner, but he could not do so as Krishna and 
Arjuna were ever on the alert to prevent it. On the fourth day of 
his command he killed Virata and Drupada. Dhrishtadyumna 
then vowed to slay Drona in revenge for the death of his father 
Drupada. A combat took place ; but it was not till Drona was 
falsely told that his son Aswatthdma was dead, that he laid down 
his arms, and Dhrishtadyumna rushed upon him and severed his 
head from his body. 

Dronakas — A term by which, in the Puranas, the inhabitants 
of valleys, are designated. 

Drupada — The son of Prishata, and father of Draupadi, wife 
of the sons of Pdndu. He was king of the Panchilas, and one 
of the generals of the Pandava army. Being conquered by Drona 

* Mri. Manning— Professor Wilson, Oriental Mag., Vol. iii. 

DUH 191 

he ouly managed to retain the southern part of his kingdom, from 
the Ganges to the Charmavati (the modern Chumbal) including the 
cities Makandi and Kampilya. " Although Drupada was compelled 
to acquiesce in the arrangement made by Drona, by which his rule 
was confined to the country south of the Bhagirathi, the partition 
was the cause of deep mortification, and he long meditated on the 
means by which he might recover his former power, and be 
revenged upon his enemy. He especially regretted the want of a 
son whose youth and valour might compete with Drona's disciples, 
and he visited the chief resorts of the brahmans, in hope to meet 
with some holy sage, whose more than human faculties might 
secure him progeny. He found two brahmans of eminent learning 
and sanctity named Yaja and Upayaja, and addressed himself to the 
latter, promising him a million of cows if he enabled him to obtain 
the son he desired. Upayaja, however declined the task and 
referred him to his elder brother Yaja, to whom the king repaired 
and promised ten millions of kine : with much reluctance he 
undertook to direct a sacrificial ceremony by which the king should 
obtain offspring, and called his younger brother to his assistance. 
When the rite had reached the proper period the queen was invited 
to partake of it, but she had not completed her toilet and begged 
the brahmans to delay the ceremony. It was too late, and the 
sacrifice proceeding without her, the children were born independent 
of her participation. The son Dhrishtadyumna appeared with a 
diadem on his head, in full mail, and armed with a bow and 
falchion, from the middle of the sacrificial fire. Draupadi, the 
daughter, from the middle of the vedi or altar, on which the fire 
had been kindled ! she was of very black colour although of 
exceeding loveliness, and was thence named Krishni ; the name of 
the son is derived from the pride and power with which he was 
endowed from his birth."* 

King Drupada was killed by Drona on the fourteenth day of the 
great war. 

Duhsala— The daughter of Mahardja Dhritarashtra, who was 
married to Jayadratha, Raja of Sindhu. 

•Wilson's Works, vol. iii, p. 326. 

192 DUH—DUR 

Duhsasana~One of the chief of the hundred sons of 
Dhritarashtra. He took part in the great war. It was he who 
dragged Draupadi into the gambling pavilion by the hair, and 
insulted her before the assembly. Bhima vowed to drink his blood ; 
and on the sixteenth day of the great war, after a deadly conflict, 
Bhima slew Duhsasana and fulfilled his vow. 

Dukha — Pain. The son of Naraka and Vedana. 

Dundhubi— A huge giant slain by Bali. When Sugriva wished 
Rama to destroy Bali, in order to convince him of the great 
strength of the latter he showed Rama the dead body of Dundhubi : — 

" The prostrate corse of mountain size 
Seemed nothing in the hero's eyes ; 
He lightly kicked it as it lay 
And cast it twenty leagues away." 

Duradarsin — Far-seeing ; the name of a Vulture in the Pancha- 
tantra, who was the chief minister of the peacock king Chitravarna. 

Durdama — The son of Bhadrasrenya, who recovered his 
father's kingdom from Divodasa, q. v. 

Durga — The Sakti or wife of the god Siva, and the goddess of 
destruction ; she is described as terrible in form and irascible in 
temper. She was the daughter of Himalaya, the sovereign of the 
snowy mountains. Durga is often called Kali. In her amiable 
form she is termed Bhavani. " The adoration of Kali, or Durga, is 
however particularly prevalent in Bengal, and is cultivated with 
practices scarcely known in most other provinces. Her great 
festival, the Dasara, is in the West of India, marked by no 
particular honors, whilst its celebration in Bengal occupies ten days 
of prodigal expenditure. This festival, the Durga Puja, is now 
well known to Europeans, as is the extensive and popular 
establishment near Calcutta, the temple of Kali at Kali Ghit." 

" That human offerings to the dark forms of Siva and Durga 
were sometimes perpetrated in later times, we know from various 
original sources, particularly from that very effective scene in the 
drama of Madhava and Mdlati, in which Aghoraghanta is 
represented as about to sacrifice Mdlati to ChdmunA^, when phe is 

DUR 193 

rescued by her lover. No such divinities, however, neither Siva 
nor Durg^, much less any of their terrific forms, are even named, 
so far as we know, in the Vedas, and therefore these works could 
not be authority for their sauguiuary worship. That the practice 
is enjoined on particular occasions by the Tantras and some of the 
Puranas connected with this branch of the Hindu faith, is, no doubt, 
true ; but these are works of a much later date."* 

"Durga combines the characteristics of Minerva, Pallas, and 
Juno. Her original name was Parvati, but having, by a display 
of extraordinary valour, defeated a giant named Durga, she was 
thenceforth dignified with the name of her conquered foe. This 
monster is by some supposed to be a personification of vice, and 
Durga of virtue, while the struggle typified the action and reaction 
of good and evil in the world." — G. Small. (See Aparna, Devi, 
Kali, Karali, Parvati, Sati, Yogauidra.) 

Durga — The name of a river flowing from the Vindhya. 

Durgadasa — A distinguished commmentator on the Sanskrit 
Grammar of Vopadeva. 

Durgama — Durmada. Two sous of Vasudevaby his wifeRohini. 

Durgas — Strongholds. There are four kinds ; three of which 
are natural from their situation in mountains, amidst water, or in 
other inaccessible spots ; the fourth is the artificial defences of a 
village hamlet or city. 

Durjayanta — A mountain in the Vishnu Purana not yet 

Durvasas — The great Hindu Cynic ; a celebrated sage, the son 
of Atri by Anasuya, and an incarnation of a portion of Siva. He 
was wandering over the earth when he beheld in the hands of a 
nymph of air, a garland of flowers, with whose fragrance he was 
enraptured. The graceful nymph presented it to the sage, who 
placed the chaplet upon his brow, and resumed his journey ; soon 
after he beheld Indra, the ruler of the three worlds, approach, seated 
on his infuriated elephant Airavata, and attended by the gods. 
The sage threw the garland of flowers to the king of the gods, who 

* H. H. "Wilson's Works, vol. ii. 


194 PUR 

suspended it on the brow of Aii-avata. The elephant took hold of 
the garland with his trunk and cast it to the ground. The chief 
of sages Durvdsas, was highly incensed at this treatment of his gift, 
and thus addressed the sovereign of the immortals. " Thou art 
an idiot not to respect the garland I gave thee * * * * thy 
sovereignty over the three worlds shall be subverted, &c." Indra 
descended from his elephant and endeavoured, but without effect, 
to appease the sinless Durvasas. Thenceforward the three worlds 
lost their vigour and fell into decay and ruin. The gods were 
then oppressed by the Dauavas, had recourse to Vishnu, and were 
directed to churn the ocean. Durvasas was a Chiranjivi or 
immortal man, not limited to one age. In the drama of Sakuntala, 
his curse on that young woman for a slight delay in opening her 
door to him, brought on her sorrow and disgrace. In like manner, 
throughout the whole range of Hindu literature, the curse of 
Durvasas is at hand, to account for every contretemps, mishap or 
misadventure. A. and M. I. 

Duryaman — A prince, the son of Dhrita, a descendant of 

Duryodhana— " Difficult to be fought with." The eldest of 
the Kurus. The eldest of the hundred sons of Dhritarashtra, and 
one of the principal actors, among the Kauravas, in the great war... 
Pandu was the younger brother of Dhritarashtra, but Yudhishthira 
his eldest son was born before Duryodhana, and according to the 
customs of those times had in consequence a prior right to the 
throne of Hastinapura. This led to constant rivalry between 
Yudhishthira and Duryodhana for the post of Yuvaraja. As the 
five Pandavas had, on the death of Pandu, come under the 
guardianship of their uncle Dhritarashtra, the cousins were brought 
up together in the old palace of Hastinapura. It is stated in the 
Mahabharata that " about this time Duryodhana the eldest of the 
Kauravas, became very jealous of the strength of Bhima, and 
resolved to work evil against him. He attempted to take his life 
by poison, and throwing him into a lake while stupified from its 
effect. Bhima was not however killed but appeared again to play 
an important part in the struggles of their lives." 

DUR 195 

" The jealousy and hatred of the Kurus towards the Pandavas 
increased as they all attained manhood. The father of the Kurus 
being blind, required a vice king, or Yuvaraj^, i. e., " Little 
Rija." In this office Yudhishthira was installed, he being entitled 
to it as eldest son of the late king Pandu. But Duryodhaua was 
highly discontented at this arrangement, and at length persuaded 
his blind father to send away the Pandavas to the city of 
Varanivata (the modern Allahabad). Here a splendid house was 
prepared for them ; but hemp, resin, and other combustible 
substances, were secreted within ; for the wicked Duryodhana 
plotted that the house should be set on fire, and the five Pandavas 
and their mother burnt to death. Warning, however, was given 
to these intended victims before they left Hastinapura ; and, on 
taking possession of their splendid new habitation, they had an 
underground passage made, by which, when the expected fire took 
place, they all escaped." 

Among the poor people whom Kunti had been feasting was a 
Bhil woman, with five sons, who, according to the practice of 
their tribe, drank deeply of intoxicating liquor, and then lay down 
and slept heavily. The next morning their bodies were found 
amid the ruins of the conflagration ; and it was believed in 
Hastinapura that the Pandavas had perished, and Duryodhana 
pretended to mourn their death. 

After the Pandavas (q. v.) had conquered their misfortunes 
" the very splendour of their success revived the dark jealousy of 
Duryodhana ; for he and his brother Duhsasana, and one or two 
others, plot to deprive the newly-inaugurated king of his territories. 
They first secure the co-operation of a relative, named Sakuni, 
who was a noted gambler, and then induce the blind old Maharaja 
to invite the Pdndavas to a gambling festival at Hastinapura. 
Yudhishthira accepts the invitation, with secret misgiving ; for 
" he was not very skilful in throwing the dice," and he knows 
that " Sakuni is dwelling in Hastinapura." Of Sakuni, it is said 
that " he is very skilful in throwing dice, and in playing with dice 
that were loaded ; insomuch, that whenever he played he always 
won the game." Nevertheless, Yudhishthira feels compelled to go ; 
for " no true Kshatriya can refuse a challenge to war or play." The 

196 DUR 

game they played at seems to have resembled backgammon, " pieces 
on a board being directed by the throwing of dice." Certain seeds 
or nuts served as dice ; and dice of this description were used for 
the guidance of a portion of the religious sacrifice. So that, to 
throw dice, was not deemed objectionable ; and only when a 
passion, or the stake immoderate, was it esteemed a vice. It was, 
of course, contrived that Yudhishthira should be led on to stake 
and to lose all that he possessed.* 

When the Pandavas returned from their second exile it was 
chiefly owing to Duryodhana that the great w^ar was fought. He 
rejected all Krishna's proposals for peace, though Bhishma and 
Droua, as well as his aged father, were anxious that he should 
accept them... The war commenced. 

" The Kuru host entrusted to his care. 
The son of Bharadw^ja marshals ; first 
The chiefs of Sindhu, and Kalinga's king, 
With the young prince Vikarna on the right 
He stations, by Gandhara's martial chivalry ; 
With glittering lances armed, and led by Sakuni, 
Their sovereign's son, supported. On his left 
Duhs^sana and other chiefs of fame 
Commanded the array : around them rode 
Kamboja's horse, Sakas and Yavanas, 
On rapid coursers, mighty in the field. 
The nations of the noj-th, and east, and south. 
Composed his main battalions : in the rear 
Secure the monarch marched ; whilst in the van 
The gallant Kama led his faithful bands, 
Exulting in their sovereign's stately stature, 
High raised upon his elephant of war, 
And gorgeous shining as the rising sun. 
His warriors deemed the gods themselves were weak, 
With Indra at their head, to stem his prowess, 
And each to each their thoughts revealed, they moved, 
Secure of victory, to meet the foe."t 

♦ A. and M. I. t Wilson's Worku, vol. iii- v. 291. 

DUS 197 

On the last day of the war Bhima fought Duryodhana in single 
combat with clubs, and killed him. It is said that he then fulfilled 
the vow he made to avenge the insult which Duryodhana had 
offered to Draupadi. 

Dushan — A giant slain by Rdma in the forest of Dandaka. 

Dushyanta— The eldest son of Anila, and father of the emperor 
Bharata. The Mahabharata relates the following legend of this 
king. " Once upon a time the valiant B6ja Dushyanta was hunting 
in the forest, when he beheld the beautiful Sakuntald, the adopted 
daughter of Kanwa the sage ; and he prevailed on the damsel 
to become his wife by a Gandharva marriage, and gave her his 
riug as the pledge of his troth. Then Dushyanta returned to his 
own city, whilst Sakuntala remained in the hermitage of her father. 
After this Durvasas the sage visited the hermitage of Kanwa, but 
the thoughts of Sakuntala were fixed upon her husband, and she 
heard not the approach of the sage. And Durvasas cursed the 
damsel, that she should be forgotten by the man she loved ; but 
after a while he relented, and promised that the curse should be 
removed as soon as Dushyanta saw the ring. When SakuntaU 
found that she was with child, she set off for the palace of her 
husband ; but on her way she bathed in a sacred pool, and the 
ring dropped from her finger and was lost beneath the waters. 
When she reached the palace of the Raja, his memory had 
departed from him, and he would not own her to be his wife ; and 
her mother came and carried her away to the jungle, and there she 
gave birth to a sou, who was named Bharata. And it so happened 
that a large fish was caught by a fisherman, and the ring of 
Dushyanta was found in the belly of the fish, and carried to the 
Raja ; and Dushyanta saw the ring, and he remembered the beautiful 
Sakuntala, who had become his wife by a Gandharva marriage. And 
the Raja went into the jungle and saw the boy Bharata sporting 
with young lions and setting at nought the lioness that gave them 
suck ; and his heart burned towards the lad ; and presently he 
beheld the sorrowing Sakuntala, and he knew that Sakuntala was 
his wife, and that Bharata was his son. So Rija Dushyanta took 
Sakuntala and Bharata to his own city ; and he made Sakuntala 

198 DUT— DWA 

his chief Rani, and appointed Bharata to succeed him in the Raj." 
The story of Sakuutala is the subject of the beautiful drama of 
Kalidasa, " The Lost Ring." 

Dutas^ Messengers. The Gananatas or Dutas are divided 
into three classes ; 1, Siva-dutas, who are represented as red, 
short, and thick like the Bhuta. Their hair-locks twisted together, 
rest on their heads like a cap, and from their mouths project two 
great lion's teeth. They have four hands in which they hold, 
respectively, a snake, a cord, a trident, and a wine-jug ; whilst 
their body is adorned with various ornaments. By means of these 
messengers Isvara fetches the souls of his devotees at their death 
to his seat of bliss, called Kailasa, and that in a Pushpakavimana, 
i. e.f B. self-moving chariot. 

2. The Vishnu-dutas have their hair dressed like the Siva-dutas, 
and also like them a lion's teeth, but otherwise they resemble 
Vishnu, being of a blue color, and wearing the Tirunama on their 
forehead, arms, and breasts ; and round their necks a rosary of 
Tulasimani ; whilst they hold in their four hands, respectively, 
a Sankha, a Chakra, a battle-axe, and a club. Through these 
messengers Vishnu fetches the souls of his faithful devotees into 
his abode of bliss called Vaikuntha. 

3. The Yama-dutas, the messengers of Yama, the king of death 
and hell, are painted quite black, like demons, with horrible faces 
and great teeth. In their four hands they carry a trident, a club and 
many ropes ; and in their girdles, daggers. Their business consists 
in carrying the souls of the wicked into Naraka or hell ; but they 
are not allowed to lay hold on any one before his fixed life-time is 
elapsed, and the souls of the pious they cannot touch at all. When, 
however, such die as are neither virtuous nor wicked, then it 
happens that the messengers of Yama and those of Siva or Vishnu 
come into conflict with each other, each party claiming the 
indifferent souls." 

Dwapara— The third Yuga or age, which lasts 2,400 divine 
years ; these are converted into years of mortals by multiplying 
them by 360, a year of men being a day of the gods— thus 
2,400 X 360 = 864,000 mortal years, the duration of the Dwdpara 

DWA— DWI 199 

or third Yuga. The predominant duties of the four Yugas are 
said to be austere fervour on the Krita age, knowledge in the 
Treta, sacrifice in the Dwapara, and liberality alone in the Kali 
Yuga. O. S. T., vol. i, p. 39. 

Dwaraka — The city of Krishna ; after he had conquered many 
difficulties in his position, he solicited a space of twelve furlongs 
from the ocean, and there he built the city of Dwaraka ; defended 
by high ramparts, and beautiful with gardens and reservoirs of 
water, crowded with houses and buildings, and splendid as the 
capital of Indra, Amaravati. After Krishna abandoned his mortal 
body, Arjuna conducted his many wives and all the people from 
Dwaraka, with tenderness and care. The ocean then rose and 
submerged the whole of Dwaraka except the dwelling of Krishna. 
The Vishnu Purana says the sea has never been able to wash that 
temple away, as Krishna still abides there. The Mahabhdrata 
declares that the sea did not spare any part whatever. " It is clear, 
therefore ;" says Professor Wilson, " that when the latter was 
compiled the temple was not standing, and that it was erected 
between the date of the compilation and the two Puranas. The 
present shrine, which is held in great repute, stands at the extremity 
of the peninsula of Guzerat. It is still an object of pilgrimage ; 
it was so in the reign of Akbar ; and has been no doubt, from a 
remote period." 

Dwesha— Hatred ; one of the five afflictions of the P^tanjali 

Dwija — Twice-born ; a brahman, whose investiture with the 
sacred thread constitutes, religiously and metaphorically, their 
second birth. In this sense it may be applied to the Kshatriya 
and Vaishya. 

Dwimidha — One of the sons of Hastin, founder of Hastinapura. 

Dwimurddha — One of the Danavas, a son of Kasyapa by Danu. 

Dwipas — Insular continents, of which there are seven chief, 
and with the seven seas are supposed to form alternate concentric 
circles, viz : 1, Jambu Dwipa, surrounded by a salt sea (Lavana) ; 
2, Plaksha, by a sea of sugar-cane juice, (Ikshu) ; 3, Salmali, by a 

200 DWI— DYA 

sea of wine, (Sui*d) ; 4, Kusa, by a sea of clarified butter, or ghee, 
(Sarpi) ; 5, Krauncha, by a sea of curds, (Dugdha) ; 7, Pushkara, 
by a sea of fresh water. The whole is surrounded by a circular 
mountain designated Chakravaligiri. An account of the kings, 
divisions, inhabitants, &c., of these Dwipas will be found in the 
Vishnu Purana, Chap. IV, Book I. The geography of the 
Puranas, says Prof. Wilson, occurs in most of these works ; and in 
all the main features, the seven Dwipas, seven seas, the divisions of 
Jambudwipa, the situation and extent of Meru, and the sub-division 
of Bharata, is the same. It has been stated that the first rudiments 
and general outline of this fiction, including the circular mountain, 
are rabbinical, and may be found in the Talmud. 

Dwivida— An Asura, the foe of the friends of the gods, which 
in the form of an ape, committed great devastation. " The whole 
world, disordered by this iniquitous monkey, was deprived of 
sacred study and religious rites, and was greatly afflicted." (V. P.) 
On one occasion, when Bala Rama was enjoying himself in the 
groves of Raivata, the monkey Dwivida came there, threw over 
the wine and groaned at the company. An encounter followed, 
in which the monkey struck the Yadava on the breast with his 
paws. Bala Rama replied with a blow of his fist upon the forehead 
of Dwivida, which felled him lifeless to the earth. The crest of 
the mountain on which he fell was splintered into a hundred pieces 
by the weight of his body, as if the thunderer had shivered it with 
his thunderbolt. V. P., &c. 

Dwivida— One of the sous of the Asvins, famed for his beauty. 

Dyaus and Prithivi — Heaven and Earth, seemed to have 
been veiy ancient Aryan divinities, and are in many passages of 
the Rig Veda described as the parents of the other gods. There 
are several hymns specially devoted to their honour. In the hymns. 
Heaven and Earth are characterized by a profusion of epithets, not 
only such as are suggested by their various physical characteristics, 
as vastness, breadth, profundity, productiveness, unchangeableness, 
but also by such as are of a moral or spiritual nature, as innocuous 
or beneficent, wise promoters of righteousness. 

While Heaven and Earth are described as the universal parents, 

DYU 201 

they are spoken of in other places as themselves created. Thus 
it is said in the Rig Veda that * he who produced heaven and earth 
must have been the most skilful artizan of all the gods.' Indra 
also is described as their creator ; as having beautifully fashioned 
them by his power and skill ; as having bestowed them on his 
worshippers ; as sustaining and upholding them, &c. 

"In other passages we encounter various speculations about 
their origin. In one hymn the perplexed poet inquires which of 
these two was the first ? and which the last ? How have they 
been produced ? Sages who knows ? In another hymn the 
creation of heaven and earth is ascribed to the sole agency of the 
god Visvakarman. Some are of opinion that the functions which 
in the older Indian Mythology were assigned to Dyaus, were at a 
later period transferred to Indra. O. S. T., vol. v., pp. 21 — 34. 

Dyumat— One of the sons of the Rishi Vasishtha, according to 
the list in the Bhagavata, which differs altogether from that in 
the Vishnu Purdna. 

Dyutimat — One of the ten sons of Priyavrata : three of them 
adopted a religious life : Priyavrata having divided the earth into 
seven continents, gave them respectively to his other seven sons. 
Dyutimat was king of Krauncha-dwipa, where the inhabitants 
resided without apprehension, associating with the bands of 



Earth — The Earth, considered as one of the ancient * elements,' 
occupies nearly the same place in all the Puranas. The order is, 
ether, (akas) air, (vayu) fire, (tejas) water and earth. The order 
of Empedocles was ether, fire, earth, water, air. The Puranas 
describe the earth as having been raised from the lowest regions on 
the ample tusks of the Varaha (boar) avatar. The Bhdgavata 
states that, when the earth, oppressed by the weight of the 
mountains, sunk down into the waters, Vishnu was seen in the 
sub-terrene regions, or Rasatala, by Hiranyaksha, in the act of 
carrying it off. The demon claimed the Earth, and defied Vishnu 
to combat : and a conflict took place in which Hiranyaksha was 
slain. There are legends which relate the subjugation of the Earth 
by the mighty Prithu, when he was invested with universal 
dominion. Prithu levelled or uprooted mountains ; defined 
boundaries on the irregular surface of the Earth ; introduced 
cultivation, pasture, highways, commerce, in a word, civilization. 
The Vishnu Purana states, " This Earth, the mother, the nurse, 
the receptacle, and nourisher of all existent things, was produced 
from the sole of the foot of Vishnu. And thus was born the 
mighty Prithu, the heroic son of Vena, who was the lord of the 
Earth, and who, from conciliating the affections of the people, was 
the first ruler to whom the title of Raja was ascribed. 

Five chapters in the Vishnu Purana are devoted to a description 
of the Earth ; its people and countries. Jamba-dwipa is placed in 
the centre of the seven great insular continents (see Dwipas) and 
in the centre of Jamba-dwipa is the golden mountain Meru — the 
shape of which is variously described in the different Puranas ; 
though all represent it as if enormous size and great beauty. The 
apples of the Jamba-tree are as large as elephants ; from their 
expressed juice is formed the Jamba river, the waters of which are 
drunk by the inhabitants ; and in consequence of drinking of that 
stream they pass their days in content and health, neither exposed 

EAR— EGG - 20a 

to decrepitude or decay. Ample details of the Varshas or 
countries, are given in most of the Puranas, but they are all of an 
equally fanciful and extravagant character. 

The Vishnu Purana says, " Sesha bears the entire world like a 
diadem, upon his head * * * * when Ananta, his eyes rolling 
with intoxication, yawns, then Earth, with all her woods and seas, 
and mountains, and riversj trembles." In another place, "At the end 
of a thousand periods of four ages the Earth is for the most part 
exhausted, A total dearth then ensues which lasts a hundred years : 
and in consequence of the failure of food all beings become languid, 
and at last entirely perish. The eternal Vishnu then assumes the 
character of Rudra the destroyer, and descends to re-unite all his 
creatures with himself. He enters into the seven rays of the sun ; 
drinks up all the waters of the glolie, and causes all moisture to 
evaporate, thus drying up the whole earth. ***** Xhe 
destroyer of all things, Hari, in the form of Rudra, becomes the 
scorching breadth of the serpent Sesha, and thereby reduces 
Pat^la to ashes. The great fire, when it has burnt all the divisions 
of Patdla proceeds to the earth, and consumes it also." V. P., 632. 

Ear-rings — Among the various articles produced at the churning 
of the ocean, ear-rings are enumerated ; these were taken by Indra 
and given to Aditi ; the daughter of Daksha and wife of Kasyapa. 
The ear-rings were stolen by Naraka, son of the Earth, and 
conveyed by him to Pragjyotisha, "an impregnable, formidable and 
unassailable city of the Asuras." Krishna attacked the place, 
overcame all opposition, slew Naraka, recovered the jewelled 
ear-rings, and returning to the heaven of the gods, restored them 
to Aditi, who praised Krishna in verses which contain some 
remarkable sentiments. They will be found in the V. P., 5S4-5. 

Egg of the World— In the Rig Veda the Supreme Spirit is 
represented as producing an egg, and from the egg is evolved a 
world. At a later period, Brahma is set forth as depositing in the 
primordial waters an egg shining like gold. The Puranas all 
contain accounts of the first aggregation of the elements in the form 
of an egg. The Vishnu Purana says, " This vast egg, compounded 
of the elements, and resting on the waters, was the excellent 

204 EGG 

natural abode of Vishnu in the form of Brahma ; and there Vishnu, 
the lord of the universe, whose essence is inscrutable, assumed a 
perceptible form, and even he himself abided in it in the character 
of Brahma. ** Its w^oiAb, vast as the mountain Meru, was composed 
of the mountains ; and the mighty oceans were the waters that 
filled its cavity. In that egg, O Brahman, were the continents and 
seas and mountains, the planets and divisions of the universe, the 
gods, the demons, and mankind. And this egg was externally 
invested by seven natural envelopes, or by water, air, fire, ether, 
and Ahankara the origin of the elements, each tenfold the extent 
of that which it invested ; next came the principle of intelligence ; 
and, finally, the whole was surrounded by the indiscreet principle : 
resembling thus the cocoanut, filled interiorly with pulp, and 
exteriorly covered by husk and rind." 

" It seems impossible," says Professor Wilson, " not to refer 
this notion to the same origin as the widely diffused opinion of 
antiquity, of the first manifestation of the world in the form of an 
egg." " It seems" says Bryant, " to have been a favourite symbol, 
and very ancient, and we find it adopted among many nations." 
Traces of it occur among the Syrians, Persians and Egyptians ; 
and besides the Orphic egg amongst the Greeks, and that 
described by Aristophanes, part of the ceremony in the Dionysiaca 
and other mysteries, consisted of the consecration of an egg^ by 
which, according to Porphyry, was signified the world." 

*' The shell of the mundane egg is said to be outside of the seven 
spheres of which this system is composed ; In the V. P. ii, 7, 19 
it is said 

" These seven spheres have been described by me ; and there are 
also seven Patalas ; this is the extent of Brahma's egg. The whole 
is surrounded by the shell of the egg at the sides, above and below, 
just as the seed of the wood apple is covered by the rind." 

This system, however, it appears is only a very small part of the 
whole of the universe ; in verse 24 it is added 

" There are thousands and ten thousands of thousands of such 
mundane eggs ; nay hundreds of millions of millions." 

EKA 205 

" Indian mythology, when striving after sublimity, and seeking 
to excite astonishment, often displays an extravagant and puerile 
facility in the fabrication of large numbers. But in the sentence 
last quoted, its conjectures are substantially in unison with the 
discoveries of modern astronomy ; or rather they are inadequate 
representations of the simple truth, as no figures can express the 
contents of infinite space." Muir, O. S. T., vol. i, p. 504. 

Eka — " The one :" a synonym of Mahat, from its singleness. 
See Mahat. 

Ekachakra — One of the renowned Danavas, son of Danu and 


Ekachakra — The city in which Bhima and his mother and 
brethren were advised by the sage Vyisa to reside ; they dwelt 
there for a long time in the house of a brahman. It was in this 
city that Bhima destroyed the cannibal Vaka. " In the neigh- 
bourhood there lived a giant, — the same sort of being as the 
modern earth-goddess of Orissa ; that is a demon who feeds on 
human beings." One day, it is said, the Pandavas heard a great 
noise in the house in which they were dwelling, and enquiring 
into its cause, were told that the demon compelled the king of 
Ekachakra every day to send him a great quantity of provisions ; 
and that Vaka daily devoured the man as well as the provisions ; 
and that on that very day the family of the brahman was required 
to supply the man. While reposing in an inner apartment the 
Pdndavas overheard the father, the mother, and the daughter, each 
urging a separate claim to be allowed to suffer for the rest. 

The father commences, saying, that never would he be so base 
as to give a victim from his house and consent himself to live ; 
but still he expresses anxiety at not knowing how to provide a 
place of refuge for his wife, daughter, and little son, after his 
removal. He cannot, he says, surrender his faithful wife, — the 
sweet friend given to him by the gods ; nor his daughter, — whom 
Brahma made to be a bride, and the mother of heroes ; not yet his 
son : ...but if he offer himself, sorrow will pursue him in the world 
to come, and his abandoned wife and children will be unable to live 
without him. 

206 EKA 

The wife next speaks, and chides her husband for yielding to 
grief, like one of lowly caste ; for, whoever knows the Vedas, 
must know that — 

" Fate, inevitable, orders ;— all must yield to death in turn. 
Hence the doom, th' irrevocable,— it beseems not thee to mourn. 
Man hath vrife, and son, and daughter, — for the joy of his own heart ; 
"Wherefore, wisely check thy sorrow, — it is I must hence depart. 
'Tis the wife's most holy duty,— law on earth without repeal, — 
That her life she offer freely, — when demands her husband's weal." 

She goes on to argue, that he can support and guard the children 
when she is gone, but that she would have no power to guard and 
support them without him. Deprived of his protection, " rude 
and reckless men," she says, would come seeking their blameless 
daughter ; and helpless, and beset on every side, she would be 
unable to check the suit of Sudra lovers... She concludes, by 
saying, that her honored husband will find another wife, to whom 
he will be as gentle and kind as he has been to her. 

"Hearing thus his wife, the husband fondly clasp'd her to his breast : 
And their tears they pour'd together— by their mutual grief oppress'd." 

When the daughter overheard the troubled discourse of her 
parents, she put in her claim to be the offered victim ; for, if they 
died before her, she would sink to bitterest misery : but, if she died 
to preserve them, she would " then become immortal, and partake 
of bliss divine." 

Whilst they were all thus weeping, the little son opened wide 
his eyes, and lisped out in broken accents : 

*' Weep not, father, weep not, mother ; oh, my sister, weep not so 
First to one, and then to th' other, — smiling went he to and fro. 
Then a blade of spear-grass lifting, thus in bolder glee he said ; 
With this spear-grass will I kill him— this man-eating giant— dead.' 
Though o'erpowered with bitterest sorrow, as they heard their prattling boy, 
Stole into the parents' bosom— mute and inexpressive joy." 

Happily the child's chivalry was not required. After some 
discussion the brahman reluctantly consented that Bhima should 
go himself to the Asura, and he set out with the ordained quantity 
of provisions, and went on until he came to the banyan tree under 
which Vaka was accustomed to eat his meals. Bhima then ate up 
all the victuals that were in the waggon and refilled it with dirt. 

EKA 207 

Vaka then came forward ravenous with hunger, and finding 
nothing but dirt, struck Bhima in a great rage. They then tore 
up large trees by the roots and fouglit together until not a tree 
was left. They then fought with their fists until the Asura was 
spent ; when Bhiraa seized him by the legs and rent him asunder. 
The date of the story is fixed in the age of Buddhism. Ekachakra 
has been identified as the modern Arrah. It was occupied by 
Brahmans who may be regarded as the later representatives of the 
Aryan population, while the jungle was evidently in the possession 
of the Asuras or Aborigines.* 

Ekadanta — The single-tusked. A name of Ganesa. 

Ekadasi — A ceremony performed on the eleventh day after the 
death of a relative. During the previous ten days the relatives 
are supposed to be mourning, and in a state of asaucha or impurities, 
so that no one can communicate with them. When Ekadasi is 
performed the period of uncleanness ceases. 

Ekadasi is also the eleventh day after the new and full moon, 
observed by the Vaishnavas as a fast day. 

Ekalavya — The king of the Nishadas ; he was regarded as 
invincible by mortals but was attacked and slain by Krishna. 

Ekapadakas— A nickname or term of derision, found in the 
geographical accounts of the Puranas ; it means one-footed or 
rather, one-slippered, and is probably an exaggeration of national 
ugliness, or allusion to some peculiar custom, in the people to whom 
the term is applied. Professor Wilson thinks that such terms, of 
which there are many in the Purdnas, may have furnished the 
•Mandevilles of ancient and modern times, with some of their 

Ekaparna, Ekapatala — Two of the daughters of Mena, the 
eminent wife of the great mountain Himavat. They performed 
great austerities such as could not be accomplished by gods or 
Danavas, and distressed both the stationary and moving worlds. 
Ekaparna (One leaf) fed upon one leaf. Ekapatala took only one 
patala (Bignonia) for her food. The former w^as given as a wife 

* Mrs. Manning. A. & M. I. 

208 EKA— ELE 

to Asita Devala, the wise teacher of the Yoga. The latter was in 
like manner bestowed on Jaigishavya. Muir, 0. S. T., vol. iv, 
p. 367. 

Ekashtaka — The daughter of Prajapati, who through practis- 
ing austere-fervour, became the mother of the glorious Indra, and 
of Soma. According to other authorities, Indra is one of the sons 
of Kasyapa and Dakshayani. 0. S. T., vol. v, p. 80. 

Ekavinsa — The name of the collection of hymns created from 
the northern mouth of Brahma. 

Ekoddishta-sradda — Obsequial offerings on account of a 
kinsman recently deceased. These are performed monthly. The 
proper period of mourning is ten days, on each of which offerings 
of cakes and libations of water are to be made to the deceased, 
augmenting the number of cakes each day, so that in the last day 
ten cakes are presented. 

Elapatra— One of the progeny of Kadru, a powerful serpent, 
with many heads. 

Elephanta — " A small island about 7 miles in circumference, 
situated between the island of Bombay and the Mahratta shore, 
from which it is distant 5 miles, and 7 miles from the castle of 
Bombay. Its name among the natives is Gorapori ; that by which 
it is known to Europeans was derived from the figure of an 
elephant twice the size of life cut out of the solid black rock on the 
acclivity of a hill about 250 yards from the landing-place. This 
figure is now completely dilapidated. At a short distance from the 
elephant stands the figure of a horse, also cut out of the rock. On 
this island is a remarkable temple-cave. The entrance to this cave, 
or temple, occurs about half way up the steep ascent of the 
mountain or rock out of which it is excavated. Its length, 
measuring from the entrance, which is on the north side, is 130 
feet, and its breadth 123 feet ; the floor not being level the height 
varies from 1 5 to 1 7^ feet. The roof was supported by 26 pillars 
and 8 pilasters, disposed in four rows ; but several of the pillars 
are broken. Each column stands upon a square pedestal and is 
fluted, but instead of being cylindrical is gradually enlarged 

ELL— ELU 209 

towards the middle. Above the tops of the columns a kind of 
ridge has been cut to resemble a beam about 1 2 inches square, and 
this is richly carved. Along the sides of the temple are carved 
between 40 and 50 colossal figures varying in height from 12 to 15 
feet ; none of them are entirely detached from the wall. On the 
south side, facing the main entrance, is an enormous bust with 
three faces, which is supposed to represent the triple deity, Brahma, 
Vishnu, and Siva. The centre face is 5 feet in length. At the 
west side of the temple is a recess, 20 feet square, having in the 
centre an altar. The entrance to this recess is guarded by eight 
naked figures, each 13^ feet high, sculptured in a superior manner. 
The origin of this cave is quite unknown : it is frequently visited 
by devotees for the purpose of offering prayers and oblations. — 
English Encyclopcedia. 

Ellamma — One of the gramadevatas in Southern India — 
identified with Renukd, wife of Jamadagni, mother of Parasui-^raa, 
Ellamma is represented in a sitting posture, with a red skin, a 
fiery face, and four arms and hands. If any one is bitten by a 
poisonous serpent he calls on Ellamma for aid. Fishermen when 
in danger call on Ellamma and make vows to her. 

Ellora — A town in the province of Aurangabad, and near to 
the city of Dowlatabad. In one instance, about a mile to the 
eastward of the village the side of a great mountain has been 
excavated, so as to give a level floor 1 50 feet wide by 270 feet in 
length. In the centre stands the rock-cut temple called Kailas, 
similar in form to the Pagoda at Tanjore It is between 80 and 90 
feet high, and is preceded by a large square porch, supported by 
sixteen columns. In the front of this stands a detached porch, 
reached by a bridge ; and again, in front of the whole, a gateway, 
connected with the last porch by a rock-cut bridge, and flanked on 
either side by pillars or deepdaus (which word is literally lamp-post.) 
Two elephants, the siae of life, are also mentioned ; and all around 
the court are cloisters, with cells. And the whole, — pillars, 
cloisters, halls, bridges, and vimana, — are sculptured out of the 
rock. — Mrs. Manning. A. ayid M. /., Vol. I, p, 420. 

Elu — A dialect of the ancient Singhalese, which differs from the 


210 EMU— EXP 

colloquial Singhalese, rather in style than in structure, having been 
liberally enriched by incorporations from Sanskrit and Pali. Mr. 
Spence Hardy mentions a number of Buddhist works which are 
written in Elu. 

Emusha — The name of the boar in which Prajipati became 
incarnate when he raised up the earth and extended it. " Formerly 
this earth was only so large, of the size of a span. A boar called 
Emusha, raised her up. Her lord Prajapati, therefore, prospers 
him with (the gift of) this pair, the object of his desire, and makes 
him complete." O. S. T., vol. i, p. 53. 

Ettaia— A place in the North-west of India, said to be the 
scene of a conflict between Krishna and Kali ; where some fine 
ruins still exist. 

Expiation— The Vishnu Purana says that *' suitable acts of 
expiation have been enjoined by the great sages for every kind of 
crime. Arduous penances for great sins, trifling ones for minor 
offences, have been propounded by Swayambhuva and others : but 
reliance upon Krishna is far better than any such expiatory acts, 
as religious austerity or the like. Let any one who repents of the 
sin of which he may have been culpable, have recourse to this 
best of all expiations, remembrance of Hari ; by addressing his 
thoughts to Ndrayana at dawn, at night, at sunset, and midday, a 
man shall be quickly cleansed from all guilt : the whole heap of 
worldly sorrows is dispersed by meditating on Hari ; and his 
worshipper, looking upon heavenly fruition as an impediment to 
felicity, obtains final emancipation." 

*' This remembrance of Vishnu," says Professor Wilson, "is the 
frequent reiteration of all his names ; hence the lower orders of 
Hindus procure a starling or parrot, that in the act of teaching it 
to cry Rama or Krishna or Radh^, they may themselves repeat 
these appellations ; the simple recitation of which, even if 
accidentally, irreverently, or reluctantly performed, is meritorious.'* 

Faith — The paramount efficacy of faith is a tenet of the 
Vedanta school ; particularly that branch of it which follows the 
authority of the Bhagavat Gita. In that work, and in many of 
the Puranas, passages relating to faith constantly recur. 

Fakir — The word Fakir is derived from an Arabic term 
signifying " poor people," and belongs strictly to those who profess 
Mahomedanism, not to Hindus. But the word is sometimes used 
by Europeans to designate all classes of monks, who subject 
themselves to austerities and mortifications. Some of them vow 
to preserve a standing posture during their whole lives, supported 
only by a stick or rope under their armpits. Some mangle their 
bodies with scourges or knives. Others wander about in 
companies, telling fortunes, and in other ways imposing on the 
people. Some go about as mendicants asking alms in the name 
of God. See Sanyasl. 

Fenngahi — A name of Parvati or Devi. 

Fever — In the Vishnu Purana, Fever is personified, as an 
emanation from Maheswara, having three feet and three heads, 
(alluding, says Dr. Wilson, to the three stages of febrile paroxysms, 
or to the recurrence of tertian ague). Fever fought desperately 
with Vishnu in defence of the city of Bana. Baladeva, upon whom 
his ashes were scattered, was seized with burning heat, and his 
eyelids trembled : but he obtained relief by clinging to the body of 
Krishna. The fever emanating from Siva was quickly expelled 
from the person of Krishna by fever which he himself engendered. 
Brahma beholding the impersonated malady, bewildered by the 
beating inflicted by the arms of the deity, entreated the latter to 
desist ; and the foe of Madhu refrained, and absorbed into himself 
the fever he had created. The rival fever then departed, saying 
to Krishna, " Those men who call to memory the combat between 
us shall be for ever exempt from febrile disease." 

212 FIR 

Fires— According to the Vishnu Puiina there are forty-nine 
fires. The Agni named Abhimini, who is the eldest born of 
Brahma, had, by Swaha, three sons of surpassing brilliancy, 
Pavaka Pavamana, and Suchi, who drinks up water : they had 
forty-five sons, who, with the original son of Brahma and his three 
descendants, constitute the forty-nine fires. According to the 
Vaya Purana, Pdvaka is electric, or Vaidyuta fire ; Pavamina is 
that produced by friction, or Nirmathyaya, and Suchi is solar, 
or Saura fire. The Bhigavata explains these different fires to be so 
many appellations of fire employed in the invocations with which 
different oblations to fire are offered in the ritual of the Vedas. 

Fire-Sacrificial — The ceremony of consecrating the fire and 
hallowing the sacrificial implements is the groundwork of all 
religious acts amongst the Hindus, and may therefore be particu- 
larly described : — " First, the priest smears with cow-dung a level 
piece of ground four cubits square, free from all impurities, and 
sheltered by a shed. Having bathed and sipped water, he sits 
down with his face towards the east, and places a vessel of water 
with hum grass on his left ; then, dropping his right knee, and 
resting on the span of his left hand, he draws with a root of kusa 
grass a line, one span or twelve fingers long, and directed towards 
the east. From the nearest extremity of this line he draws 
another at right angles to it, twenty-one fingers long, and directed 
towards the north. Upon this line he draws three others, parallel 
to the first, equal to it in length, and distant seven fingers from 
each other. The first line is really, or figuratively, made a yellow 
line, and is sacred to the earth ; the second is red, and sacred to 
fire ; the third black, and sacred to Brahma the creator ; the 
fourth blue, and sacred to Indra, the regent of the firmament ; the 
fifth white, and sacred to S6ma. He next gathers up the dust 
from the edges of these lines, and throws it away towards the 
north-east, saying, " What was [herein] bad, is cast away :" and 
he concludes by sprinkling water on the several lines. 

Having thus prepared the ground for the reception of the 
sacrificial fire, he takes a lighted ember out of the covered vessel 
which contains the fire, and throws it away, saying, " I dismiss far 
** away carnivorous fire j may it go to the realm of Yama, bearing 

FIR 21 

"sin [hence]." He then places the fire before him, saying, 
" Earth ! Sky ! Heaven !" and adding, " this other [harmless] fire 
" alone remains here ; well knowing [its office], may it convey my 
" oblation to the gods." He then denominates the fire according 
to the purpose for which he prepares it, saying, " Fire ! thou art 
named so and so ;" and he concludes this part of the ceremony by 
silently burning a log of wood, one span long and smeared with 
clarified butter. 

He next proceeds to place the Brahman or superintending priest- 
Upon very solemn occasions, a learned Brahman does actually 
discharge the functions of superintending priest; but, in general, 
a bundle containing fifty blades of hum grass is placed to represent 
the Brahman. The officiating priest takes up the vessel of water, 
and walks round the fire keeping his right side turned towards it : 
he then pours water near it, directing the stream towards the east ; 
he spreads kusa grass thereon ; and crossing his right knee over 
his left without sitting down, he takes up a single blade of grass 
between the thumb and ring finger of his left hand, and throws it 
away towards the south-west corner of the shed, saying, " What 
was herein bad, is cast away." Next, touching the water, resting 
the sole of his right foot on his left ankle, and sprinkling the grass 
with water, he places the Brahman on it, saying, "Sit on [this] seat 
until [thy] fee [be paid thee]." The officiating priest then returns 
by the same road by which he went round the fire ; and sitting 
down again with his face towards the east, names the earth 

If any profane word have been spoken during the preceding 
ceremony, atonement must be now made by pronouncing this text : 
" Thrice did Vishnu step, and at three strides traversed the 
" universe : happily was his foot placed on the dusty [earth]." 
" The meaning is, since the earth has been purified by the contact 
of Vishnu's foot, may she (the earth so purified) atone for any 
profane word spoken during this ceremony. 

If it be intended to make oblations of rice mixed with milk, 
curds, and butter, this too is the proper time for mixing them ; and 
the priest afterwards proceeds to name the earth in the following 
prayer, which he pronounces with downcast look, resting both 

214 FIR 

hands on the ground : " We adore this earth, this auspicious and 
most excellent earth : do thou, O fire ! resist [our] enemies. Thou 
dost take [on th6e] the power [and office] of other [deities]." 

With blades of kma grass held in his right hand, he must next 
strew leaves of the same grass on three sides of the fire, arranging 
them regularly, so that the tip of one row shall cover the roots of 
the other. He begins with the eastern side, and at three times 
strews grass there, to cover the whole space from north to south ; 
and in like manner distributes grass on the southern and western 
sides. He then blesses the ten regions of space ; and rising a 
little, puts some wood on the fire with a ladle-full of clarified 
butter, while he meditates in silence on Brahma, the lord of 

The priest then takes up two leaves of kiim grass, and with 
another blade of the same grass cuts off the length of a span, 
saying, " Pure leaves ! be sacred to Vishnu ;" and throws them 
into a vessel of copper or other metal. Again he takes two leaves 
of grass, and holding the tips between the thumb and ring finger 
of his right hand, and the roots between the thumb and ring finger 
of his left, and crossing his right hand over his left, he takes up 
clarified butter on the curvature of the grass, and thus silently 
casts some into the fire three several times. He then sprinkles 
both the leaves with water, and throws them away. He afterwards 
sprinkles wuth water the vessel containing clarified butter, and puts 
it on the fire, and takes it off^ again, three times, and thus concludes 
the ceremony of hallowing the butter ; during the course of 
which, while he holds the leaves of grass in both hands, he recites 
this prayer : " May the divine generator [ Vishnii] purify thee by 
means of [this] faultless pure leaf ; and may the sun do so, by 
means of [his] rays of light : be this oblation efficacious." 

The priest must next hallow the wooden ladle by thrice turning 
therein his fore-finger and thumb, describing with their tips the 
figure of 7 in the inside, and the figure of 9 on the outside of the 
bowl of the ladle. Then dropping his right knee, he sprinkles 
water from the palms of his hands on the whole southern side of 
the fire, from west to east, saying, " Aditi ! [mother of the gods !] 
grant me thy approbation." Ho does the same on the whole 

FIR 215 

western side, from south to north, saying, " A?iumati ! grant me 
thy approbation ;" and on the northern side, saying, " 8arasivati I 
grant me thy approbation." And lastly he sprinkles water all 
round the fire, while he pronounces this text, " Generous sun ! 
approve this rite ; approve the performer of it, that he may share 
its reward. May the celestial luminary, which purifies the 
intellectual soul, purify our minds. May the lord of speech make 
our prayers acceptable." 

Holding hisa grass in both hands, he then recites an expiatory 
prayer ; and throwing away the grass, he thus finishes the hallow- 
ing of the sacrificial implements : a ceremony which necessarily 
precedes all other religious rites. 

He next makes oblations to fire, with such ceremonies, and in 
such form as are adapted to the religious rite which is intended to 
to be subsequently performed. The sacrifice, with the three 
mysterious words, usually precedes and follows the particular 
sacrifice which is suited to the occasion ; being most generally 
practised, it will be the most proper specimen of the form in which 
oblations are made. 

Having silently burnt a log of wood smeared with clarified 
butter, the priest makes three oblations, by pouring each time a 
ladle-full of butter on the fire, saying, " Earth ! be this oblation 
efficacious :" " Sky ! be this oblation efficacious :" " Heaven ! 
be this oblation efficacious." On some occasions he makes a fourth 
offering in a similar mode, saying, " Earth ! Sky ! Heaven ! be 
this oblation efficacious." If it be requisite to offer a mixture of 
rice, milk, curds and butter, this is now done ; and the oblations, 
accompanied with the names of the three worlds, are repeated. 

There are five fires, which were overcome and demolished by 
Vishnu. Their names are the Ahavaniya, Gdrhapatya, Dakshina, 
Sabhya and Avasathya ; of which the three first have a religious, 
and the other two a secular character. The first is a fire prepared 
for oblations at an occasional sacrifice : the second is the household 
fire, to be perpetually maintained : the third is a sacrificial fire, in 
the centre of the other two, and placed to the south : the Sabhya 
is a fire lighted to warm a party : and the Avasathya, the common 

216 FRE 

domestic or culinary fire. Manu, iii, 100, 185, and KuUuka 
Bhatta's explanation. 

Brahmans who devote themselves to the priesthood have to 
maintain a perpetual fire. They have also to worship fire, making 
an oblation to it with this prayer : Fire ! seven are thy fuels ; 
seven thy tongues ; seven thy holy sages ; seven thy beloved 
abodes ; seven ways do seven sacrifices worship thee. Thy sources 
are seven. Be content with this clarified butter. May this 
oblation be efficacious. 

The seven tongues of fire are enumerated Fravaha^ Avaha, 
Udvahttf Samvahttf Vivaha, Farivaha, Nivaha, all of which 
imply the power of conveying oblations, to the deities to whom 
offerings are made. Fire, like the sun itself, is supposed to emit 
seven rays ; this perhaps may account for the number seven being 
so often repeated." — Colebrooke's Essays, vol, 1, p, 153. 

Free-will — The Mimdnsa philosophy in effect denies the 
doctrine of free-will ; but endeavours to reconcile the existence of 
moral evil under the government of an all-wise, all-powerful and 
benevolent Providence, with the absence of free-will, by assuming 
the past eternity of the universe, and the infinite renewals of 
worlds, into which every individual being has brought the pre-dis- 
positions contracted by him in earlier states, and so retrospectively, 
without beginning or limit. 

Gabhastimat — Oue of the niue divisions of Bharata varshd* 
Also the Dame of one of the divisions of Pat^la. 

Gachchas — On? of the peoples enumerated in the VishnU 
Puranaj but not identified. 

Gada — l, A son of Vasudeva by Bhadra ; 2, The name of 
Bhima's formidable weapon. 

Gadhi — An incarnation of Indra, born as the son of Raja 
Kusimba. Kusamba being desirous of a son, engaged in devout 
penance to obtain one who should be equal to Indra. Observing . 
the intensity of his devotions, Indra was alarmed, lest a prince of 
power like his own should be engendered, and determined therefore 
to take upon himself the character of Ku samba's son, Gadhi, the 
father of Viswamitra. 

Gahvaras — Dwellers in mountain caves. The mountains from 
Cabul to Bamian furnish numerous instances of cavern habitations* 

Gajavithi — The second division (or Vithi) of the lunar 
mansions, in the northern Avashtana. 

Galava — A Teacher of the white Yajush^ a branch of the 
Yajur Veda, imparted by the sun in the form of a horse. 

Games — There are many public games described in the various 
Puranas ; and an account of each will be found under its 
native name. 

Gananathas—Messengers of the gods. See Dutas. 

Ganapatyas—The worshippers of Ganesa, or Ganapati ; all the 
Hindus in fact, worship this deity as the obviator of impediments, 
and never set off on a journey without invoking his protection. 

Gandaki — A large river in Oude. 


218 GAN 

Gandhamadana — A high mountain south of the great mount 
Meru ; an extensive forest of the same name is placed in close 
proximity to the mountain. 

Gandhamadana— One of the generals in Rama's army at the 
siege of Lanka ; he was wounded by the magical weapons of 
Indrajit and left on the field for dead, but was restored to life by 
the medicinal herbs brought by Hanuman from the golden hill 
Rishaba, on the crest of Kailasa. Although he is represented as 
being a large and powerful monkey, he is said to have been the 
son of Ku vera, the god of wealth 

" Of Gandhamadau brave and bold 
The father was the Lord of gold." 

Gandhamojavaha — A son of Swaphalka, by his wife Gandini, 

Gandhara — A prince, the son of Aradwat, a descendant of 
Druhyu. Also, a large country in the west of the Indus, named 
after Gandhara, famous for its breed of horses ; now Kandahar. 

Gandharba — One of the nine divisions, or dwipas, of Bharata 

Gandharbas or Gandharvas~(Southey's Glendoveer's.) A 
race born from Bramhi, described in the Vishnu Parana as ** born 
imbibing melody ; drinking of the goddess of speech they were 
born, and thence their appellation." (Gam dhayantah). They 
are a species of demi-gods or angels, the musicians of heaven, 
inhabiting India loka, the paradise of the deities, and witnesses of 
the actions of men. They form the orchestra at the banquet of the 
gods. In the creation of the second Manwantani they are called 
the illustrious Gandharbas, the children of Arishti and Kasyapa. 
In the Vishnu Purana it is said, " in the regions below the earth, the 
Gandharbas, called Maneyas (or sons of the Muni Kasyapa) who 
were sixty millions in number, had defeated the tribes of the 
Nagas or snake-gods, and seized upon their most precious jewels, 
and usurped their dominion." Narmadi, the personified Nerbudda 
river, was the sister of the Nigas, and on her aid being solicited, 
ehc went to Purukutsa, and conducted him to the regions below 
i})o PHitli, wheic, beinj^ filled wKli fho mi^lif of fho dcilv. li(» 

GAN 219 

destroyed the Gandharbas- They originally belong to the latter 
Epic period, but figure more prominently in the Puranas. 

"The Gandharvas or heavenly bards had originally a warlike 
character, but were afterwards reduced to the office of celestial 
musicians cheering the banquets of the gods. Dr. Kuhn has 
shown their identity with the Centaurs in name, origin, and 
attributes." — Gorresio. 

Gandharba loka — The region of celestial spirits, the sphere or 
loka above the earth to which Sudras are elevated after death. 

Gandharba marriage — A form of wedlock requiring no 
public ceremony, but which is nevertheless, recognised in ancient 
Hindu law as legal for kings and warriors. 

Gandharba veda — The drama, and the arts of music, dancing, 
etc., of which the Muni Bharata was the author ; and the Artha 
Sastrum, or Science of Government, as laid down first by Vrihaspati. 

Gandharbi — The daughter of Surabhi, and parent of horses. 

Gandhari — The daughter of the Raja of Gandhdra, who was 
married to the Maharaja Dhritarashtra ; she blindfolded herself on 
hearing that he was blind. She was the mother of the Kauravas, 
and is represented as a woman of superior character and abilities. 
She was summoned to the Council to try to overcome the obduracy 
of her eldest son Duryodhana. The Mahabharata relates an 
affecting interview which she had with Krishna after the slaughter 
of her sons in the great war. 

Gandini — Daughter of Kasiraja : the following legend of her 
birth is told in the V. P., " when the time of delivery arrived the 
child issued not from the womb, twelve years passed away and 
still the girl was unborn. Then Kasiraja spoke to the child 
* Daughter, why is your birth thus delayed ? come forth. I desire 
to behold you ; why do you inflict this protracted suffering upon 
your mother ? Thus addressed, the infant answered, if, father, you 
will present a cow every day to the brahmans I shall at the end of 
three years more be born.' The king accordingly presented daily 
a cow to the brahmans, and at the end of three years the damsel 

220 GAN 

came into the world. Her father called her Gdndini, and he 
subsequently gave her to Swaphalka when he came to his palace. 
Gandini as long as she lived, gave a cow to the brahmans every day." 

Gandiva — The name of a miraculous bow which Aijuna received 
as a present from Agni the god of fire. 

Gandusha — One of tlie ten sons of Sura, and brother of 

Ganesa — The son of Siva and Pdrvati the god of good luck, 
^nd remover of difficulties and obstacles ; addressed at the 
commencement of all undertakings, and at the opening of all 
compositions. He is thus the patron of learning. He is called 
Gariha, as presiding over the troop of deities attendant on 
Siva — the ganas, or companies of celestials in Siva's paradise. He 
is also designated Vindyaka, the god of difficulties. Ganesa is 
represented by an outrageous figure, half-man and half-elephant, 
in a sitting posture, with a large belly. His head is that of an 
elephant, and on it he wears a crown, while his ears are adorned 
with jewels and his forehead with sacred ashes ; of his four arms 
he elevates two, holding in the left hand a rope and in the 
right an elephant goad. In his other two hands he holds in the 
right, a piece of his own elephant's tooth which he once broke 
himself in a rage, and in the left, a pancake ; he is said to be 
fond of pancakes. His image stands in almost every house, 
and is worshipped by men and women, with offerings and all 
the prescribed ceremonies, especially when they are about to 
begin something important. This eminent position was assigned 
him as a compensation for the strange head he wears, which 
was put upon his shoulders when he lost his own, in infancy, 
by a look of the celestial Sini — the Hindu Saturn. The goddess, 
seeing her child headless, was overwhelmed with grief, and would 
have destroyed Sini, but Brahma prevented her, telling Sani to 
bring the head of the first animal he should find lying with 
its head northwards. He found an elephant in this position, 
cut off its head, and fixed it on Ganesa, who then assumed the 
shape he at present wears. Durga was but little soothed when 
pl^e saw her son with an elephant's head ; but, to pacify her, 

GAN 221 

Brahma said that, amongst the worship of all the gods, that of 
Ganesa should for ever have the preference. Shop-keepers and 
others paint the name or image of this god over the doors of their 
shops or houses, expecting from his favour protection and success. 
He is worshipped especially at the commencement of a wedding, 
as well as when the bride is presented to the bridegroom. No 
public festivals, however, in honour of Ganesa are held, nor any 
temples dedicated to him in Bengal, though stone images of the 
god are worshipped in the temples on the banks of the Ganges at 

Sir William Jones calls Ganesa the god of wisdom, referring, 
as a proof, to his having an elephant's head. The Hindus, 
however, in general, consider the elephant a stupid animal ; and 
to be called "as stupid as an elephant" is a bitter taunt. He 
corresponds rather to the Roman Janus. In the south Ganesa is 
usually termed Vignesvara as he can prevent literary fame, if his 
worship be neglected. 

When Parasurdma, who was a favorite disciple of Siva, went to 
Kailasa to visit his master, on arriving at the inner apartments, 
his entrance was opposed by Ganesa, as his father was asleep. 
Parasurama nevertheless urged his way, and the parties came to 
blows. Ganesa had at first the advantage, seizing Parasurama in 
his trunk, and giving him a twirl that left him sick and senseless ; 
on recovering, Rama threw his axe at Ganesa, who recognizing it 
as his father's weapon (Siva having given it to Parasurama) 
received it with all humility upon one of his tusks, which it imme- 
diately severed, and hence Ganesa has but one tusk, and is known 
by the names Ekadanba and Ekadanshtra, (the single-tusked).— 
Wilsons Worhs, Vol. Ill, ;?. 107. 

Ganesa — A distinguished Hindu mathematician and astronomer 
who lived in a. d. 1520. 

Ganesa-upa-Purana — The main subject of this work is the 
greatness of Ganesa ; and pi-ayers and formulae appropriated to him 
are abundantly detailed. It appears to be a work originating with 
the Ganapatya sect, or followers of Ganesa. Preface to Vishnu 

222 GAN 

Ganga — The following is a brief summary of the origin of the 
Ganges, as detailed in several sections of the first part of the 
Ramayana. Ganga was the daughter of Himavat king of moun- 
tains, and given by him to the gods. 

Sagara king of Ayodhya had by one of his wives sixty thousand 
sons. Whilst performing the horse sacrifice, the horse was stolen. 
He commanded his sons to go and search for it. Not finding it on 
the earth, they dug down to Patala, where they found the horse 
feeding, and Kapila Muni near it in profound meditation. On 
being charged with the theft, he by one glance reduced them all 
to ashes. On account of their long absence, Sagara sent his 
grandson, Ansumat, to seek for them. He found their ashes, and 
the horse feeding near them. Unable to find water to pour on the 
ashes, he was directed by Kapila (who was a minor incarnation of 
Vishrm,) not to pour common water upon them, but now to take 
the horse and complete his grandfather's sacrifice ; and be assured 
that his (Ansumat's) grandson should obtain for their ashes the 
heavenly Ganges. Sagara reigned 30,000 years ; Ansumat 32,000 ; 
his son Dilipa 30,000 ; his grandson Bhagiratha intent, as his 
ancestors had been, on bringing down the Ganges, persevered in a 
long course of austerities. After 1000 years Brahma signified 
his pleasure by commanding him to ask a boon. He begged that 
the sons of Sagara might obtain water for their funeral rites ; 
that, their ashes being wetted by the celestial Ganges, they might 
ascend to heaven. Brahma granted his request on condition that 
he prevailed on Siva to break the fall of the waters ; else the earth 
would be washed away. 

By further austerities he propitiated Siva, who engaged to 
receive the goddess, and commanded her to descend. In anger 
she resolved to bear him down by her stream ; but he, aware of 
her proud resolve, detained her in his hair. When Bhagiratha 
applied to him for the waters, Siva reminded him that his request 
was only that he should " receive" the Ganges. Bhagiratha 
engaged in further austerities, and Siva being pleased with them 
discharged the waters from his locks in seven streams ; one of 
which followed the king. As he led the way in a splendid chariot. 

GAN— GAR 223 

the Ganges followed ; but, overflowing a sacrifice which Jahnu 
was performing, the enraged Muni drank up the whole, but was 
afterwards prevailed upon to discharge it from his ear. Thence 
the stream followed the king to Patala, washed the ashes, and 
liberated his ancestors the sous of Sagara. 

Gangadwara — A sacred spot near Himavan, frequented by 
the Rishis. It is the place where the Ganges descends to the 
plains, and celebrated as the scene of Daksha's great sacrifice. It 
is now called Haridwar. 

Gara — One of the five sons of Usinara, a descendant of Anu. 

Garddhabas, Garddhabhins— A race of kings in the west 
of India, but not yet satisfactorily identified, though many learned 
conjectures have been made respecting them. 

Garga — An ancient sage, who having propitiated Sesha, 
acquired from him a knowledge of the principles of astronomical 
science, of the planets, and of the good and evil denoted by the 
aspects of the heavens. He is one of the oldest writers on 
Astronomy amongst the Hindus. According to Mr. Bentley his 
Sanliita dates 548 b. c. The initiatory rites of Krishna and Rama 
were performed by the sage Garga, who was sent to Gokula by 
Vasudeva for that purpose. In the Bhagavata Garga describes 
himself as the Purohita or family priest of the Yadavas. Garga 
was also the name of one of the sous of Bhavanmanyu. 

Gargabhumi, Gargya— Two of the descendants of Alarka, 
according to the list in the Vayu Purana. 

Gargya— A disciple of Bashkali, and teacher of the Rig Veda ; 
also a Brahman, who, through arduous penance, living upon iron 
sand for twelve years, became the father of the hero Kalayavana. 

Gargya — An etymologist and grammarian of much celebrity in 
Sanscrit Literature. 

Gargyas— The descendants of Gargya, who although Kshatriyas 
by birth became Brahmans. Professor Wilson says that all the 
authorities concur in this statement ; thus furnishing an additional 
instance of one caste proceeding from another. 

224 GAR— GAU 

Garmaiias — Hindu or Buddhist priests mentioned by the 
geographer Strabo. They are represented as feeding on fruits, and 
wearing only a covering made of the bark of a tree. 

Garuda — The king of the feathered tribes and the remorseless 
enemy of the serpent race. He was the son of Kasyapa and 
Vinati. Garuda is always represented as the bird on which Vishnu 
is carried and described as something between a man and a bird. 
Garuda is the vehicle of Krishna, appearing whenever he is wanted, 
and conveying his master with incredible speed to the most distant 
localities. When Krishna recovered the jewel mountain, he placed 
it, with the umbrella of Varuna, upon Garuda, and mounting him 
himself, he set off to the heaven of the gods to restore the ear-rings 
of Aditi. Garuda is represented as a large white-necked kite or 
eagle. On the walls of many Vaishnava temples he is represented 
by the figure of a young man seated, with the palms of the hands 
closed, and fingers pointed upwards, denoting reverence. " He 
may be compared with the Simurgh of the Persians, the Anka of 
the Arabs, the Griffin of chivalry, the Phoenix of Egypt, and the 
bird that sits upon the ash Yggdrasil of the Edda."— Griffiths. 

Garuda Purana — -Professor Wilson doubts whether a genuine 
Garuda Purana exists. The one he examined contained no account 
of the birth of Garuda. Only a brief notice of the creation ; and 
the greater part being occupied with a description of Vratas, oi* 
religious observances, of holidays, of sacred places, &c. It 
contained also treatises on astrology, palmistry, precious stones, 
and medicine. 

Garutwanta — A name of Garuda. 
Gathin — The same as Gadhi, q. v. 

Gati— (Movement.) An allegorical personage, one of the 
daughters of Devahtiti, and wife of Pulaka. 

Gatra — One of the seven pure sages, a son of Vasishta* 
Gatravat — A son of Krishna by Lakshman^. 

Gauri — The name of Parvati as a girl before she became the 
bride of Siva. Also the name of a wife of Virajas. The wife of 

GAU 225 

Yuvaniswas was named Gauri, and having incurred the imprecation 
of her husband became the Bahudti river, 

Gautama Sakya Sinha— See Buddha. 

Gautama — The founder of the Nydya school of philosophy. 
Little is known of his personal history. He was born at Himalaya 
about the same time as Rama. He married Ahalya the daughter 
of Bramha, and lived as a very austere ascetic, the Rdmiyana 
states, for thousands of years, in a holy hermitage adorned with 
fruits and flowers, daily performing religious austerities. 

One day when the sage was absent from his dwelling, the mighty 
Indra passed by, and burned with an impure passion for the wife 
of Gautama ; and he entered the hut in the disguise of the sage, 
and began to entreat Ahalyd : and she, knowing him to be king of 
heaven, in the wantonness of her heart yielded to his desires. As 
he was leaving the hermitage Gautama entered, and he was 
invincible even to the gods through the power of his austerities. 
Indra was overwhelmed with sadness ; and the sage beholding the 
profligate celestial, addressed him thus j O depraved wretch, 
assuming my form you have perpetrated this great crime ! therefore 
from this moment you become a eunuch ! The sage then 
pronounced this curse upon his wife Ahalyd ; sinful wretch, for 
thousands of years shall you remain in this forest, abandoned by all 
and invisible to all, until R^ma the son of Dasaratha, shall enter 
here, and you from beholding him shall be cleansed from all sin and 
again approach me without fear. These words of the illustrious 
Gautama were all fulfilled. Ramdyana 49. For an account of 
Gautama's philosophical system, see Nyiya. 

Kum^rila says : * In the same manner, if it is said that Indra 
was the seducer of Ahalya, this does not imply that the God Indra 
committed such a crime, but Indra means the sun, and Ahaly^ 
(from ahan and li) the night ; and as the night is seduced and 
ruined by the sun of the morning, therefore is Indra called the 
paramour of Ahalyd .'-—ifcTaa; Muller, A. S. L., p, 530. 

The legend is thus versified by Mr. Grifllths : 
" This was the grove— most lovely then— 
Of Gautam, thou best of men, 


226 GAU 

Like heaven itself, most honoured by 
The Gods who dwell above the sky. 
Here with AhalyA at his side 
His fervid task the ascetic plied. 
Years fled in thousands. On a day 
It chanced the saint had gone away, 
When Town-destroying Indra came, 
And saw the beauty of the dame. 
The sage's form the God endued, 
And thus the fair Ahalya wooed : 

* Love, sweet ! should brook no dull delay. 
But snatch the moments when he may.* 
She knew him in the saint's disguise. 
Lord Indra of the Thousand eyes, 

But touched by love's unholy fire, 
She yielded to the God's desire 

* Now, Lord of Gods!' she whispered, *flee. 
From Gautam save thyself and me.' 
Trembling with doubt and wild with dread 
Lord Indra from the cottage fled ; 
But fleeing in the grove he met 
The home .returning anchoret. 
Whose wrath the Gods and fiends would shun. 
Such power his fervent rites had won. 
Fresh from the lustral flood he came. 
In splendour like the burning flame. 
With fuel for his sacred rites, 
And grass, the best of eremites. 
The Lord of Gods was sad of cheer 
To see the mighty saint so near. 
And when the holy hermit spied 
In hermit's garb the Thousand-eyed, 
He knew the whole, his fury broke 
Forth on the sinner as he spoke : 

* Because my form thou hast assumed, 
And wrought this folly, thou art doomed. 

GAU— GAY 227 

For this my curse to thee shall cling, 
Henceforth a sad and sexless thing.* 

No empty threat that sentence came, 
It chilled his soul and marred his frame, 
His might and god-like vigour fled, 
And every nerve was cold and dead, 

Then on his wife his fury burst, 
And thus the guilty dame he cursed : 
* For countless years, disloyal spouse, 
Devoted to severest vows. 
Thy bed the ashes, air thy food, 
Here shalt thou live in solitude. 
This lonely grove thy home shall be, 
And not an eye thy form shall see. 
When Rama, Da^aratha's child. 
Shall seek these shades then drear and wild, 
His coming shall remove thy stain. 
And make the sinner pure again." 

Gautama — A Prajipati ; one of the seven Eishis of the seventh 

Gavya — All that is derived from the cow ; milk and all 
preparations of or from milk ; these are proper to be offered as 
food to deceased ancestors. The sacrifice of a cow or calf formed 
part of the ancient Sraddha. It then became typical, or a bull was 
turned loose, instead of being slaughtered. 

Gaya — A son of Havirdhana by Disband a princess of the race 
of Agni ; also the name of a prince the son of Nahta, descended 
from Bharata ; also of one of the sons of Sudyumna, after his 
transformation from Ila to a man. 

Gayatri — A metre created from the eastern mouth of Bramha. 
The Gdyatri is also the holiest verse of the Vedas, not to be uttered 
to ears profane ; it is a short prayer to the sun, identified as the 
Supreme, and occurs iii the 10th hymn of the 4th section of the 
third Ashtaka of the Sanhita of the Eig Veda. 

228 GEN— GHR 

" We meditate on that excellent light of the divine sun ; may he 
illuminate our minds." Such is the fear entertained of profaning 
this text, that copyists of the Vedas not unfrequently refrain from 
transcribing it, both in the Sanhita and Bhdshya. Pious brahmans 
every morning at sunrise scatter water, purified by the mystical 
Omkara and consecrated by the Gayatri ; and by this water as by 
a thunderbolt the foul fiends are scattered. 

GentOOS— The name formerly applied by Europeans to the 
Hindus, especially to the Telugu people. 

Ghatasrinjayas — A people from the north-west, amongst the 
' warriors of the Mahibharata. 

Ghatotkacha — The son of Bhima by a R^kshasi, or female 
fiend, Hidimbi, whose brother he slew. The scene o^ these trans- 
actions was on the east of the Ganges, and the Eakshasi may 
therefore mean a princess of some of the bordering tribes east of 
Hindustan, or between Bhote and Ava ; all of whom eating meat, 
and following other impure practices, might well be considered 
Rikshasas or cannibals, by the Hindus. Heramba is in fact 
applied geographically to designate the western portion of Asam. 
Ghatotkacha was slain by Kama with the javelin he had received 
from Indra. See Kama. — Wilson's Works, Vol. Ill, p. 297. 

Ghorata — Terror. One of the properties assigned to percep- 
tible objects by the Sinkya philosophy. 

Ghosha — A son of Lambi (an arc of the heavens.) 

Ghosha — (Ghoshd.) A female mentioned in the Rig Veda to 
whom the Asvins gave a husband when she was growing old in 
her father's house. O. S. T., Vol. V., p. 247. 

Ghoshavasu — A prince, the son of Palindaka ; one of the ten 
Sungas, who governed the earth for a hundred and twelve years. 

Ghritachi— A celestial nymph, one of those frequently engaged 
in the interruption of the penances of holy sages, 

Ghritachi— The wife of Raja Kusandbha and queen of Magadha ; 
the mother of a hundred daughters, all of whom V6yu the god of 

GHR— GIR 229 

wind, wished to " forsake their mortal lot, and accompany him to 
the sky," and on their refusal. 

" He heard the answer they returned 
And mighty rage within him burned, 
On each fair maid a blast he sent 
Each stately form he bowed and bent." 

They were afterwards married to Bramhadatta, Raja of Kdmpili, 
and by this means recovered their strength and beauty, 

" Soon as the hand of each young maid 
In Bramhadatta's palm was laid. 
Deformity and cares away 
She shone in beauty bright and gay." — Griffiths. 

Ghritaprishtha— One of the ten sons of Priyavrata, according 
to the list in the Bhagavata ; which says that Priyavrata drove 
his chariot seven times round the earth, and the ruts left by the 
wheels became the beds of the oceans, separating it into seven 
Dwipas ; it is uncertain which of them was given to Ghritaprishtha. 

Ghriteya — A prince, one of the sons of Randraswa, a descendant 

Ghritasamada — A son of Suhotra, and father of Saunaka who 
first established the distinctions of the four castes. V. P. 406. 

Giri — One of the sons of Swaphalka by his wife Gandini. 

Girig^ahvaras — A race who lived in caves ; probably between 
Cabul and Eamian, but their cavern habitations have not been 
satisfactorily identified. 

Girivraja — A city in the mountainous part of Magadha near 
the wood of Dharmaranya. 

Girivraja— The city of Raja Aswapati to which Bharata and 
Satrughna were sent. The Rdja was the grandfather of the young 
princes and they were sent to him that they might be out of the 
way when it was resolved that Rama should be appointed Yuvardja 
at Ayddhya. 

230 GIT—GOK 

Gita-Govinda — Sougs of Krishna. It is also the title of 
a pastoral mythological dramatic poem in Sanscrit in praise of 
Krishna by Jayadeva. Badha is in it identified with Lakshmi. — 
Sir W. Jones. 

Gobhana — A son of Vahni, and grandson of Turvasu, whose 
line failed and merged into that of Puru, in consequence of the 
malediction denounced on his son by Yayiti, for refusing to take 
his father's infirmities on him. 

Goghuatas — A people who formerly resided in Gumanta, part 
of the Konkan about Goa. 

Godaveri — The river which still bears that name ; it is so 
called in all the Purdnas. 

Gohamukha — A mountain mentioned in the Vishnu Purina, 
but not identified. 

Gokama — A famous and venerated region near the Malabar 
Coast ; celebrated as the scene of Raja Bhagirath*8 austerities, 

"The good Bhagirath, royal sage. 
Had no fair son to cheer his age. 
He, great in glory, pure in will, 
Longing for sons was childless still. 
Then on one wish, one thought intent. 
Planning the heavenly stream's descent. 
Leaving his ministers the care 
And burden of his state to bear. 
Dwelling in far Gokarna he 
Engaged in long austerity.'* 

Gokula — The village in which the cowherd Nanda resided, 
when Krishna and Balarama were entrusted to his care, to be 
brought up as his own children, in order to escape the vengeance 
of Kansa. It was at Gokula that the female fiend Putana attempted 
the life of the child Krishna, by giving him her breast to suck ; 
the infant Krishna sucked it with such violence that he drained it 
of the life and she expired. 

GOL— GOP 231 

Gk)laka — A disciple of Sakalya, and teacher of the Rig Veda. 

Goloka— The highest world of all, and the residence of Krishna ; 
represented as indestructible while all else is subject to annihilation. 
Professor Wilson thinks this is an addition to the original system 
of seven worlds, in which we have probably some relation to the 
seven climates of the ancients, the seven stages or degrees of the 
earth of the Arabs, and the seven heavens of the Mahomedans, if 
not to the seven Amshaspends of the Parsis. Seven, suggested 
originally perhaps by the seven planets, seems to have been a 
favourite number with various nations of antiquity. Amongst the 
Hindus it was applied to a variety of sacred or mythological 
objects, which are enumerated in averse in the Hanumdns Nitaka. 
Rima is described there as piercing seven palm-trees with an arrow, 
in which other groups of seven take fright, as the seven steeds of 
the Bun, the seven spheres, the seven Munis, the seven seas, the 
seven continents and the seven mothers of the gods. 

Gomanta — A mountain in the Western Ghauts ; the name is 
also applied to the country about Goa, the Konkan, The inhabit- 
ants are sometimes termed Gomantas." 

Gomati — A river in Ayddhya or Oude. 

Gomatiputra — One of the Andhra kings, the son of Sivaswiti, 
who reigned 21 yeai's. 

Gonds, or Khonds — One of the aboriginal or non-aryan tribes 
of India who now inhabit part of Orissa. They have partially 
preserved what may be regarded as the primitive religion of 
Hindustan — a religion that has been designated devil worship, as 
they sacrifice only to demons or malignant deities. 

Gopas — Herdsman ; the designation of the inhabitants of 
Gokula, where Krishna spent his early days ; they afterwards 
emigrated to Vriudavana and were the associates of Krishna and 
Balarama, who joined heartily in whatever sports amused the sons 
of the herdsmen, 

Gopala-kakshas— Tribes of eastern India. 

Goparashtra— -The district of. cowherds, that is of Nomadic 
tribes, Gova or Kuva is an ancient name of the southern Konkan. 

232 GOP— GOV 

Gopis — The wives of the Gopas or cowherds. Their sports 
with Krishna are narrated in detail in the Vishnu Purana, as also 
in the Bhagavata, &c. The Gopis are said to have wept bitterly 
when he left Gokula for Mathura. 

Goswala — One of the five disciples of Sakalya, and teacher of 
the Rig Veda. 

Gotama — One of the twenty-eight Vyasas ; the arranger of 
the Vedas in the twentieth Dwapara. 

Gotras — Families or tribes of brahmans. The names of the 
Goti'as were liable to confusion, particularly in later times, when 
their number had become very considerable. But the respect 
which the brahmans from the very earliest time paid to their 
ancestors, and the strictness with which they prohibited marriages 
between members of the same family, lead us to suppose that the 
genealogical lists, even at the present day, furnish in their general 
outlines, a correct account of the priestly families of India. All 
Brahmanic families who keep the sacred fires are supposed to 
descend from the seven Rishis. These are : — Bhrigu, Angiras, 
VisvamitrOf Vasistha, Kasyapa, Atriy Agastya. The real ancestors, 
however, are eight iu number : — Jamadagni, Gautama^ and 
BharadvajOf Visvdmitra, Vasishta, Kasyapa, Atrif Agastya, 
The eight Gotras, which descend from these Rishis, are again 
subdivided into forty-nine Gotras, and these forty-nine branch off 
into a still larger number of families. The names gdtra, vansa, 
varga, paksha, and gana, are all used in the same sense, to express 
the larger as well as the smaller families, descended from the eight 

A Brahman, who keeps the sacrificial fire, is obliged by law to 
know to which of the forty-nine Gotras his own family belongs, 
and in consecrating his own fire he must invoke the ancestors who 
founded the Gotra to which he belongs. Each of the forty-nine 
Gotras claims one, or two, or three, or five ancestors, and the 
names of these ancestors constitute the distinctive character of 
each Gotra. Max Muller. A. S. L., p. 80. 

Gova — An ancient name of the Southern Konkan ; it may 
imply the district of cowherds, that is of Nomadic tribes. 

GOV— GRA 233 

Govardhana — A mountaiii near Mathura. The Vishrin 
Puraua states tliat Krishna thus addressed the Gopus : Cattle and 
mountains are our gods. Brahmans offer worship with prayer ; 
cultivators of the earth adore their landmarks, but we, who tend our 
herds in the forests and mountains, should worship them and our 
kine. Let prayers and offerings then be addressed to the mountain 
Govardhana, and kill a victim in due form." * ♦ ♦ * 
accordingly the iuhabitauts of Yraja worshipped the mountain, 
presenting to it curds and milk and flesh : and they fed thousands 
of brahmans who came to the ceremony. Indra, offended by the 
loss of his offerings, caused a heavy rain to deluge Gokula. 
Krishna then to calm the troubled cowherds held up the mountain 
Govardhana as a large umbrella to shelter them and their cattle. 
For seven days and nights it rained incessantly at Gokula, but the 
inhabitants were protected by the elevation of the mountain. The 
threats of Indra having been fruitless, Krishna restored the great 
mountain to its original site. Professor Wilson says that it seems 
not unlikely that this legend has some reference to the caves or 
cavern temples in various parts of India. A remarkable represen- 
tation of it occurs upon the sculptured rocks of Mahabalipur. 

Govinda — A name of Krishna, given to him by Indra after 
having preserved the cattle by raising the mountain Govardhana. 
Govinda is he who knows, finds, or tends cattle. As the Indra of 
the cows he was called Govinda. Pilgrims invoke Govinda when 
travelling to Tripati, &c. 

Govithi — A division of the lunar mansions : in the Central or 
Jaradgava Avasthaua. 

Gramadevatas — Tutelar deities which are supposed to protect 
the fields, villages and towns from evil spirits ; and to ward off all 
sorts of plagues, famine, pestilence, war, conflagration, and inunda- 
tion, and are, in short, regarded as beings Avho can avert much 
evil, though they may not be able to bestow positive blessings. 
It is probable they are the gods worshipped by the Aborigines 
when the Aryans first came to India. In Southern India the 
Gramadevatas properly so called are Ayenar, with his two wives 

234 GRA—GRI 

Puranic and Pudkalai ; Ellamma, Mariamma, Ankalamma, Bha- 
drakali, Pidari, Clidmuudi, and Durga. 

Gramanis — The seven attendants on the sun's car ; the agents 
in the distribution of cold, heat, and rain at their respective 
season. They are also called Yakshas. 

Grammar — The Hindus and the Greeks are the only two 
nations in the whole history of the world which have conceived 
independently, and without any suggestions from others, the two 
sciences of Logic and Grammar,* Carefully collecting the facts 
brought to light by critical and pains-taking observation, they 
have elaborated a system of Grammar, of gigantic dimensions, far 
surpassing anything that has ever been effected, in this branch of 
study, in any country or age of the world. Their greatest and 
most brilliant champion, in this science, is Panini : yet many other 
grammarians helped to rear the stupendous fabric which now 
excites the admiration of mankind. And while they emulated the 
genius of the Greeks in generalising upon the results of their 
observations, they far outshine them in the correctness and extent 
of their investigations.f See Pdnini. 

Grantha — In the later literature of India, Grantha was used for 
a volume, and in granthakuti, a library, we see clearly that it has 
that meaning. But in the early literature, grantha does not mean 
pustaka, or book ; it means simply a composition as opposed to a 
traditional work. 

Gridhrika — A daughter of Kasyapa and his wife Tamra, the 
parent of vultures. 

Grihastha — A houseliolder ; his duties are thus defined in the 
Vishnu Purana. " When the scriptural studies appropriate to the 
student have been completed, and he has received dismissal from 
his Guru, let the regenerate man enter into the order of the house- 
holder ; and taking unto himself, with lawful ceremonies, house, 
wife, and wealth, discharge to the best of his ability the duties of 
Ills station ; satisfying the manes with funeral cakes ; the gods 

* Max Muller. + Sherring. 

GUD— GUH 235 

with oblations ; guests with hospitality ; the sages with holy 
study ; the progenitors of mankind with progeny ; the spirits with 
the residue of oblations ; and all the world with words of truth. 
A householder secures heaven by the faithful discharge of these 
obligations. There are those who subsist upon alms, and lead an 
erratic life of self-denial, at the end of the term during which 
they have kept house. They wander over the world to see the 
earth, and perform their ablutions, with rites enjoined by the 
Vedas, at sacred shrines : houseless, and without food, and resting 
for the night at the dwelling at which they arrive in the evening, 
The householder is to them a constant refuge and parent ; it is his 
duty to give them a welcome, and to address them with kindness ; 
and to provide them, whenever they come to his house, with a bed, 
a seat, and food. A guest disappointed by a householder, who 
turns away from his door, transfers to the latter all his own 
misdeeds, and bears away his religious merit. In the house of a 
good man, contumely, arrogance, hypocrisy, repining, contradic- 
tion, and violence arc annihilated : and the householder who fully 
performs this his chief duty of hospitality is released from every 
kind of bondage, and obtains the highest of stations after death." 

Gudaras — A class of mendicants, deriving their name from a 
pan of metal, which they carry about with them, containing fire 
for burning scented woods at the house of those from whom they 
receive alms. They do not solicit alms directly, but repeat the 
word Alakh, " invisible" expressive of the indescribable nature 
of the deity. 

Guha — The Raja of the Bhils who welcomed Rdma at 
Sringavera, the border town between the kingdom of Kosala and 
the country of the Bhils. After entertaining Rama with great 
liberality, the Raja provided a well-furnished boat in which his 
distinguished guest crossed the Ganges. He also afforded great 
assistance to Bharata when proceeding to the hermitage of 
Bharadw^ja in search of Rama. 

Guhas— The kings of Kalinga and Mahendra ; some parts of 
Orissa and Berar. 

236 GUH— GUR 

Guhyas — The name of a class of demigods who attend on 
Kuvera the god of wealth, and whose city is Alakapura. 

Guna — Quality, virtue, excellence. A property of all created 
beings ; three are particularized, the 

1 . Satwa, principles of truth or existence. 

2. Rdja, passion or foulness. 

3. Tamas, darkness or ignorance. 

Gupta — A name said in the Vishnu Puriua to be suited to 
Vaisyas and Sudras. 

Guptas — A race of kings who reigned in Magadha. They were 
Rajas of the Vaisya caste. Of the existence and power of the 
Guptas we have recently had ample proofs from inscriptions and 
coins, as in the Chandragupta and Samudragupta of the Allahabad 
column, etc., in all which the legends are written in a character 
prior to the use of the modern Devanagiri and was current probably 
about the 5th century of our era. See Vislmu Parana, p. 480. 

Guru — " A spiritual preceptor occupying in some measure the 
place of the confessor of the middle ages. He is regarded as a 
representative and vehicle of divine power, and therefore entitled 
to receive the most implicit obedience from his disciples. The 
Gurus are a class of priests carefully to be distinguished from the 
Purohita, who is a sort of domestic chaplain and must be married. 
The Gurus generally live in celibacy, though some are married. 
Each caste and sect has its particular Guru, who may be either a 
Brahman or a Siidra, and who exercises great authority and 
influence. He superintends those under his jurisdiction and 
enforces the observance of the rules and customs of the sect. He 
can expel from caste, and some Gurus can restore those who have 
been expelled. All Gurus do not possess equal authority. There 
is a gradation amongst them and the inferior Gurus frequently 
derive their power from the superior, and are sometimes deposed 
by them and others appointed. 

When the people come into the presence of the Guru, they make 
the SashtSnga, i. e., prostration of the eight members, aud this, 

GUR 237 

when followed by the Guru's Asirvada, i. e., benediction, is efFectual 
for the remission of all sins. The look even of a Guru has the 
same efficacy. The Prasada, i.e., the present which the Guru 
confers upon his disciples consists in things otherwise of small 
value, such as a portion of cow-dung ashes, to beautify the 
forehead, flowers that were previously offered up to idols, the 
crumbs from his meals, or the water in which he had washed his 
feetf which is preserved and sometimes drunk by those who 
receive it. These and other things of like nature coming from 
their holy hands, possess the virtue of purifying body and soul 
from all uucleauness. 

But if the benediction of the Guru and the other little tokens of 
his favour, which he bestows on his disciples, have so wonderful 
an influence in attracting the respect and reverence of the populace, 
his curse is thought to be not less powerful, and fills them with 
terror and awe. The Hindus are persuaded that it never fails to 
take eflect, whether justly or unjustly incurred. Their books are 
full of stories which seem to have been invented for the express 
purpose of inspiring this belief; and, to add greater force to it, the 
attendants of the Guru, who are interested in the success of the 
impostor's game, do not fail to recount many marvellous stories 
respecting him, of which they pretend to have been eye-witnesses ; 
and to avoid any possibility of detection, they lay the scene of the 
miracles in some distant country. 

The Gurus, in general, rank as the first and most distinguished 
order of society. Those who are elevated to this great dignity, 
receive, in most cases, marks of reverence or rather of adoration 
which are hardly rendered to the gods themselves. But this is not 
surprising when it is understood that the power of controlling the 
gods is generally attributed to them, by which it is supposed they 
have the means of obtaining whatsoever the deities can bestow. 

As a rule, the Gurus reside in a kind of monasteries or insulated 
hermitages, named Matas. The place of residence of the principal 
Gurus is commonly called Simhasana, z. e., throne, and that of the 
inferior ones Pitha, i.e., seat. 

The great Gurus never appear in public except with great 
pomp ; but It is when they proceed to a visitation of their district 

238 GUR 

that they are seen surrounded with their whole splendour. They 
commonly make the procession on the back of an elephant, or 
seated in a rich palanquin. Some of them have a guard of horse, 
and are surrounded with troops both cavalry and infantry, armed 
with pikes and other weapons. Several bands of musicians 
precede them playing on all the instruments of the country. Flags 
in all the varieties of colour wave round them, adorned with the 
pictures of their gods. Some of their officers take the lead, singing 
odes in their praise, or admonishing the spectators to be prepared 
to pay the mighty Guru, as he comes up, the honor and reverence 
which are due to him. Incense and other perfumes are burnt in 
profusion ; new cloths are spread before him on the road. Boughs 
of trees, forming triumphal arches, are expanded in many places on 
the way through which he passes. Bands of young women, the 
dancing girls of the temples, relieve each other, and keep up with 
the procession, enlivening it with lewd songs and lascivious dances. 

During the visitation, their principal object is to amass money. 
Besides the fines which are levied from persons guilty of offences 
or any breaches of the ceremonies of the caste or sect, they often 
rigorously exact from their adherents a tribute to the utmost extent 
of their means. This is called Pada-kauika, r. e., feet offering. 
There is no affront or indignity which the Gurus are not disposed 
to inflict on any disciple, who fails, either from inability or 
unwillingness, to produce the sum at which he is rated, and in the 
last resort, they threaten to inflict the curse. And such is the 
credulity of the Hindu, and such is the dread of the evils ho 
supposes to spring from the malediction of a Guru, that this 
extreme denunciation seldom fails to exact the payment. 

The dignity of Gui*u descends, among the married, from father 
to son ; but upon the death of one who has lived single, a successor 
is appointed by some one of the grand Gurus, who, in the exercise 
of this power, generally nominates one of his own dependants."^ 
Abbe Dubois, 

Haihaya, Haya — Two princes of the Yddava race, the sons of 
Satajit, the family in which Krishna was born. 

Haihayas— Descendants of Yadu. They conquered Bahu, and 
his country was overrun by them, in consequence of which he fled 
into the forests with his wives. The Haihayas were afterwards 
ahnost destroyed by Sagara, the posthumous son of Bahu. There 
were five great divisions of the Haihaya tribe ; but from their 
common ancestor Yadu they are usually termed Yadavas. These 
tribes only appear after the Christian era. They are thought to 
be of Scythian origin. The word haya, a horse, is confirmatory 
evidence of tliis. 

Haitakas — Causalists ; either the followers of the Nyaya or 
logical philosophy, or Bauddhas, those Avho take nothing upon 
authority, and admit nothing that cannot be proved ; or it is 
explained, those who by argument cast a doubt upon the efficacy 
of acts of devotion. 

Hala — A prince, the son of Arishtakarman, one of the thirty 
Andhrabhritya kings, whose united reigns amounted to four 
hundred and fifty-six years. 

Hansa— A mountain in the north of Meru ; projecting from its 
base like a filament from the root of the lotus. V. P. 

Hanuman — l. The son of the wind, or as he is sometimes 
represented, an incarnation of Vayu the god of the wind. He 
was the chief general of the monkey king Sugriva, who assisted 
Rama in his war with the giant R^vana. When Rama was in 
distress at the loss of his wife Sita, Hanuman was employed as 
a spy ; and, after many researches discovered that Sita was 
kept a close prisoner in Lanka. Four armies of monkeys and 
bears were dispatched, but only that to the south, under the 
command of Hanuman, met with any success, and brought back 
tidings of the lost Sita. The story of Hanuman 's adventures in 

240 HAN 

Lanka is one of the best sustained efforts of pure imagination to 
be found in the Ramayana. The exploits of the vast monkey 
hero, who could swell himself to the size of a mountain, or dwarf 
himself to the size of a man's thumb ; are narrated in a Baron 
Munchausen style, sometimes ludicrous, sometimes almost sublime. 
The following incidents may be mentioned : 

When Hanuman arrived at the sea-shore, opposite Ceylon, 
several of his companions offered to leap across, but Hanuman 
alone was equal to so great a leap. 

" Then by Sampati's counsel led 
Brave Hanuman who mocked at dread. 
Sprang at one wild tremendous leap, 
Two hundred leagues across the deep." 

Having discovered Sita in a grove of asoka trees attached to 
Ravana's palace, he gave proofs of his supernatural strength, and 
was then conducted into the presence of the king, where he 
announced himself as the ambassador of his master, king Sugrivu, 
who demanded the restoration of Sita on behalf of Rama. This so 
irritated Ravana fhat he ordered Hanuman to be put to death, but 
Vibhishana, Ravana's brother, reminded him that the life of an 
ambassador was always sacred. It was therefore decided that he 
should be punished by having his tail set on fire. Hanuman then 
escaped from his guards, jumped on the house-tops with his 
burning tail, and set the whole city on fire. After having satisfied 
himself that Sita had not perished in the conflagration, and exhorted 
her to maintain her spirits and firmness, he bade her adieu, and 
sprang from a mountain which staggered under the shock and 
sank into the earth. He then darted through the air, rejoined his 
companions on the opposite coast, and recounted to them the 
narrative of his adventures. When the monkeys returned to 
Sugriva, Riraa learnt the hiding-place of Sita. Hanuman described 
his interview with her, and to attest the truth of his story, gave 
Sita's token to Rama, who praised the monkey general, enquired 
about the fortifications of Lanka, and soon marched southwards, 
attended by Hanuman and the monkey army, to fight for Sita's 

HAN 241 

In the course of the battle when Indrajit the bravest of the sons 
of Ravana, had, by means of magical weapons, inflicted terrible 
wounds on all the leaders of Raraa*s army, Hanumat flew to the 
Himalaya mountains for four medicinal herbs by which the dead 
and wounded might be restored ; but the divine plants suspected 
his object, and rendered themselves invisible. Upon this the 
irritated monkey chief tore up the mountain peak and carried it 
with all its contents into the camp of Rama and Lakshmana ; who 
with all the dead and wounded generals were instantly restored 
by the exhalations issuing from the healing plants. 

When Lakshmana was dangerously wounded, the physician 
Sushena said that a celebrated medicinal plant (mahaushadi), 
growing on the northern mountain Gandha-madana, would cure 
him, Hanuman undertook to fetch it and accordingly flew there. 
As he passed over Ayodhya and Nandigramu he was observed by 
Bharata, who seeing a strange object in the sky prepared to shoot 
it ; but Hanuman descended, and arresting the arrow, gave 
"Bharata tidings of his brothers. On reaching the mountain 
Gandha-madana, he was attacked by a terrible Rakshasa named 
Kala-nemi, who had been sent by Ravana to kill Hanuman. This 
demon first took the form of an anchorite, and persuaded Hanuman 
to drink some water out of a lake where there was a monstrous 
crocodile. Hanuman, however, killed both the crocodile and Kala- 
nemi, and afterwards destroyed 30,000 gandharvas who attacked 
him. He then looked about for the plant, and not finding it, took 
up the whole mountain bodily in his arms, and deposited it, with 
its rocks, metals, forests, lions, elephants, and tigers, at the feet of 
Sushena, who knew well where to look for the plant, gathered it, 
and made Lakshmana breathe its healing exhalations. Hanuman 
then restored the mountain to its place, killing with his feet and 
tail more Rakshasas who attacked him on his way while he carried 
the mountain, and was unable to use his hands. 

When Ravana was at last killed Hanuman was sent by Rama 
with a message to Sita, and subsequently sent to announce his 
return to Bharata.* 

* Williams ; Indian Epic Poetry. A. and M. I. 


242 HAR 

" Hanuman, best of monkey kiud, 
AVas son of him who breathes the wind, 
Like thunderbolt in frame was he, 
And swift as Garud's self could flee." 

Hanuman is now regarded as a demi-god, and his whole race as 
sacred ; and because of this monkeys are allowed to multiply 
indefinitely, and commit mischief of every kind, no one being 
willing to interfere with them. 

Hara — One of the eleven Rudras. Also a name of Siva, 
meaning the supremely powerful. 

Hari — A name of Vishnu, as to the origin of which nothing is 

Hari-hara-putra — Vishnu, Siva's son, because he is said to 
owe his origin to the union of Siva and Vishnu in a female form, 
called Mohini. A name of Ayenar, the chief male deity among 
the Gramadevatas. See Ayenar. 

Harikesa — The name of one of the seven solar rays. 
Haris — A class of deities in successive Manwantaras. 

Harischandra — The son of Trisanku, king of Ayodha, a Hindu 
king of the Solar dynasty, a descendant of Ikshwaku, and a 
prominent person in the legendary history of ancient India. In 
the Aitareya Brahmana he is described as a king without a sou, 
though he had a hundred wives. In his house lived, Parvata and 
Nirada. He asked Narada * Tell me what do people gain by a sou 
whom they all wish for ?' 

Being asked by one verse, Narada replied in ten verses : 

* If a father sees the face of a son, born alive, ho pays a debt in 
him, and goes to immortality. 

* The pleasure which a father has in his son is greater than all 
the pleasures that arc from the earth, from the fire, and from the 

* Always liave the fathers overcome the great darkness by a 
sou ; for a self is born from his self; it (the new-born self, (he 
»on) itt like a ship, full of food, to curry him over. 

HAR 243 

* What is the flesh ? What is the skiu ? What are the hairs ? 
What the heat ? Try to get a son, you Brahmans ; he is undoubt- 
edly the world. 

* Food is life for men, clothing is protection, gold is beauty, 
cattle is strength. His wife is a friend, his daughter is a pity ; 
but the son is his light in the highest world. 

* As husband he embraces a wife, who becomes his mother, 
when he becomes her child. Having been renewed in her, he is 
born in the tenth month. 

* A wife is a wife (jaya) because man is born (jayate) again in 
her. She is a mother (abhuti) because she brings forth (abhuti) ; 
a germ is hidden in her. 

* The gods and the old ages brought great light unto her. The 
gods said to men : " In her you will be born again." 

* There is no life for him who has no son, this the animals also 

* The path which those follow who have sons and no sorrows, 
is widely praised and happy. Beasts and birds know it, and they 
have young ones everywhere.' 

Having thus spoken, he said to him : ' Go to Varuna the king, 
and say : May a son be born to me, and I shall sacrifice him to 
you.' The king assented, he went to Varuna the king, and said : 
* May a sou be born to me and I shall sacrifice him to you.' 
Varuna said, * Yes.' A son was born to him, called Rohita. 
Then Varuna said to Harischandra : ' A son is born to thee, 
sacrifice him to me.' Harischandra said : * When an animal is 
more than ten days old, it can be sacrificed. May he be older than 
ten days and I shall sacrifice him to you.' 

Varuna assented. The boy was more than ten days old, and 
Varuna said : * He is older now than ten days, sacrifice him to me.' 
Harischandra said : ' When an animal's teeth come, then it can be 
sacrificed. May his teeth now come, and I shall sacrifice him to 

Varuna assented. His teeth came, and Varuna said : His teeth 
have come, sacrifice him to me.' Harischandra said : ' When an 

244 HAR 

animal's teeth fall out, then it can be sacrificed. May his teeth 
fall out, and I shall sacrifice him to you.' 

Varuna assented ; his teeth fell out, and Varuna said : * His 
teeth have fallen out, sacrifice him to me.' Harischandra replied : 

* When an animal's teeth come again, then it can be sacrificed. 
May his teeth come again, and I shall sacrifice him to you.' 

Varuna assented : His teeth came again, and Varuna said ; * His 
teeth have come again, sacrifice him to me.' Harischandra said : 

* When a warrior (kshatriya) is girt with his armour, then he can 
be sacrificed. May he be girt, and I shall sacrifice him to you.' 

Varuna assented. He was girt, and Varuna said : * He has 
been girt, let him be sacrificed to me.' 

Harischandra assented. He addressed his son and said : * Child, 
he gave you to me ; Death ! that I sacrifice you to him.' The 
son said, ' No !' took his bow, and went to the forest, and lived 
there for a year. 

And Varuna seized Harischandra, and his belly swelled. This 
Rohita heard and went from the forest to the village (grama). 
Indra, in the form of a man, went round him, and said : * For a 
man who does not travel about there is no happiness, thus we have 
heard, O Rohita ! A good man who stays at home is a bad man. 
Indra is the friend of him who travels. Travel.' 

Rohita thought, a Brahman has told me to travel, and thus he 
travelled a second year in the forest. When he went from the 
forest to the village, Indra, in the form of a man, went round him, 
and said : 

* A traveller's legs are like blossoming branches, he himself 
grows and gathers the fruit. All his wrongs vanish, destroyed by 
his exertion on the road. Travel !' 

Rohita thought, a Brahman has told me to travel, and thus he 
travelled a third year in the forest. When he went from the 
forest to the town, Indra, in the form of a man, went round him, 
and said : 

» The fortune of a man who sits, sits also ; it rises, when he 

HAR 245 

rises ; it sleeps, when he sleeps ; it moves well when he moves. 
Travel !' 

Rohita thought, a Brahman has told me to travel, and thus he 
travelled a fourth year in the forest. When he went from the 
forest to the town, Indra, in the form of a man, went round him, 
and said : 

* A man who sleeps is like the Kali age ; a man who awakes is 
like the Dvapara age ; a man who rises is like the Treta age ; a 
man who travels is like the Krita age. Travel !' 

Rohita thought, a Brahman has told me to travel, and thus he 
travelled a fifth year in the forest. When he went from the forest 
to the town, Indra, in the form of a man, went round him, and said : 

' A traveller finds honey, a traveller finds sweet figs. Look at 
the happiness of the sun, who travelling never tires. Travel !' 

Rohita thought, a Brahman has told me to travel, and thus he 
travelled a sixth year. He met in the forest a starving Rishi, 
Ajigarta, the son of Suyavasa. He had three sons, Sunahpuccha, 
Sunahsepha, and Sunolangula. Rohita said to him : * Rishi, I 
give you a hundred cows, I ransom myself with one of these thy 
sons.' The father embraced the eldest son, and said : ' Not him.' 
* Nor him,' said the mother, embracing the youngest. And the 
parents bargained to give Sunahsepha, the middle son. Rohita 
gave a hundred, took him, and went from the forest to the village. 
And he came to his father, and said : * Father, Death ! I ransom 
myself by him.' The father went to Varuna, and said : * I shall 
sacrifice this man to you.' Varuna said, ' Yes, for a Brahman is 
better than a Kshatriya.' And he told him to perform a Rajasuya 
sacrifice. Harischandra took him to be the victim for tlie day, 
when the Soma is spent to the gods. 

Visvamitra was his Hotri priest, Jamadagni his Adhvaiyu 
priest, Vasishtha, the Brahman, Ayasyu^ the Adyatri priest. 
When Sunahsepha had been prepared, they found nobody to bind 
him to the sacrificial post. And Ajigarta, the son of Suyavasa 
said : * Give me another hundred, and I shall bind him.' They 
gave him another hundred, and he bound him, When he had 

246 HAR 

been prepared and bound, when the Apri hymns had been sung, 
and he had been led round the fire, they found nobody to kill him. 
And- Ajigarta, the son of Suyavasa said: * Give me another 
hundred, and I shall kill him/ They gave him another hundred, 
and he came whetting his sword.- Then Sunahsepha thought, 
* They will really kill me, as if I was not a man. Death ! I shall 
pray to the gods.' He went with a hymn to Prajdpati (Lord of 
the world), the first of gods. Prajapati said to him : * Agni (fire) 
is the nearest of gods, go to him. He went with a hymn to 
Agni, and Agni said to him : * Savitri (the progenitor) rules all 
creatures, go to him.' He went with a hymn to Savitri, and 
Savitri said to him : * Thou art bound for Varuna the king,' and 
Varuna said to him : * Agni is the mouth of the gods, the kindest 
god, praise him, and we shall set thee free.' Thus he praised 
Agni, and Agni said to him : Praise the Visve Devah, and we 
shall set thee free.' Thus he praised the Visve Devah, and they 
said to him : * Indra is the greatest, mightiest, strongest, and 
friendliest of the gods, praise him, and we shall set thee free.' 
Thus he praised Indra, and Indra was pleased, and gave him in 
his mind a golden car, which Sunahsepha acknowledged by 
another verse. Indra said to him : * Praise the Asvinau, and we 
shall set thee free.' Thus he praised the Asvinau, and they said to 
him : * Praise Ushas (dawn), and we shall set thee free.' Thus 
he praised Ushas with three verses. While each verse was 
delivered, his fetters were loosed, and Harischandra's belly grew 
smaller, and when the last verse was said, his fetters were loosed, 
and Harischandra well again." A. S. L., p. 408-414. 

Harischandra is represented in all the legends as a king of great 
uprightness. The following story illustrates this. Once when all 
the gods and Rishis were assembled in Deveudra's audience 
chamber, the latter asked Vasishtha, whether he knew of any one 
among men on earth who did never lust after another's wife, nor 
speak a lie ; to which the Rishi replied : *' Yes, there is a disciple 
of mine, king Harischandra, he never spoke a lie." On hearing 
this Visvamitra called out : " Harischandra is a deceiver and liar.'* 
Then said Vasishtha : " If Harischandra is found to speak the least 
untruth, I will cease to be a Rishi and to come into this assembly," 

HAR 247 

" Well," answered Visvamitra, " if I find him altogether truthful, 
I will give him all the merit of my penance ; but I am afraid, you 
will at once tell him that I am about to try him." Upon this 
Vasishtha took an oath, that he would not at all go near the king 
till the matter was settled ; and Visvamitra went to Harischandra 
and tempted him in different ways, more especially through women, 
to speak an untruth ; but the king did not swerve from the truth. 
At last the Rishi asked him far a large sum of money, and having 
received it, he returned it to him with the request to take care of 
it till he would require it. After a very long time Visvamitra 
came and desired all the money, together with compound interest, 
which amounted to a sum exceeding the value of his kingdom ; 
but Harischandra, in order to pay the sum, sold all he had, 
and also himself together with his wife and son. Subsequently 
he was separated from his wife Satyavati, and employed to burn 
corpses. Then, behold, one day, there comes a woman to have her 
dead child burnt, and he recognizes her as his wife by her Tiili 
(the marriage-badge) ; which he requires of her as his wages for 
burning the child, and which she will not give away. While they 
yet talk, there come messengers to seize the v oman, because she 
was suspected of having kidnapped a royal prince who happened 
to be very similar to her child. Being found guilty, she is 
condemned to death, and Harischandra is ordered to behead her ; 
and he is ready to obey : but, behold, suddenly the sword is turned 
into flowers, the child becomes alive, and the royal couple are 
restored to their former glory." 

In consequence he was elevated with his subjects to heaven, 
from whence, having been insidiously led by Narada to boast of his 
merits, he was again precipitated. His repentance of his pride, 
however, arrested his downwards descent, and he and his train 
paused in mid-air. The city of Harischandra is popularly believed 
to be at times still visible in the skies. The indignation of 
Vasishtha at Viswamitra's insatiablcness produced a quarrel, in 
which their mutual imprecations changed them to two birds, the 
Sarali, a sort of Turdus, and the Baka, or Crane. In these forms 
they fought for a considerable term, until Brahma interposed, and 
reconciled them, The Bh^gavata alludes to this story, in its notice 

248 HAR 

of Harischaudra ; but the Vayu refers the conflict to the reign of 
a different prince : According to the Siva Parana, Harischandra 
was an especial worshipper of that deity ; and his wife Satyavati 
was a form of Jay a, one of Durga's handmaids. 

Harisrava — A river mentioned in the Vishnu Parana but not 

Harita — A prince the son of Yuvanaswa from whom tlie 
Aug] rasa Haritas were descended ; also a grandson of Harischandra ; 
one of the five sons of Paravrit, and king of Videha. 

Haritas— The descendants of Harita, the son of Yuvanaswa. 
They were brahmans with the properties of Kshatriyas. 

Haritas — A clas^ of gods in the twelfth Manwantara ; one of 
the tribes of Aborigines, who occupy the hills and jungles. 

Haritaswa — A son of Sudyumua after his transformation from 
Ila into a man. \ 

Hari Vansa — '^he last portion of the Mahabharata, and 
believed to be a coiAparatively recent addition to that work. It is 
chiefly occupied with the adventures of Krishna, but, as introductory 
to his era it records particulars of the creation of the world, and of 
the patriarchal and i-egal dynasties ; done, says Professor Wilson, 
with much carelessness and inaccuracy of compilation. 

Hari-Varsha — A country to the north of Hemakuta and south 
of Nishadha. Also, the name of the nine sous of Aguiothra, 
king of Nishadha. 

Harsha — (Joy). A son of Kama (Love) by his wife Naudi 

Harsha Deva — A king of Kashmir who reigned between a. d. 
1113 and 1125, and the reputed author of the play called 
"Ratuavali, or the necklace," translated by Wilson, in the 
Hindu Theatre. 

Harshavarddhana— A prince, the son of Yajuakrit, one of 
the descendants of Ksliattravriddha. 

HAR 249 

Haryaksha — One of the five sons of Prithu, according to the 
Bhagavata enumeration. 

Haryanga — A prince, the son of Champa one of the 
descendants of Anu. Champa was the founder of Champapuri, a 
city of which traces still remain in the vicinity of Bhagulpur. 

Haryaswa — The sou and successor of Dridhaswa. Dridhaswa 
was one of the three sons of Kuvalayaswa who survived the 
conflict with the Asura Dhundu, all the others, to the extent of 
twenty thousand nine hundred and uinety-seven, having perished. 

Haryaswa was also the name of a son of Prishadaswa ; of 
a son of Drishtaketu ; and of a son of Chakshu. 

Haryaswas — In the Vishnu Purana it is stated that Daksha, 
being commanded by Bramha, created living creatures. The 
creation and disappearance of the Haryaswas is thus described. 
" In the first place he willed into existence the deities, the Rishis, 
the quiristers of heaven, the Titans, and the snake-gods. Finding 
that his will-borh progeny did not multiply themselves, he 
determined, in order to secure their increase, to establish sexual 
intercourse as the means of multiplication. For this purpose he 
espoused Asikui, the daughter of the patriarch Virana, a damsel 
addicted to devout practices, the eminent supportress of the world. 
By her the great father of mankind begot five thousand mighty 
sons, through whom he expected the world should be peopled, 
Narada, the divine Rishi, observing them desirous to multiply 
posterity, approached them, and addressed them in a friendly tone : 
' Illustrious Haryaswas, it is evident that your intention is to 
beget posterity ; but first consider this : why should you, who, like 
fools, know not the middle, the height, and depth of the world, 
propagate offspring ? When your intellect is no more obstructed by 
interval, height, or depth, then how, fools, shall ye not all behold 
the term of the universe ?' Having heard the words of Narada, 
the sons of Daksha dispersed themselves through the regions, and 
to the present day have not returned ; as rivers that lose themselves 
in the ocean come back no more." 

Haryatma— Called also Uttama, the Vyasa of the twenty-first 


250 HAS— HEM 

Hasta — A lunar mansion in Govitlii, iu the Central Avashtliana. 

Hastin — The son of Suhotra and founder of the city of 

Hastinapura — Is the name of the ancient capital of the Kurus, 
frequently mentioned in the Mahabharata. The Vishnu Purana 
relates that it was founded by Hastin, washed away by the Ganges — 
under the reign of Nichakra, who, in consequence of this event, 
had to remove the seat of his government to Kausambi — and 
at a later period it was undermined by Balarama. It was situated 
on the Ganges, and is placed by Lassen, in his map to the Indische 
Alterthuns Kunde^ about 78° long, and 28° 50' lat. 

Hastisima — A river mentioned iu the Vishnu Purana list, but 
not identified. 

Ha virbha— (Oblation-born). The wife of the Eishi Pulastya, 
and mother of Agastya. 

Havirdhana— The son of Antarddhana by his wife Sikhandinl. 

Havishmantas — A class of Pitris, of the corporeal order, 
living in the solar sphere, sons of Angiras, and Pitris of Kshatriyas. 
See Pitris. 

Havya — According to the Vayu Purana, one of the five sons of 
Atri after his penance. 

Havyavahana— The fire of the gods, the son of Suchi. 

Hayasiras — The daughter of Vrishaparvan, the renowned 
Danava, and wife of Kratu. 

Hema — The son of Ushadratha, a descendant of Yayati. Also 
the name of a river in the Vishnu Purana. 

Hemachandra~l, The king of Vaisali, a place celebrated 
amongst the Buddhists as the chief seat of the labours of Sakhya 
and his first disciples— now Allahabad ; 2, A zealous and able 
propagator of the Jain doctrines in the twelfth century. He was 
well versed in the peculiarity of the system which he taught, and 
may be regarded as a safe guide. He was the author of a useful 
vocabulary termed the Abhidana Chintamaiii, and of a life of 
MaJia VWa. Wilson. 

HEM— HIN 251 

Hemakuta — One of the boundary mountains of the earth, lying 
to the south of Meru. 

Hermit — See Vanaprastha. 

Heti — A Rakshas, that always resides in the sun's car during 
the month of Madha or Chaitra, as one of its seven guardians. 

Hidimba — A hideous Asura and cannibal, with yellow eyes 
and a horrible aspect, but possessed of great strength. He lived 
in the jungle south of Varan^vata, and attacked the Pandavas on 
their march, but was killed by Bhima after a severe contest. 

Hidimbi — The sister of the above who is described as beautiful, 
and was afterwards married to Bhima. 

Himavat — The king of mountains. Part of the snowy range. 
The well-known range of mountains now called the Himalaya, 
forming the northern barrier of the Indian peninsula, containing 
the highest elevations in the world. The Imiis or Emodus of 
classical writers. In Mythology Himavat is husband of the 
Air-nymph Menaka ; father of the river Gunga and of Durga or 
Uma, in her descent as Parvati to captivate Siva, and seduce him 
from the austerities which he practiced in those mountains. In 
this personification the name belongs to the Puranic ; as a 
mountain only, to the Epic. 

On account of the majestic height of this mountain range, and 
the apparent impossibility of reaching its summit, the imagination 
of the ancient Hindus invested it with the most mysterious 
properties, and connected it with the history of some of their 
deities. In the Purunas, Himavat is placed to the south of 
the fabulous mountain Meru, which stands in the centre of 
the world, and described as the king of the mountains, who was 
inaugurated as such when Prithu was installed in the government 
of the earth. As the abode of Siva, he is the goal of penitent 
pilgrims, who repair to his summit in order to win the favours of 
this terrific god. His wife was Mena, whom the Pitris or 
demigods Vairajas, engendered by the mere power of their thought. 

Hindi— One of the tongues of India ; it abounds in Sanskrit 
words, and has many dialects. Speaking generally the tongues 

252 HIN 

spoken in the whole of upper India, including the Punjab, from the 
Himalayan to the Vindhyan range, may be said to be Hindi. Also 
the languages of Kamaon and Garhwal, all along the Sub-Himalayan 
range as far as the Gogra river ; the impure dialect of the 
Gorkhas ; the Brij-Bhasha (or Baka as it is pronounced on the 
Ganges,) the Panjabi, Multani, Sindi, Jataki, Haruti, Marwari and 
it is said Konkani. The Bengali is a form of Hindi, but so highly 
polished as to be classed as a distinct tongue. 

Hindus — " The great bulk of the people known by this appella- 
tion are the descendants of Scythian and Aryan immigrants, who 
in bye-gone days, as conquerors, in search of a milder clime, 
left the cold regions of the north, some off-shoots moving westward 
and others to the south. Remnants of Scythian languages are 
found in Beluchistan, and the seat of the great Sanskrit speaking 
people was long in Kashmir, proving that one great highway to 
the south, had been along the valley of the Indus, through 
Kashmir, and the Panjab. But between the valley of the Indus, 
and that of the Brahmaputra, there are twenty or thirty other 
passes in the Himalayas, through which the northern races could 
stream to the genial south. Amongst the first of these immigrants 
eeemingly were the Tamil races, belonging to the Turanian or 
Tartar family of mankind, a body of whom seem to have followed 
the course of the Indus and spread themselves over the peninsula. 
As to the date of their advent, however, history is silent ; but 
there seems no doubt that great branches of the Scythic 
stock were occupants of India, at the time that it was invaded, 
and to a considerable extent conquered, by the Sanskrit speaking 
tribes of the Aryan family. In the north, the subjugation or 
ousting of the Tamilians from all rank and power was so complete 
that Sanskrit forms of speech became the language of the country, 
and the Kashmiri, the Panjabi, the Sindi, the Guzerathi, the 
Hindustani and the Bengali, all of them with a large admixture 
of Sanskrit, are sister tongues known as forms of Hindi. South 
of the Nerbudda, however, it is otherwise. Throughout the 
peninsula, the languages differ from the Sanskrit in grammar, and 
only admit Sanskrit words, in the same way that the Anglo-Saxon 

HIN 253 

admitted terms of law and civilization from the Normau French. 
At the present day, the south of India more largely represents 
the Tartar, and the north, the Aryan race. But the fair, yellow 
colored Aryans are to be met with south even to Cape Comorin, 
and though mixing with the various Tamil nations, races and 
tribes, for at least two thousand years, in physical form, com- 
plexion, intellect and manners, the Brahmanical and other Aryan 
families are as distinct as when their forefathers first came 
conquering from the north. The great Aryan migration, however, 
which seems to have received its first check south of the Aravali, 
took place between the fourteenth and eighth centuries before our 
era. Major Cunningham in his learned work on the Bhilsa topes 
(p. 15) uses the term Aryan in allusion to " the race of Aryya, 
whose emigrations are recorded in the Zendavesta, who starting 
from Ericene Vijo, gradually spread to the south-east, over Arya- 
vartha or Arya-desa, the northern plains of India, and to the 
south-west, over Iran or Persia : he adds that the Medas are called 
Apitol by Herodotus. The original meaning of the word is also 
said to have been equivalent to Upper Noble. It has also, 
however, been suggested that as the Aryans were originally and 
essentially an agricultural and therefore a peasant race, they may 
have derived their name from their plough. The Aryans seem to 
have brought with them a servile race, or to have had amongst 
them a social distinction between the noble and the common 
people which has ever continued. As they conquered southwards," 
amongst the Tartar races whom they found in the country, they 
reduced them everywhere to a state of slavery. They named 
them in fierce contempt Dasa or slave, and these formed the true 
servile race of Manu and other writers. Where the races who 
liad preceded them retained their independence, these proud 
immigrants styled them M'hlechhas, a term which even to the 
present day, is intended to comprise every thing that is hateful or 
vile. In Vedic times, along the western coast of Plindustan dwelt 
other races, different alike from the Scythic tribes and from the 
Aryans of the Vedas — earlier colonizers or emigrants, most 
probably from Assyria and the west, — who had a civilization of 
their own. Mr. Wheeler divides the history of the Hindus into 

254 HIN 

four great epochs correspoudiug with the four great changes iu 
their religious belief : — 

1 —The Vedic age, which was characterised by the worship of 
the elementary deities, such as Agui and Indra, and appears to 
have prevailed in the Panjab prior to the disappearance of the 
Saraswati river iu the sand. 

2— The Brahmauic age, which was characterised by the worship 
of Brahma, and appears to have prevailed between the disappear- 
ance of the Saraswati in the sand, and the advent of Sakya Muni 
about B. c. 600. 

3 — The Buddhist age, which was characterised by the pursuit 
of Nirvana, and appears to have prevailed from about B.C. 600 to 
A. D. 800 or 1000. 

4 — The Erahmanical revival, which was characterised by the 
worship of incarnations of deities, and appears to have prevailed 
from about A. d. 800 to the present time." 

Professor Wilsou writes *' The circumstances that are told of 
the first princes have evident relation to the colonization of India, 
and the gradual extension of the authority of new races over an 
uninhabited or uncivilized region. It is commonly admitted, that 
the Brahmanical religion and civilization were brought into India 
from without. Certainly, there are tribes on the borders, and in 
the heart of the country, who are still not Hindus ; and passages 
in the Ramayana, and Mahabharata, and Manu, and the uniform 
traditions of the people themselves, point to a period when 
Bengal, Orissa, and the whole of the Dakhin were inhabited by 
degraded or outcaste, that is, by barbarous tribes. The traditions 
of the Puranas confirm these views : but they lend no assistance 
to the determination of the question whence the Hindus came ; 
whether from a central Asiatic nation, as Sir William Jones 
supposed, or from the Caucasian mountains, the plains of Babylonia, 
or the borders of the Caspian, as conjectured by Klaproth, Vans 
Kennedy, and Schlegel. The afliuities of the Sanskrit language 
prove a common origin of the now widely scattered nations 
amongst whose dialects they arc traceable, and render it unques- 
tionable that they must all have spread abroad from some centrical 

HIN 255 

spot in that part of the globe first inhabited by maukiud, according 
to the inspired record. Whether any indication of such an event 
be discoverable in the Vedas, remains to be determined ; but it 
would have been obviously incompatible with the Pauranik system 
to have referred the origin of Indian princes and principalities to 
other than native sources. We need not therefore, expect, from 
them, any information as to the foreign derivation of the Hindus. 

We have, then, wholly insufficient means for arriving at any 
information concerning the ante-Indian period of Hindu history, 
beyond the general conclusion derivable from the actual presence 
of barbarous and apparently, aboriginal tribes — from the admitted 
progressive extension of Hinduism into parts of India where it did 
not prevail when the code of Manu was compiled — from the 
general use of dialects in India, more or less copious, which are 
different from Sanskrit — and from the affinities of that language 
with forms of speech current in the western woild — that a people 
who spoke Sanskrit, and followed the religion of the Vedas, came 
into India, in some very distant age, from lands west of the Indus. 
Whether the date and circumstances of their immigration will 
ever be ascertained, is extremely doubtful : but it is not difficult 
to form a plausible outline of their early site and progressive 

The earliest seat of the Hindus, within the confines of Ilindus- 
than, was, undoubtedly, the eastern confines of the Panjab. The 
lioly land of Manu and the Puranas lies between the Drishadwati 
and Saraswati rivers, — the Caggar and Sursooty of our barbarous 
maps. Various adventures of the first princes and most ftimous 
sages occur in this vicinity ; and the Asramas or religious 
domiciles of several of the latter are placed on the banks of the 
Saraswati. According to some authorities it was the abode of 
Vyasa, the compiler of the Vedas and Puranas ; and agreeably to 
another, when on one occasion, the Vedas had fallen into disuse 
and been forgotten, the Brahmans were again instructed in them 
by Saraswata, the son of Saraswati. One of the most distinguished 
of the tribes of the Brahmans is known as the Saraswata ; and the 
same word is employed by Mr. Colebrooke, to denote that modifi- 
cation of Sanskrit which is termed generally Prakrit, and which 

256 HIN 

in this case, he supposes to have been the language of the Saraswata 
nation, ' which occupied the banks of the river Saraswati.' The 
river itself receives its appellation from Saraswati, the goddess of 
learning, under whose auspices the sacred literature of the Hindus 
assumed shape and authority. These indications render it certain, 
that, whatever seeds were imported from without, it was in the 
country adjacent to the Saraswati river that they were first 
planted, and cultivated and reared, in Hindusthau. 

The tract of land thus assigned for the first establishnfent of 
Hinduism in India, is of very circumscribed extent and could not 
have been the site of any numerous tribe or nation. The traditions 
that evidence the early settlement of the Hindus in this quarter, 
ascribe to the settlers more of a philosophical and religious, than 
of a secular character, and combine, with the very narrow bounds 
of the holy land ; to render it possible, that the earliest emigrants 
were the members, not of a political, so much as of a religious 
community ; that they were a colony of priests, not in the 
restricted sense in which we use the term, but in that in which it 
still applies in India, to an Agrahara, a village or hamlet of 
Brahmans, who although married, and having families, and 
engaging in tillage, in domestic duties and in the conduct of secular 
interests affecting the community, are, still, supposed to devote 
their principal attention to sacred study and religious offices. A 
society of this description with its artificers and servants, and, 
perhaps, with a body of martial followers, might have found a 
home in the Brahmavarta of Manu, the land which, thence, w^as 
entitled * the holy,' or, more literally, * the Brahman region,' and 
may have communicated to the rude, uncivilized, unlettered, 
aborigines the rudiments of social organization, literature, and 
religion ; partly in all probability, brought along with them, and 
partly devised and fashioned, by degrees, for the growing necessities 
of new conditions of Bociety. Those with whom this civilization 
commenced would have had ample inducements to prosecute their 
successful work ; and in the course of time, the improvement 
which germinated on the banks of the Saraswati was extended 
beyond the borders of the Jumna and the Ganges. — Preface to 

HIR 257 

Hiranmaya — A mountainous country lying between the Seveta 
and Srinji ranges ; to the north of mount Meru. 

Hiranvat — The king of Sweta, installed by his father, the pious 
king Agnidhra, before he retired to a life of penance at Salagrama, 

Hiranyagarbha — A name of Brahma, ' he who was born from 
the golden egg,' 

In the Rig Veda Hiranyagarbha is celebrated with all the 
attributes of supremacy. In the 121st hymn of the tenth book this 
«-od is said to have arisen in the beginning, the one lord of all 
beings, who upholds heaven and earth, who gives life and breath, 
whose command even the gods obey, who is the god over all gods, 
and the one animating principle of their being. O. S. T., Vol. IV, 
pp. 13, ff. V.p. 355. 

Hiranyahasta — The son given by the Asvius to the wise 
Vadhrimati, in answer to her prayers. O. S. T. v., p. 247. 

Hiranyakasipu — A son of Kasyapa and Diti, who became 
king of the Daityas, and usurped the authority of Indra, and 
exercised of himself the functions of the sun, of the air, of the 
waters, of fire, and of the moon. Having conquered the three 
worlds he was inflated with pride, and enjoyed whatever he 
desired. " He obtained the sovereignty of all the immortals for a 
hundred million years." (O. S. T., iv, 159.) Prahlada, his son, 
remained devoted to Vishnu, and when ordered by his father to 
be put to death, Vishnu appeared as his deliverer. Hiranyakasipu 
was reconciled to his son, but was notwithstanding put to death 
by Vishnu as Narasimha (the man-lion) and Prahlada became the 
sovereign of the Daityas. 

Hiranyaksha— The brother of the above, termed " the invin- 
cible." He was destroyed by Vishnu in his boar incarnation. In the 
Padraa Purana it is said that this occurred in the first, or Matsya 
avatara : that Vishnu in the form of a fish entered the ocean and 
destroyed Hiranyaksha. — Wilsoii's Works, Vol. III., p. 58. 

Hiranyanabha— One of the descendants of Rama, a pupil of 
Jaimini, and teacher of the Sama Veda. He had a large number 
of disciples who were termed the northern and eastern chaunters 
of the Saraan, and founders of schools. 


258 HIR— HUT 

Hiranyaretas— One of the ten sons of Priyavrata, according to 
the enumeration in the Bhagavata. 

Hiranyaroman—A Lokapala, regent of the North, son of 
Parjanya and Marichi. 

Hlada — One of the four mighty sons of Hiranyakasipu. 

Hladini — The Gladdener ; the name of one of tlie seven rivei*s 
mentioned in the Riamiyana, in connection with the descent of 
Ganga. Only two, the Ganges and Indus, are known to 

Homa — A sort of burnt offering which can be made by 
Brahmans only. It is only made on special occasions, such as the 
celebration of a festival, the investiture of a young brahman with 
the sacred thread, marriages, and funerals. The method of making 
it is as follows : During the utterance of Mantras, five species of 
consecrated wood, together with the Dharba grass, rice and butter, 
are kindled and burnt ; and the fire is then kept burning as long as 
the festival or ceremony lasts. Great efficacy is ascribed to this rite. 

Hotri — The priest who recites the hymns at the performance of 
sacrificial rites. 

Hraswannan— One of the kings of Mithila, the son of 
Suvarnarman ; sometimes called Hrasvaroma. 

Hri — * Modesty,' An allegorical personage represented as one of 
the daughters of Daksha, and wife of Dharma. 

Hridika — A Yddava prince, the son of Swayambhoja, and 
father of Sura, in whose family Vishnu took a human form. 
Hrishikesa — A name of Vishnu, meaning * lord of the senses.' 
Humas — The white Huns, or Indo-scythians, who were estab- 
lished in the Punjab and along the Indus, at the commencement of 
our era, as we know from Arrian, Strabo, and Ptolemy, confirmed 
by recent discoveries of their coins. 

Hutasana— The god of flame. 

Ida — One of the daughters of Daksha who was married to 

Idhmajihwa — Oue of the ten sous of Priyavrata according to 
the Bhagavaia. 

Idvatsara—The name of the third cycle or Yuga, of which 
five are enumerated, each cycle comprehending sixty-one solar 
months or 1,830 days. 

IjikaS, also Itikas— A people of the South of India. 

Ikshula Ikshumati — The name of a river mentioned in the 
Ramayana and Vishnu Purana, but not identified. 

Ikshwaku— One of the ten sons of the lawgiver Manu 
Vaivaswata, considered to be the first prince of the Solar dynasty ; 
he reigned at Aj'-odha the capital of Kosala, in the second or Treta 
yuga. He had one hundred sons, and is said to have been born 
from the nostril of Manu when he happened to sneeze. V. P. 

" Ikshwaku was the son of Manu, the first king of Kosala, and 
founder of the solar dynasty or family of the children of the Sun, 
the god of that luminary being the father of Manu. ' 

The following extract from the Rimayana gives the line of kings 
from Ikswaku to Bharata. 

•' From viewless nature Brahma rose. 
No change, no end, no waste, he knows. 
A son had he, Marichi styled, 
And Kasyap was Marichi's child. 
From him Vivaswat sprang ; from him 
Manu whose fame shall ne'er be dim. 
Manu, who life to mortals gave. 
Begot Ikshvaku good and brave. 
First of Ayodhyd's kings was he, 
Pride of her famous dynasty. 

260 ILA— ILW 

From him the glorious Kukshi sprang, 

Whose fame through all the regions rang. 

Rival of Kukshi's ancient fame, 

His heir, the great Vikukshi came. 

His son was Vana, lord of might, 

His Anaranya, strong to fight. 

His son was Prithu, glorious name, 

From him the good Trisanku came. 

He left a son renowned afar. 

Known by the name of Dhundumar. 

His son who drove the mighty car 

Was Yuvanaswa fear'd in war. 

He passed away. Him followed then 

His son Mandhata, king of men, 

His son was blest on high emprise 

Susandhi fortunate and wise. 

Two noble sons had he, to wit, 

Dhruvasandhi and Prasenajit 

Bharat was Dhruvasaudhi's son. 

And glorious fame that monarch won." — Griffiths, 

Ila — Before the birth of the sons mentioned above, the Manu, 
being desirous of sons, offered a sacrifice for that purpose to Mitra 
and Varuna ; but the rite being deranged through an irregularity 
of the ministering priest, a daughter, Ila was produced. Through 
the favour of the two divinities, however her sex was changed, and 
she became a man named Sudyumna, q. v. 

Ilavila — One of the sons of Dasaratha, who does not appear 
however to have achieved any distinction. 

Ilavila — The daughter of Trinavinda, became the wife of 
Visravas, and mother of Kuvera the god of wealth. 

Uavrita — One of the nine sons of Aguidhra, king of Jamba- 
dwipa. The region in the centre of which Mount Meru is situated 
was conferred on Ilavrita. 

Ilwala — A celebrated demon, the sou of Hlada. He is tlic hero 
of vju i Kis legcnd« in the Purrmus. He li.-id a cou.siu of tlic same 

IND 261 

name, the son of Viprachitti, who was also distinguished amongst 
the Danavas. 

India, " is bounded on the north and the east by the Himalaya 
mountains, on the west by the Indus, and on the south by the sea. 
Its length from Kashmere to Cape Comorin is 1,900 miles; its 
breadth from Kurrachee to Sudiya, in Assam, 1,500 miles. The 
superficial contents are 1,287,000 miles, and the population, under 
British and native rule, is now estimated at 200,000,000. It is 
crossed from east to west by a chain of mountains called the 
Vindya, at the base of which flows the Nerbudda. The country 
to the north of this river is generally designated Hindustan, and 
that to the south of it the Deccan. Hindustan is composed of the 
basin of the Indus on one side, and of the Gauges on the other, 
with the great sandy desert on the west, and an elevated tract 
now called, from its position. Central India. The Deccan has on 
its northern boundary a chain of mountains running parallel with 
the Vindya, to the south of which stretches a table land of trian- 
gular form, terminating at Cape Comorin, with the western 
Ghauts, on the western coast, and the eastern Ghauts, of minor 
altitude, on the opposite coast. Between the Ghauts and the sea 
lies a narrow belt of land which runs round the whole peninsula. 

Of the ancient history or chronology of the Hindus there are no 
credible memorials. The history was compiled by poets, who 
drew on their imagination for their facts, and the chronology was 
computed by astronomers, who have made the successive ages of 
the world to correspond with the conjunctions of the heavenly 
bodies. The age of the world is. thus divided into four periods : 
the satija yuga extending to 1,728,000, and the second, or treta 
yuga, to 1,296,000 years ; the third, or the dwdpara yuga, 
comprises 864,000 years ; and the fourth, or kali yuga is predicted 
to last 432,000 years. A kalpa, or a day of Brahma, is composed 
of a thousand such periods, or 4,320,000,000 years. Extravagant 
as these calculations may appear, they are outdone by the Burmese, 
who affirm that the lives of the ancient inhabitants extended to a 
period equal to the sum of every drop of rain which falls on the 
surface of the globe in three years. The dates given for the first 
three ages must, therefore, be rejected as altogether imaginary, 

262 IND 

while the commencement of the fourth, or present age, which 
corresponds, to a certain degree, with the authentic eras of other 
nations, may be received as generally correct. 

India is designated by native writers Bharata Varsha, from king 
Bharat, who is said to have reigned over the whole country. That 
he did not enjoy universal monarchy in India is certain, though he 
was doubtless one of the earliest and most renowned of its rulers ; 
but this fact loses all historical value when we are told in the 
shasters that he reigned ten thousand years, and on his death was 
transformed into a deer. Thus do we plod our way through 
darkness and mystery ; at every step fact is confounded with 
fable, and all our researches end only in conjecture. The original 
settlers are identified with the various tribes of Bhils, Koles, 
Gonds, Minas, and Chuars, still living in a state almost of 
nature, in the forests of the Soane, the Nerbudda, and the Maha- 
nuddi, and in the hills of Surguja and Chota Nagpore. Their 
languages have no affinity with the Sanskrit, and their religion 
differs from Hinduism. In those fastnesses, amidst all the revolu- 
tions which have convulsed India, they have continued to maintain, 
unchanged, their original simplicity of habits, creed, and speech. 
They were apparently driven from the plains by fresh colonies of 
emigrants ; and these were in their turn conquered by the Hindus, 
who brought their religion and language with them from regions 
beyond the Indus, and, having reduced the inhabitants to a servile 
condition, branded them with the name of sudras. Of the four 
Hindu castes, three are designated the twice-born, which seems to 
indicate that they all belonged to the conquering race, although 
the term is now applied exclusively to brahmans. In the Institutes 
of Manu reference is also made to cities governed by sudras, 
which the twice-born were forbidden to enter, and the allusion 
evidently applies to sudra chiefs, who continued to maintain their 
independence after the Hindu invasion. 

The Hindus who originally crossed the Indus took possession of 
a small tract of land, 100 miles north-west of Delhi, about 65 
miles by 30, which was considered the residence of gods and holy 
sages, while the brahmans appear to have subsequently occupied 
the country north of the Jumna and the Ganges, stretching to the 

IND 263 

confines of north Behar. The India of the Vedas, of Manu, and 
the earliest writers was exclusively confined to the region north 
of the Nerbudda, and comprised but a small portion even of that 
limited quarter. It was in the north that the four places of 
greatest sanctity were situated during the early ages, though the 
Deccan now contains many places of distinguished merit. The 
north was also the seat of the solar and lunar races, the scene of 
chivalrous adventures, and the abode of all those who are celebrated 
in the legends, the mythology, and the philosophy of the Hindus. 
Even in the polished age in which the Ramayan and the Maha- 
bh^rat were composed, the south was the land of fable, the 
dwelling of bears and monkeys, and it was not till a very late 
period that these apes and goblins and monsters were transformed 
into orthodox Hindus. It must, therefore, be distinctly borne in 
mind that the revolutions described in the sacred books of the 
Hindus belong to Hindustan and not to the Deccan."* 

Indra — The king of heaven ; the king of the Devas ; is 
represented wdth four arms and hands, with two he holds a lance, 
in the third one the thunderbolt (Vajrayudha) and the fourth one 
is empty. Sometimes he is drawn as a white man sitting on an 
elephant, with the thunderbolt in his right hand and a bow in his 
left. His reign is to continue one hundred years of the gods, after 
which another individual from among the gods, the giants, or men, 
by his own merit, raises himself to this eminence. The sacrifice 
of a horse one hundred times will, it is said, raise a person to the 
rank of Indra. The Puranas relate many stories of Indra, who is 
described as veiy jealous lest any person should, by sacred 
austerities or sacrifices, excel him in religious merit, and thus 
obtain his kingdom. To prevent these devotees from succeeding 
in their object, he generally sends one of the celestial nymphs to 
draw away their minds, and thus bring them from thoir religious 
observances, induce them to return to a life of sensual gratification. 
It was Indra who stole the horse consecrated by king Sagara, who 
was about to perform for the hundreth time the sacrifice of that 

•Marshman's History of India, vol. 1. 

264 IND 

" Indra plays au importaut part in each of the three periods of 
Indian mythology. In the earliest age he seems to have been the 
unknown mysterious being who inhabited the sky, the firmament 
between earth and the sun, who rode upon the clouds, who poured 
forth the rain, hurled the forked lightning upon earth, and spoke in 
the awful thunder. His character was at once beneficent as giving 
rain and shade ; and awful and powerful in the storm. He is the 
original of the Jupiter Tonans of the west, and the Thor of the 
north, and like them rose in the earliest ages to the first place, and 
the sovereignty among the gods. Feai*, a stronger motive among 
men than gratitude, raised him above the elementary triad. In 
the Epic period he is the first person of the pure mythological 
triad, Indra, Agni, and Yama. In the Puranic age, Avhen the 
powers of a Supreme Being were personified in the superior triad 
of Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, Indra's star declines. He is no 
longer the principal divinity, but only the chief of the inferior 
deities ; and, as such, is at constant war with the giants and 
demons, by whom he is for a time deposed. A curse from the 
Rishi Durvdsa causes his power and that of the deities subject to 
him gradually to decline ; and he is defeated by Krishna in a fight 
for the Parijata tree, which had been produced at the churning 
of the ocean, and planted by Indra in his own garden. An amusing 
account of this battle is given in the Vishnu-Purana, p. 587. 
His wife's name is Sachi. He is lord of the eight Vasus. The 
sage Gautama pronounced upon him the curse of wearing one 
thousand disgraceful marks which he afterwards turned to eyes. 
He ravished the daughter of Puloman, whom he slew to avoid his 
curse. He is borne on a white horse. The rain-bow is supposed 
to be his bow bent for the destruction of his foes, and thunderbolts 
are his weapons. The heaven over which he rules, and which the 
other secondary deities inhabit, is, in the Epic age, called Swarga, 
and later, Indraloka, or Devaloka. His horse is Uchchhaihshravas ; 
his elephant, AiraVata ; his city, Amardvati ; his palace, Vaija- 
yauta. These details belong to the Puranic age." (Thomson.) 

Dr. Muir writes " Indra and Agni are said to be twin brothers. 
A variety of vague and general epithets are lavished upon Indra. 
He is distinguished as youthful, ancient, strong, agile, martial, 

IND 265 

heroic, bright, undecaying, all-conquering, lord of unbounded 
wisdom and irresistible power and prowess, wielder of the thunder- 
bolt, &c. He has vigour in his body, strength in his arms, a 
thunderbolt in his hand, and wisdom in his head. * * * * 
The thunderbolt of Indra is generally described as having been 
fashioned for him by the Indian Hephaistos, Tvashtri, the artificer 
of the gods. Another instrument of warfare, a net, is assigned to 
Indra. * This world was the great net of the great Sakra. With 
this net of Indra I envelope them all in darkness.' 

" Invoked by his mortal worshippers Indra obeys the summons, 
and speedily arrives in his chariot to receive their oflferings. He 
finds food provided for his horses, and large libations of soma 
juice are poured out for himself to quaff. He becomes exhilarated 
by these libations, which are also frequently described as stimu- 
lating his warlike dispositions and energies, and fitting him for his 
other functions, even for supporting the earth and sky. He is 
said to have drunk at one draught thirty bowls of soma." * * * ♦ 
Thus exhilarated by soma juice, " Indra hurries off escorted by 
troops of Maruts, and sometimes attended by his faithful comrade 
Vishnu, to encounter the hostile powers in the atmosphere, who 
malevolently shut up the watery treasures in the clouds. These 
demons of drought, called by a variety of names, as Vrittra, Ahi, 
Sushna, Namuchi, Pipru, Sambara, Urana, &c., armed on their 
side also, with every variety of celestial artillery, attempt, but 
in vain, to resist the onset of the gods. Heaven and earth quake 
with affright at the crash of Indra's thunder. The enemies of 
Indra are speedily pierced and shattered by the discharge of his 
iron shafts. The waters, released from their imprisonment, 
descend in torrents to the earth, fill all the rivers and roll along to 
the ocean. The gloom which had overspread the sky is dispersed, 
and the sun is restored to his position in the heavens. Constant 
allusions to these elemental conflicts occur in nearly every part of 
the Rig Veda ; and the descriptions are sometimes embellished 
with a certain variety of imagery. The clouds are represented as 
mountains, or as cities or fortresses of the Asuras, or atmospheric 
demons, which Indra overthrows." 

Dr. Muir selects a great variety of passages as specimens of the 


2G6 IND 

language ia which Indra is most commouly celebrated in the 
hymns. He adds, " it will be observed that the attributes which 
are ascribed to him are chiefly those of physical superiority, and 
of dominion over the external world. In fact he is not generally 
represented as possessing the spiritual elevation and moral grandeur 
with which Varuna is so often invested.^ Vol. V,, p. 103. 

" Thou Indra art a friend, a brother 
A kinsman dear, a father, mother. 
Though thou hast troops af friends, yet we, 
Can boast no other friend but thee. 

With faith we claim thine aid divine, 
For thou art oui^s and we are thine. 
Thou art not deaf ; though far away, 
Thou hearest all, whate'er we pray. 

Preserve us friend, dispel our fears, 
And let us live a hundred years. 
And when our earthly course we've run, 
And gained the region of the sun, 
Then let us live in ceaseless glee, 
Sweet nectar quaffing there with thee." 

O. S. T.,Vo]. v., p. 139. 

Indrani — The wife of Indra (called also Sdchi) is represented 
as an ever-blooming virgin, and whilst the dignity of the king of 
the gods passes from one to another, she remains the wife of each 
succeeding Dev^ndra. Indrani, never a mother hei'self, had a son, 
Chitraputra, born unto her of a cow, as a reward for the austerities 
which she practised in honour of Iswara, to the end that he might 
grant her a son. When Chitraputi-a was born from the cow, 
Indiini felt like a woman in travail, and her breasts became full, 
so that she could nurse the child. 

In the Rig Veda one speaker says ** I have heard that among all 
these females Iudi*ini is the most fortunate ; for her husband shall 
never at any future time die of old age." The Aitareya Brahraana 
iilludes to a wife of Indra, called Pr^saha. The Satap. Br. says 
'-' Indrani is iudi-a's beloved wife, and ?rhe ha^ a head dresh of iilJ 
forms." O. S. T., Vol. V., p. 82. 

Indras of the Manwantara— Each Manwantaia has its owr. 
Indra. The ludra of the second Manwantara was Vipaschil ; of 
the third, Susaiiti ; of the fourth Siva (also named Satakrata, as 
he obtained the honour by his performance of a hundred Baorifices, ) 
of the fifth Vibha ; of the sixth, Manojava ; of the seventh, 
Purandara ; of the eighth, Bali ; of the ninth, Adbhufa ; of the 
tenth, Santi ; of the eleventh, Vrisha ; of the twelfth, Rithudama ; 
of the thirteenth, Divaspati ; of the fourteenth, Suchi. 

Indra-dwipa — One of the nine portions of the Varsha of 

Indradyumna — The king of Avanti, w^ho erected the temple 
of Vishnu at Purushottaraa Kshetra, and set up the image of 
Jagganatha, made for him by Visvakarman. 

Indrajit — The bravest and most powerful of the sous ofRdvana. 
His original name was Megha-nada, but was changed by Brahma 
to Indrajit, iu commemoration of the latter having obtained a 
victory over ludra. He was skilled in magic, could render himself 
invisible, possessed enchanted weapons, described as a kind of rope, 
which when thrown at an enemy became transformed into a serpent, 
and retained him in its folds. By means of these magical weapons 
he pierced a great number of warriors and inflicted terrible 
wounds on all the leaders of Rama's army ; viz., Sugriva, Angada, 
Nila, Jambavat, Nala, Tara, Sarabha, Susheua, Panasa, Gandha* 
madana, Dwivida, Kesari, Sampati, Binata, Rishabha ; as well as 
on Rama and Lakshmana, leaving them for dead. They were all 
restored by the exhalations issuing from the healing plants brought 
by Hanuman from Kailasa. All this occurred after Hanuman had 
destroyed the great army of R^kshasas sent against him by Ravana, 
the latter being filled with dismay, ordered his son Aksha to go 
forth, and he was also slain. Then Ravana filled with grief sent 
for his famous son Indrajit, and said go you and conquer this evil 
Monkey. Indrajit then ascended his chariot, drawn by four tigers, 
and went out at the head of a vast army to fight against the 
Monkey chief. The combat commenced, but Indrajit could not 
conquer until he bound Hanuman in the ij-resistible noose of 
Brahma. Afterwards Indrajit performed three sacrifices to Agni, 
and confined Riraa and Lakshmana in his noose, and successfully 

268 IND 

charged the army of Monkeys. He was ultimately killed by 
Lakshmaiia, with an arrow given to him by Indra at the hermitage 
of Agastya. 

Indra-kila— A mountain of the Vishnu Purina but not identified. 

Indra-loka— Amaravati, the heaven of Indra and Kshatriyas, 
called also Swarga. It was built by Visvakarma, the architect of 
the gods, a son of Brahma. It is described as eight hundred miles 
in circumference, and forty miles high. Its pillars are composed 
of diamonds ; all its thrones, beds, etc., of pure gold, as also its 
palaces. It is surrounded by beauteous gardens and pleasure 
grounds, interspersed with pools, fountains, etc., while music, 
dancing, and every sort of festivity entertain the celestial 
inhabitants. The audience chamber is so large that it accom- 
modates all the three hundred and thirty millions of celestials, 
together with the forty-eight thousand Rishis, and the multitude 
of attendants. 

Indrapramita — A pupil of Paila and teacher of a Sanhita of 
the Rig Veda. Indrapramita imparted his Sanhita to his son 
Mandakeya, and it thence descended through successive generations 
as well as disciples. 

Indra-prastha — The city of the Pdndavas situated between 
Delhi and the Kutub. ** The pilgrim who wends his way from the 
modern city of Delhi to pay a visit to the strange relics of the 
ancient world which surround the mysterious Kutub, will find on 
either side of his road a number of desolate heaps, the debris of 
thousands of years, the remains of successive Capitals which date 
back to the very dawn of history ; and local tradition still points to 
these sepulchres of departed ages as the sole remains of the Raj of 
the sons of Pfindu, and their once famous city of Indra-prastha."* 
The Mahibh^rata contains a poetical description of the flourishing 
state of the kingdom under the rule of Raja Yudhishthira. When 
he resolved on retiring from the world he gave the R&j of 
Hastindpur to Parikshit the son of Abhimauyu, and the Raj of 
Indra-prastha to Yuyutsa, the only surviving son of Mahirija 

■* lTheel«r. 

IND— IVI 269 

Indrasavami— The Manu of the fourteeuth Manwantara, 
according to the Bhagavata. 

Indriyatma— ** One with the senses ;" a name of Vishnu, who 
is described bj five appellations. 

1. Bhutatma, One with created things. 

2. Pradhan^tam, One with crude nature, 

3. Indriyatma, One with the senses. 

4. Paramdtma, Supreme spirit. 

5. Atma, Soul, living soul animating nature and existing 

before it. 

Indumati Devi — The daughter of the R^ja of Vidarbha and 
wife of Aja. [See Aja.] 

Iravat — A son of Arjuna by the serpent nymph Ulupi. 

Iravati— The wife of the Rudra Bhava according to the 

Isana— One of the eight Rudras of the Vishnu Puiina whose 
statue was the air. 

Isa— A name of a month occurring in the Vedas, and belonging 
to a system now obsolete. It is one of the months according to the 
Vishnu Purina in which the sun is in his southern declination. 

Iswara — Brahma in the neuter form is abstract supreme spirit : 
and Iswara is the Deity in his active nature, he who is able to do, 
or leave undone, or to do anything in any other manner than that 
in which it is done. Iswara is that which knows all things as if 
they were present. Mahat is also called Iswara from its exercising 
supremacy over all things. In Southern India Iswara is identical 
with Siva. All who profess the Siva mata (the religion of Siva) 
regard Iswara as the highest god in whose honour they have 
everywhere built pagodas, and celebrate many festivals. Iswara 
is also the name of one of the Rudras in the Vayu list. 

Itihasa— Historical tradition taught by Vyto. It is usually 
supposed that by the Itihasa the Mah^bhdrata is meant. 

Ivilaka — One of the Andhra kings, the son of Lambddara. 

Jabala — The mother of Satyakdma, who could not tell her sou 
who was his father and to what gotra he belonged ; the son had 
consequently the utmost difficulty in obtaining permission to 
become a Brahma ch^rin. See Satyakama. 

Jabalas — Students of a branch of the Vdjasaneyi, or white 

Jaggannatha^ — This is perhaps the most famous form of 
Krishna. The image has no legs, and only stumps of arms. The 
head and legs are very large. At the festivals, the Brahmans 
adorn him with silver or golden hands. 

Krishna having been accidentally killed by Jara, a hunter, he 
left the body to rot under a tree. Some pious persons, however, 
collected the bones of Krishna and placed them in a box. There 
they remained till King Indradyumna (a great ascetic) was 
directed by Vishnu to form the image of Jaggann^tha, and put 
into its belly these bones of Krishna. Visvakarma (the architect 
of the gods) undertook to prepare it, on condition that he should 
be left undisturbed till its completion. The impatient king, 
however, after fifteen days, went to the spot ; on which Visvakarma 
desisted from his work, and left the god without hands or feet. 
The king was much disconcerted, but on praying to Brahmd, he 
promised to make the image famous in its present shape. Indra- 
dyumna then invited all the gods to be present at the setting up of 
this image. Brahma himself acted as high priest, and gave eyes 
and a soul to the god, which completely established the fame of 
Jaggannatha. This image is said to lie in a pool, near the famous 
temple at Juggann^tha-kshctra (t. e. Jaggauath's field), near the 
town of Puri in Orissa, commonly called by the English, Jugger- 
nath's Pagoda. 

* Vulg. '' JnpgeryMth:' i.e.*' The Lord of the World." 

JAG 271 

There are many other temples to Jagganndtha in Bengal and 
other parts of India, besides that in Orissa, built by rich men as 
works of merit, and endowed with lands, villages, and money, at 
which the worship of the god is performed every morning and 

There are two great annual festivals in honour of the god, viz., 
the Sndn-yatra in the month Jyaistha (May, June) and the Rath- 
yathra in the following month Asarha. These are everywhere 
most numerously attended ; but especially those celebrated at the 
great temple at Puri. Thither pilgrims from the remotest corners 
of India flock to pay their adoration at the hallowed shrine. 
Between two and three thousand persons, it is computed, used to 
lose their lives on the annual pilgrimages to this temple, and not 
less than 200,000 worshippers were present at the festivals, from 
which the Brahmans draw an immense revenue. Since the with- 
drawment of the large annual grant, however, which the British 
Government of India, till very recently, made to the Orissa Temple, 
the numbers attending these festivals have very greatly diminished. 
All the land within twenty miles round the " Pagoda" is considered 
holy ; but the most sacred spot is an area of about six hundred 
and fifty feet square, which contains fifty temples, the most 
conspicuous of which is a lofty tower, about one hundred and 
eighty-four feet in height, and about twenty-eight feet square 
inside, in which the idol, with his brother Bala-Eama, and his sister 
Subhadra, is lodged. Adjoining are two pyramidical buildings. 
In one, about forty square, the idol is worshipped, and in the 
other, the food prepared for the pilgrims is distributed. These 
buildings were erected in a. d. 1198. The walls are covered with 
statues, many of which are in highly indecent postures. The 
grand entrance is on the eastern side, and close to the outer wall 
stands an elegant stone column, thirty-five feet in height, the 
shaft of which is formed of a single block of basalt, presenting 
sixteen sides. The pedestal is richly ornamented. The column 
is surrounded by a finely sculptured statue of Hanumau, the 
monkey chief of the Ramayana. The establishment of priests and 
others belonging to the temple has been stated to consist of three 
thousand nine hundred families, for whom the daily provision is 

272 JAH 

enormous. The holy food ia presented to the idol three times a 
day. His meal lasts about an hour, during which time the dancing 
girls, the Devadasi, belonging to the temple, exhibit their profes- 
sional skill in an adjoining building. " At the Suan-yatra (or 
bathing festival) the god is bathed by pouring water on his head 
during the reading of incantations. At the Rath-yati*a (or car 
festival) the carriage, containing the three images (which has 
sixteen wheels and two wooden horses) is drawn by the devotees, 
by means of a hawser, for some distance. On this occasion many 
cast themselves beneath the ponderous wheels and are crushed to 
death."— -Swrn/Z, H. S. L., p. 157. 

Jahnu — The son of Suhotra. This prince whilst performing a 
sacrifice, saw the whole of the place overflowed by the waters of 
the Ganges ; being highly offended at this intrusion, he united the 
spirit of 'sacrifice with himself by the power of his devotion, and 
drank'up the river. The gods and sages upon this came to him 
and appeased his indignation, and re-obtained Ganga from him in 
the capacity of his daughter. 

" It chanced that Jahnu, great and good 

Engaged with holy offerings stood. 

The river spread her waves around 

Flooding his sacrificial ground. 

The saint in anger marked her pride, 

And at one draught her stream he dried. 

Then god and sage and bard afraid, 

To noble high-souled Jahnu prayed. 

And begged that he would kindly deem 

His own dear child that holy stream. 

Moved by their suit, he soothed their fears, 
. And loosed her waters from his ears. 

Hence Ganga through the world is styled 

Both Jahnavi and Jahnu's child." — Griffiths. 

Jahnu is also the name of a son of Kuru. V. P. 

Jahnavi— A name of Ganga as the daughter of Jahnu, as 
related above. 

JAI 273 

Jaimini — A pupil of Vyasa, and teacher of the Sama Veda. 
Also the name of a celebrated author in the South of India, who 
lived about the thirteenth century. Ho wrote a free translation 
from the Sanskrit of the Aswamedhika Parva of the Mahlbh;irata, 
detailing the horse sacrifice. This work is acknowledged by all 
sects to be the finest specimen of Canarese poetry in existence. 
* He has read Jaimini' is a proverbial saying, equivalent to ' he is 
an accomplished man.' 

JainaS — The Jainas were a very numerous and important sect 
in the eighth and ninth centuries of the Christian era. The founder 
of the system was Rishaba-deva, a Hindu, but the system itself 
was an off-shoot or after-growth of Buddhism with which it has 
many leading doctrines in common, but is distinguished from it by 
its recognition of a divine personal Ruler of all, and by its political 
leaning towards Erahmanism. The Jainas have left many 
monuments of their skill and power in the fine temples built in 
different parts of the Deccan, as well as in the provinces of Mewar 
and Marwar, which have been designated the cradle of their 
system. The literature of the Jainas is very extensive, including, 
besides Puranas of their own, various works in grammar, astronomy, 
mathematical science, medicine, &c. They were the first who 
reduced the Canarese language to- writing, and cultivated it to a 
high degree of perfection. The best Epic poem in tlie Tamil 
language, the Chintamani, is the work of a Jaina. 

" The leading tenets of the Jainas and those which chiefly 
distinguish them from the rest of the Hindus, are, first, the denial 
of the divine origin and infallible authority of the Vedas : secondly, 
the reverence of certain holy mortals, now termed Tirthankara, or 
saints, who acquired by practices of self-denial and mortification a 
station superior to that of the gods ; and thirdly, extreme and even 
ludicrous tenderness for animal life. 

" The Jainas are still found in most of the provinces of Upper 
Hindustan ; in the cities along the Ganges, in Calcutta, but more 
especially to the westward. They are also numerous iu Guzerat, 
in the upper part of the Malabar Coast, and are scattered 
throughout the Peninsula. They still form a large and importau 


274 JAl 

division of the population of India. The name of the sect means a 
follower of Jina, the latter being one of the denominations of their 
deified saints ; and as another name of these saints is Arhat, the 
Jainas are also called Arhattas. — Wilson. 

The following account of Jainism was written in Tamil by Munshi, Sastram 
Aiyar. * " The Jainas verily believe that their system alone was the primeval 
system of the world ; that all other systems were derived from it ; that some 
of the learned professors of their system, by the fault of the time in which 
they lived, formed various other systems ; that Mdksha [bliss] can be obtained 
in this system and in no other ; that this alone is the true system ; and that 
all other systems believe falsehood to be truth. 

" The Jainas positively affirm that the world exists from all eternity, and 
that it will exist for ever, without being destroyed, and that it was not created 
by God, or by any other person. They moreover affirm that this world is 
divided into three parts, namely, the lower world, the middle world, and the 
upper world ; and that below this world, there is a world called Adhogati 
[abyss, the nethermost hell], above which there are seven infernal worlds ; 
and above those again are ten Pavanalokas, purifying worlds [Purgatories], 
above which is this world of earth ; above this again is the Jotiloka, world of 
light [starry world] ; and that in this our world of earth there are two worlds 
included, namely, the Vyantraloka, world of demons [devils], and the 
Vidyadharaloka, world of demi-gods ; and again above these are sixteen 
different kinds of Devalokas, worlds of the gods, over which is the Ahamin- 
draloka, world of Indra ; and above that again is the Mokshaloka, world of 
bliss ; where dwells the Lord of all these worlds, the Supreme Being, called 
the Anadi-chitta-para-meshti [Eternal-intellectual-heavenly-dweller.] 

"They believe that this earth is sixteen cords high, and seven cords broad ; 
but this measurement is not within the comprehension of men ; it is known 
only to the wise. The seas and islands that are situated on the earth cannot 
be perceived and estimated by man's understanding. They affirm that in the 
midst of the earth is the great mountain Meru, and that to the South of it i& 
situated the Bharata region, and to the North the Airavata region, and to the 
E^st and West is the Videha region. They also affirm that on both sides of 
Mount Meru are situated the three kinds of Bhogabhumi, fruitful, or 
felicitous regions ; and that the natives of these regions attain to great age 
and size ; that they cannot interchange places ; and that while it is day in 
one of the lands, it is night m the other. The people of Videha also attain to 
great age and stature. 

" The Jainas consider Arugan to be their principal god, and worship him. 

» Yxom the Chint^mani. By the Rev, H. Bower. Madras, 1868, 

JAI 275 

The popular name of this god is Jinan ; and from this the appellation Jaiuas 
ia derived. To this god one-thousand and eight sacred names are ascribed. 
His greatness ia such that the three worlds worship and adore him. His 
knowledge is so great that it extends simultaneously to all things sentient. 
and unsentient, to things that have been conceived and that will be conceived, 
to worlds and to worldless spaces. He is powerful to impart the knowledge 
of his doctrines simultaneously to all kinds of living beings, in their respective 
language, without the aid of mind, word, or body ; and this he does of pure 
grace, and not from any selfish motives. He does not possess the power 
[act] of creating anything, or of preserving anything. He is not subject 
to birth or death. He manifests great grace, and love, and mercy, to all 
sentient beings. He is of infinite wisdom, of infinite intelligence, of infinite 
power, and of infinite bliss. It is he that in the beginning, with a view of 
causing happiness to all living beings, made known the twelve primeval Vedas. 
He is the possessor of the triple-umbrella. He is without beginning and 
without end. He is the possessor of the three wheels of justice. He is 
represented with four holy faces, and as seated in the shade of the ashdka 
tree. He has forsaken the one hundred and forty-eight actions of life. He 
has declared that the Veda, the "World, Time, Souls, Action, and Virtue are, 
like himself, imperishable and eternal objects. 

" The god Arugan has declared that there is no other god besides himself ; 
that all who worship and adore him will obtain bliss, and that those who do 
not worship him will not obtain bliss ; that all living beings will enjoy the 
fruits of their good or evil actions ; that by preponderance of evil, souls enter 
hell, and by preponderance of good, they enter the world of the gods ; but 
when good and evil are equally balanced, they are born as human beings ; 
when evil alone exists, they are born as irrational animals ; and when both 
good and evil are destroyed, then they are liberated. Since Arugan has 
declared these things, the Jains firmly believe them to be true doctrines, and 
since all other systems have been intermediately introduced by certain 
persons, they positively affirm them all to be false systems. , 

" As Time is considered to be eternal, it is iudestructable in its nature, and 
is divided into two sorts, viz., the Utsarpini and the Avasarpiui time. The 
Avasarpini time has six stages, viz., good-good time, good time, good-bad 
time, bad-good time, bad time, and bad-bad time. In like manner the 
Utsarpini time has six stages, only that it begins at the bottom of the list 
with bad-bad time and goes backwards. In the Utsarpini time, beginning 
from bad-bad time, the age and stature of men increase, as that of the waxing 
moon. But in the Avasarpini time, beginning from the good-good time, the 
age and stature of men decrease, as that of the waxing moon. The increase 
and decrease of stature is up to six thousand Vils [bows], and down to a 
cubit. The increase and decrease of nge will be from three pallam.s, 

276 JAI 

to fifteen years. This account of pallams is not to Le understood 
by men. In the above specified six divisions of time, the first consists 
of four krores of krores of oceans of years. The second consists of three 
krores of krores of oceans of years. The third consists of two krores of krores 
of oceans of years. The fourth, one krore of krores of oceans of years, save 
forty-two thousand years. The fifth consists of twenty thousand years. The 
sixth also consists of twenty thousand years. This account of oceans is not 
to be understood by men. The stage in which we now live is the fifth, viz., 
the bad time. When the two sorts of time, viz., the Utsarpini and Avasarpini 
times run out, it is said to be a Yugam. Utsarpini means the age of increase, 
and Avasarpani means the age of decrease. 

*' As the present is the Avasarpini time, we must infer that the three good 
stages of time have already passed by, and that the Bharata region, and the 
Airavata region have both been Bhogabhumis, fruitful lands. The people of 
those times, as before stated, had stature of body, and length of age adequate 
to the times. The people of those times forty-five days after their birth, 
became perfect men, and were well up in all sciences, and attained all 
knowledge by themselves, simply from the plastic power of the time. 
Moreover in these three stages of time there was no light of the sun or of 
the moon ; but day and night were formed from the reflection and non- 
reflection of the Kalpaka trees. Those people at death entered the world of 
the gods, and did not go to hell. And they were not subject to the ordinary 
physical evils connected with disease, the discharges of the body, &c. 

'* Thus after the existence of the Bhogabhumi, when yet there was one- 
eighth of time, in the third stage, fourteen Manus were born. It was in the 
time of these Manus that the sun and moon, the stars and clouds appeared ; 
division of time into years and months, the equinoctical or solstitial course, 
the lunar half-month or fortnight, the six seasons, the day of twenty-four 
hours, and the day as distinguished from night, were instituted ; means of 
warding off the evils arising from wild beasts were discovered ; rivers, tanks, 
reservoirs, mountains, and a variety of means of livelihood were brought into 
use. Of the above mentioned Manus, the foiirteenth is said to have been 
Nabhi Maharajah. In the reign of this Manu, as the people were born with 
the umbilical cord, the name Nabhi was given. In his reign clouds appeared, 
and it rained. Then appeared trees and various kinds of corn. By this Manu 
men were taught to cat fruit and grain, and the way of preparing food ; and 
he also pointed o)it the way of weaving cloths from cotton, and of wearmg 
them ; and the use of flowers, garlands, perfumes, and ornaments, to adorn 
the person, came into voguo. 

^'This Nablii Maharajah is said by some to be Brahma. His consort was 
Murudeviammal. In his reign was born the first incarnated personage named 
A'ri-sUal.ha Tirthankara, After him were born twenty-three Tirthankaras, 

JAI 277 

equal to himself. In their days, the twelve Chakravartis, the nine Baladevas, 
the nine Vasudevas, and the nine Prativasudevas were all born in the fourth 
stage. These sixty-three persons were called Salaka iiurushas, divine 

" The twenty-four Tirthankaras, without the instruction of a Guru, were 
skilled in the circle of the sciences, knew the five Kaliyanas or ceremonies of 
the gods, were worshipped by the four classes of the gods, and at 
their very birth were endued with the three kinds of knowledge ; 
they also had the fourth kind of knowledge, by the exercise of which 
they were cognizant of the thoughts of all living beings, and they also 
possessed the fifth kind of knowledge called Kevalajnanam [spiritual 
knowledge,] by which they were instantaneously cognizant of all things done 
in all the worlds. They sat exalted on the throne in the temple called 
Sambhavasaranam, constructed by the Devendras. They were the possessors 
of the triple-umbrella and the Ashoka tree ; they were believed in as gods 
over gods, as omniscient, as lords of the three worlds, as removers of sin and 
bestowers of heavenly bliss, as persons praised by all living beings, as 
possessors of divine attributes, as bearing the one thousnd and eight divine 
appellations, as having the one thousand and eight divine marks on their 
sacred bodies, and as manifesting abundant grace, love, and mercy to all 
living beings, and pre-eminent in imparting instruction in their respective 
languages to the inhabitants of the celestial and the terrestial worlds, to 
those of the Nagaloka, Vaiyantriloka, and Jotiloka, and also to irrational 
animals, and inculcating the virtues, such as not killing, &c., prescribed in 
the twelve Vedas. As these twenty-four Tirthankaras are incarnations of 
wisdom, and are divine personages who appeared in the world and attained 
the enjoyment of heavenly bliss, the Jainas consider them to be Swamis 
equal to the divine-natured Arugan, who exists in this Avasarpini time. And 
accordingly they build temples in honour of these Tirthankaras, and make 
images like them of stone, wood, gold, and precious gems, and considering 
these idols as the god Arugan himself, they perform daily and special i^ujas 
[worship], and observe fasts, and celebrate festivals, in their honour. 

" They moreover say that in the time of Vrishaba Tirthankara, and in the 
reign of Baradeswara, the first Chakravarti, the four castes, namely, the 
Brahman, the Kshatriya, the Vaisya, and the Sudra, were instituted in 
connection with this system. 

" They moreover allege that in the time of Vrishaba Swami, who was the 
first Tirthankara, the Saiva system was first introduced ; and about the same 
period, by the fault of the time, one hundred and six heterodox sects were 
established by Marichi, a Prajapati [Patriarch] ; and that from the time of 
Vimalaswami, the I3tli Tirthankara, the Vaishnava system was introduced ; 

278 JAI 

and that in the time of Paraswanatha, the 20th Tirthankara, Mahomedanism 
was established. They also say that there are three hundred and thirty-six 
false systems of religion. 

" They moreover affirm that during the period of the 20th Tirthankara, by 
the fault of the time, Yagam, animal sacrifice, was first introduced by an 
Asura named Mahakalesurau ; and after the introduction of these Yagams, 
temples were built for Siva and Vishnu. 

" Moreover, as it is declared in the Jaina Vedas that all the gods worshipped 
by the various Hindu Sects, namely, Siva, Brahma, Vishnu, Ganapati, 
Subramaniyan, and others, were devoted adherents of the abovementioned 
Tirthankaras, the Jainas therefore do not consider them as unworthy of their 
worship ; but as they are servants of Arugan, they consider them to be 
deities of their system, and accordingly perform certain pujas in honour of 
them, and worship them also. 

" As Jaina temples and idols are to be seen in all villages and countries, 
and in some places even underground, it is evident that the Jaina system, 
as declared in their Vedas, was the primeval system of the Hindus. As 
moreover, when the Jaina Vedas are carefully examined, there will be found 
in them many things calculated to benefit mankind ; and since Jaina idols 
are to be found in all countries ; and as the deities worshipped by others are 
believed to be devotees of Arugan ; and as all the precepts of Arugafa point 
only to what is good to all sentient beings ; and by the great doctrine that 
no sentient being whatever, even a tree, should be destroyed ; and as 
there are many things in the system beyond the reach of man's understanding, 
and which can by no means whatever be comprehended ; and as it is evident 
from their Vedas as well as from experience, that all other systems originated 
among themselves through the fault of the time, from misunderstanding, and 
from a variety of other causes ; it is evident that this system was the 
primeval one. 

"The Jainas are divided into two parties, the Swetambaras, and 
Digambaras. Though both parties have the same Veda, they disagree in a 
few things. The Swetambaras have many internal divisions, and the 
Digambaras also appear to have a few internal divisions. 

" The Jainas are prevalent in the North. Their tenets and observances arc 
the following : They believe that not to kill any sentient being is the greatest 
virtue ; not to tell lies, not to steal other men's goods, not to covet other 
men's wives, and to desire moderately such things as money, grain, house, 
garden, land, vehicle, clothing, &c. ; these four ordinances they consider of 
equal importance with the injunction not to kill. 

" Moreover, not to eat at night, and to drink water strained, are held to be 
high virtues, And not to drink toddy, or honey, or arrack, are also believed 

JAI 279 

to be important injunctions. They are also forbidden to eat figs, the fruit of 
the banian, the peepul, the koli and the jujube, as well as the snake-vegetable, 
the calabash, gunjah (bhang), opium, onions, assafsetida, garlic, radish, 
mushroom, &c. Such articles, and others which have much seed in them, 
they will not so much as think of eating even in an emergency where death 
is imminent on such abstinence ; and any kind of flesh meat they will not 
even inadvertently touch with the hand. 

" These and similar observances are enjoined on those who live in the 
domestic state ; and if we were to write largely upon them many books 
would be required ; we shall, therefore, abridge what we have to say. They 
have in fact twelve thousand injunctions to observe. But regarding those 
who live in the ascetic state, as much time will be required both to write and 
to read, we have not ventured to describe them. However, it is necessary to 
know that they firmly believe that there is no final liberation [bliss] in the 
domestic, but only in the ascetic state ; nor is liberation to be attained by 
females, irrational animals, or Sudras, nor by celestial, nor infernal beings ; 
and they moreover hazard the assertion that during the fifth and sixth 
stages of time there is no liberation for any one ; and they show that Time 
alone is the cause of this evil. They also affirm that there are always three 
less nine krores of Munis [ascetics] on earth. 

" The Jainas hold that the function [act, work] of the Divine Being is to 
exercise love and mercy to all living beings, and reveal to them the Vedas, in 
order that they may walk according to the precepts enjoined in them ; and 
that the function [act, work] of all living beings is either to do good or evil, 
and have fruition of their deeds ; and that the attainment of heaven or hell 
is also their own act, and that it is in their own power to renounce sin, and 
to obtain merit. This thej^ consider to be true doctrine." 

According to ]VIr. Max IVIiiller the Nirwaua of the Buddhists is 
absolute and total annihilation ; but the Jainas certainly do not 
attach any such meaning to the term ; it is with them a more 
defined state of existence than the Moksha of the Hindus, " The 
Jainas not only affirm that there is such a state, but they define 
the size of the emancipated souls, the place where they live, their 
tangible qualities, the duration of their existence, the distance at 
which they are from one another, their parts, natures and numbers. 
Those who attain to this nirwana, this extinction of action, this final 
liberation, do not return to a wordly state, and there is no interrup- 
tion to their bliss. They have perfect vision and knowledge, and do 
not depend on works. (Rev. J. Stevenson. The Kalpa Sutra.) 

As noticed in the extract given above from Mnnshi 8astram,.the 

280 JAI 

Jainas are divided iuto two priucipal divihiouB, Digambaras aud 
Swetambaras. The former word meaus 'sky-clad/ or naked, but 
iu the present day, ascetics of this division wear coloured garments, 
aud confine the disuse of clothes to the period of their meals. 
Swetambara means *one who wears white garments;' but the 
points of difference between these two divisions are far from being 
restricted to that of dress : it is said to comprehend a list of seven 
hundred topics, of which eighty-four are considered to be of 
paramount importance. Amongst the latter are mentioned the 
practice of the Swetambaras to decorate the images of their saints 
with earrings, necklaces, armlets, and tiaras of gold and jewels ; 
whereas the Digambaras leave their images without ornaments. 
Again, the Swetambaras assert that there are twelve heavens and 
sixty-four Indras ; whereas the Digambaras maintain that there 
are sixteen heavens and one hundred Indras. In the south of 
India, the Jainas are divided iuto two castes ; in Upper Hindustan, 
they are all of one caste. It is remarkable, however, that amongst 
themselves they recognise a number of families between which no 
intermarriage can take place, and that they resemble, in this respect 
also, the ancient Brahmauical Hindus, who established similar 
restrictions in their religious codes. 

As regards the pantheon of the Jaina creed, it is still more 
fantastical than that of the Brahmauical sects, whence it is 
borrowed to a great extent, but without any of the poetical and 
philosophical interest which inheres in the gods of the Vedic time. 
The highest rank amongst their numberless hosts of divine beings — 
divided by them into four classes, with various sub-divisions — they 
assign to the deified saints, wliich they call Jina, or Arhat, or 
Tirthankara, besides a variety of other generic names. The Jainas 
enumerate twenty-four Tirthankaras of their past age, twenty-four 
of the present, and twenty-four of the age to come ; and they 
invest these holy personages with thirty-six superhuman attributes 
of the most extravagant character. Notwithstanding the sameness 
of these attributes, they distinguish the twenty-four Jainas of the 
present age from each other in colour, stature, and longevity. 
Two of them are red, two white, two blue, two black ; the rest 
arc of a golden hue, (»r a vcllowihli brown. The other two 

JAI— JAM 281 

peculiarities are regulated by them with equal precision, and 
according to a system of decrement, from Rishabha, the first Jina, 
who was five hundred poles in stature, and lived 8,400,000 great 
years, down to Mahavira, the 24th, who had degenerated to the 
size of a man, and was no more than forty years on earth ; the age 
of his predecessor, Parswanatha, not exceeding one hundred years. 
The present worship is almost restricted to the two lastTirthankaras ; 
and as the stature and years of these personages have a reasonable 
possibility, H. T. Colebrooke inferred that they alone are to be 
considered as historical personages. A s, moreover, amongst the 
disciples of Mahavira there is one, Indrabhuti, who is called 
Gautama, and as Gautama is also a name of the founder of the 
Buddha faith, the same distinguished scholar concluded that, if 
the identity between these names could be assumed, it would lead 
to the further surmise that both these sects are branches of the 
same stock. But against this view, which would assign to the 
Jaina religion an antiquity even higher than 543 before Christ — 
the date which is commonly ascribed to the apotheosis of Gautama 
Buddha — several reasons are alleged by Professor Wilson. As to 
the real date, however, of the origin of the Jaina faith, as the 
same scholar justly observes, it is immersed in the same obscurity 
which invests all remote history amongst the Hindus. We can 
only infer from the existing Jaina literature, and from the doctrines 
it inculcates, that it came later into existence than Buddhism. 

Jaitra — The name of the chariot of Krishna. 

Jajali — A pupil of Pathya, and teacher of the Atharva Veda. 

Jaleyu — One of the ten sons of Raudraswa, a descendant of Puru. 

Jamadagni — One of the seven Rishis, or great sages of the 
seventh Manwantara, the present period. 

Jamadagni — The son of Richika, was a pious sage, who by the 
fervour of his devotions, whilst engaged in holy study, obtained 
entire possession of the Vedas. Having gone to king Prasenajit, 
he demanded in marriage his daughter Renukd, and the king gave 
her unto him. The descendant of Bhrigu conducted the princess 
to his hermitage, and dwelt with her there, and she was contented 
to partake in his ascetic life. They had four sons, and then a 


282 JAM 

fifth, who was Jamadagaya, (Rama) the last but not the least of 
the brethren. Once when her sons were all absent, to gather the 
fruits on which they fed, Renuka, who was exact in the discharge 
of all her duties, went forth to bathe. On her way to the stream 
she beheld Chitraratha, the prince of Mrittik^vati, with a garland 
of lotuses on his neck, sporting with his queen in the water, and 
she felt envious of their felicity. Defiled by unworthy thoughts, 
wetted but not purified by the stream, she returned disquieted to 
the hermitage, and her husband perceived her agitation. Beholding 
her fallen from perfection, and shorn of the lustre of her sanctity, 
Jamadagni reproved her, and was exceeding wrath. Upon this 
there came her sons from the wood, first the eldest, Rumanwat, 
then Sushena, then Vasu, and then Visvvavasu ; and each, as he 
entered, was successively commanded by his father to put his 
mother to death ; but amazed, and influenced by natural affection, 
none of them made any reply : therefore Jamadagni was angry, 
and cursed them, and they became as idiots, and lost all 
understanding, and were like unto beasts or birds. Lastly, Rama 
returned to the hermitage, when the mighty and holy Jamadagni 
said unto him, ' Kill thy mother, who has sinned ; and do it, son, 
without repining.' Rama accordingly took up his axe, and struck 
off his mother's head ; whereupon the wrath of the illustrious and 
mighty Jamadagni was assuaged, and he was pleased with his son, 
and said, * Since thou hast obeyed my commands, and done what 
was hard to be performed, demand from me whatever blessings 
thou wilt, and thy desires shall be all fulfilled.' Then Rama 
begged of his father these boons ; the restoration of his mother to 
life, with forgetfulness of her having been slain, and purification 
from all defilement ; the return of his brothers to their natural 
condition ; and, for himself, invincibility in single combat, and 
length of days ; and all these did his father bestow. 

" It happened on one occasion, that, during the absence of the 
Rishi's sons, Uie mighty monarch Karttavirya, the sovereign of 
the Haihaya tribe, endowed by the favour of Dattatreya with a 
thousand arms, and a golden chariot that went wheresoever he 
willed it to go, came to the hermitage of Jamadagni, where the 
wife of the sage received him with all proper respect. The king. 

JAM 283 

inflated with the pride of valour, made no return to her hospitality, 
but carried off with him by violence the calf of the milch cow of 
the sacred oblation, and cast down the tall trees surrounding the 
hermitage. When Rama returned, his father told him what had 
chanced, and he saw the cow in affliction, and he was filled with 
wrath. Taking up his splendid bow, Bliargava, the slayer of 
hostile heroes, he assailed Karttavirya, who had now become subject 
to the power of death, and overthrew him in battle. With sharp 
arrows Rama cut off his thousand arms, and the king perished. 
The sons of Karttavirya, to revenge his death, attacked the 
hermitage of Jamadagni, when Rama was away, and slew the 
pious and unresisting sage, who called repeatedly, but fruitlessly. 
upon his valiant son. They then departed ; and when Rama 
returned, bearing fuel from the thickets, he found his father 
lifeless. V. P. See Rama. 

Jambavat — The king of the bears, that killed the lion that slew 
Prasena, the possessor of the Syamantaka gem. The lion had the 
jewel in his mouth when he was killed by Jambavat, who carrying 
off the gem retired into his cave, and gave it to his son Sukumara 
to play with. The murder of Prasena having been ascribed to 
Krishna, he determined to recover the gem, and having found the 
cavern of Jambavat, he saw the brilliant jewel in the hands of the 
nurse, who called loudly for help. Hearing her cries Jambavat 
came^into the cave, and a conflict ensued between him and Krishna 
which lasted twenty-one days. At last Jambavat was vanquished 
and acknowledged the divinity of Krishna, who then alleviated 
the bodily pain the bear suffered from the fight. Jambavat 
prostrated himself and offered his daughter Jambavati along with 
the Syamantaka jewel. Jambavat was one of the generals in 
Ruma's army at the siege of Lanka. He was severely wounded by 
the magical weapons of Indrajit ; but was still conscious, and made 
known to Hanuman the existence of the four medicinal herbs, that 
grew at Kailasa on the Himalaya mountains, and by virtue of 
which all the dead and wounded might be restored. Hanuman at 
once flew to the spot, and brought the mountain peak and all 
its contents back with him to the camp, and Jambavat, with the 
other chiefs were soon made well. 

284 JAM— JAN 

Jamabvati — One of the wives of Krishna obtained as related 
in the preceding article. 

Jambu — The name of the rose-apple tree on Mouat Gandha- 
midana, the southern buttress of Mount Meru. From the Jambu- 
tree the insular continent, Jambu-dwipa derives its appellation, 
The apples are said to be as large as elephants. V. P. 

Jambu-dwipa — The centre of the seven great insular conti- 
nents, which, with the seven seas, are supposed to form alternate 
concentric circles. In the centre of Jambu-dwipa is the golden 
mountain Meru. 

Jambumali — The son of the Commander-in-Chief of the 
Bakshasas, who was sent by Ravana against Hanuman with orders 
not to return until he had slain the blood-thirsty monkey. But 
Hanuman took up a large tree and hurled it at the head of his 
enemy ; afterwards he took up a pillar and threw it at Jambu-mdli, 
dashing him and his chariot to pieces. 

Jambunada — The soil in the banks of the river Jambu, 
absorbing the Jambu juice, and being dried by gentle breezes 
becomes the gold termed Jambundda, of which the ornaments of 
the Siddhas are fabricated. 

Jambu river— The apples of the Jambu tree are as large as 
elephants ; when they are rotten they fall upon the crest of the 
mountain, and from their expressed juice is formed the Jambu- 
river, the waters of which are drunk by the inhabitants ; and in 
consequence of drinking of that stream they pass their days in 
content and health, being subject neither to perspiration, to foul 
odours, to decrepitude, nor organic decay. V. P. 

Janaka — The Raja of Mithila (the modern Tirhoot) the 
successor of Nimi, called Janaka from being born without a 
progenitor. Another R4ja of Mithila of the same name, called also 
Siradharaja, is the more celebrated as the father of Sita. 

He received Viswamitra the sage with Rama and Lakshmdna, 
and exhibited to them the great bow of Siva, informing them that 
bis daughter Sita was promised to the Raja who could bend the 
bow. Rima then bent the bow in their presence and claimed his 

JAN 285 

reward. The R^ja iavited Dasaratha to the marriage, and 
proposed to marry his two daughters to Rama and Lakshmana ; 
and his two nieces to Bharata and Satrughna. The sages approved 
of the marriages of the four damsels to the four sons of Dasaratha. 
The latter performed a great Sriddha to the ghosts of his deceased 
ancestors, and gave four lakhs of cows with their calves to the 
Brahmans, being a lakh for each son, and each cow was adorned 
with horns of pure gold. The marriage rites were then performed 
with great pomp and overpowering splendour. (Ramiyana) 
Janaka was also the name of a king of Magadha, and seems to have 
been a general title of Mithila kings. 

Janakpur — A ruined city in the northern skirts of the Mithila 
district (Tirhut) and supposed to indicate the site of a city founded 
by one of the princes of that name. 

Jana-loka — The heaven of saints where Sanandana and other 
pure-minded sons of Brahma reside, situated twenty millions of 
leagues above Dhruva. During a pralaya or general conflagration 
of all things at the end of a Kalpa, Jana-loka is beyond the reach 
of the all-devouring flame ; and the saints who dwell in Mahar- 
loka, when the heat of the flames that destroy the world, is felt by 
them, repair to Jana-loka in thin subtile forms, destined to become 
re-embodied, in similar capacities as their former, when the world 
is renewed at the beginning of the succeeding Kalpa. V. P. 

Janamejaya — The king of Vaisali, whose father Somadatta 
celebrated ten times the sacrifice of a horse. Also a son of 
Puranjaya, a descendant of Ana. Parikshit, the son of Kuru, had 
also a son named Janamejaya ; and another Parikshit, the son of 
Abhimanyu, had a son named Janamejaya. 

Janarddana — The name of Vishnu as the one only God, 
derived from Jana * men' and Arddana, worship, the object of 
adoration to mankind. 

Janasruti — A king mentioned in the Chhandogya-Upanishad, 
described as charitably-disposed, the giver of large gifts, and the 
preparer of much food ; who built houses everywhere that people 
from all sides mi^ht come and feast therein. 


Jangalas — One of the aboriginal tribes, dwellers in thickets 
and jungles. Many of the aborigines -were driven into the forests 
by the Aryan invaders. 

Jangams, or LingayatS — One of the forms in which the 
Linga worship appears, is that of the Liugayats, Liugawants, or 
Jangams, the essential characteristic of which is wearing the 
emblem on some part of the dress or person. The type is of a 
small size, made of copper or silver, and is commonly worn, 
suspended in a case, round the neck, or sometimes tied in the 
turban. In common with the Saivas generally, the Jangamas 
smear their foreheads with Vihhuti (ashes), wear necklaces, and 
carry rosaries made of the Rudraksha seed. The clerical members 
of the sect usually stain their garments with red ochre. They are 
not numerous in upper India, and are rarely encountered except as 
mendicants, leading about a bull, the living type of Nandi, the bull 
of Siva, decorated with housings of various colours and strings of 
kauri shells. The conductor carries a bell in his hand, and, thus 
accompanied, goes about from place to place, subsisting upon alms. 
In the South of India the Liugayats are very numerous, and the 
officiating priests of the Saiva shrines are commonly of this sect, 
when they bear the designations of Arddhya and IBanddram. The 
sect is also there known by the name of V\ra Saiva. The restorer 
if not the founder of this faith, was Basava whose history is given 
in the Basava Purana, q. v. — H. H. Wilson, Vol. /, p. 224. 

Janma — A birth ; a state of existence ; nativity, one of the 
branches of the study included in the Brihat-Sanhita. 

Jantu — The eldest of the hundred sons of Somaka. Also the 
name of a son of Sudanwan. 

Jara — An allegorical personage signifying * old age' * decay' — 
mentioned in the Vishnu Purana as the name of the hunter by 
whom Krishna was slain. He mistook the foot of Krishna for 
part of a deer, and shooting his arrow lodged it in the side, lie 
then said, * Have pity on me ; I have done this unwittingly, 
Krishna forgave him and sent him to heaven in his own car. Jai*^ 
was also the name of the female fiend who united the two part>- of 

JAR— JAT 287 

Jaradgava — The southern portion or Avashthana of the 
planetary sphere or path of the sun and planets amongst the lunar 

Jaradgavi — A division of the lunar mansions, occurring in the 
Central or Vaisw^nara Avasthana. 

Jarasandha — The son of Vrihadratha, who was born in two 
parts and put together by the female fiend Jara. When he grew 
up he became king of Magadha, and hearing that Krishna had 
killed his son-in-law, he collected a large force and beseiged 
Mathura ; he was defeated, but renewed the attack eighteen times 
without success. When Yudhishthira was about to perform the 
Rajastiya, Krishna informed him that there was one Raja still to be 
conquered before he began the great sacrifice, and that was 
Jarasandha the Raja of Magadha. Krishna, Arjuua and Bhima 
then disguised themselves as brahmans and journeyed to the city 
of Magadha, and Bhima challenged Jarasandha to single combat ; 
the challenge was accepted and after a hard contest the Raja was 
slain. The story is related at great length in the Mahabharata, 
but the details are purely mythical. 

Jaratkaru — The Vyasa of the twenty-seventh Dwapara. 

Jarudhi— One of the mountain ridges which project from the 
base of Mount Meru, on the western side. 

Jataka — A birth ; a state of existence ; the title of one of the 
sacred books of the Buddhists, containing an account of Gautama 
Buddha in 550 different births. 

Jatas — One of the five great divisions of the Haih^ya tribe. 

Jatayu — A son of Syeni and Aruna. A semi-divine bird, the 
friend of Rama, who fought in defence of Sita. He heard her 
cries in the chariot of Ravana, stopped the chariot and fought 
desperately with the formidable giant, but was mortally wounded 
and only lived to make known to Rama the fate of Sita. The 
funeral rites of the chief of vultures were carefully performed by 
Rama and Lakshmana. 

Jathara — A range of mountains running north and south, and 
connecting the two chains of Nishadba and Nila. 

288 JAT— JAY 

Jatharagni — The name in a previous birth of the Muni 

Jatharas — A tribe of aborigines inhabiting the mountain range 
termed Jathara. 

Jaughira — An interesting and picturesque place of pilgrimage 
between Bhagulptir and Monghir. In the middle of the river 
there is a romantic rock, with a temple surmounting it sacred to 
Siva ; while in the mainland, and close to the small town, there is 
another hill of the same kind, on which temples have been built, 
some of them of great antiquity. The place has long enjoyed the 
reputation of being the residence of holy devotees ; Mussalman 
as well as Hindu. 

Javali — A renowned logician who at Chitra Kuta endeavoured 
to persuade Rama that it was his duty to accept the Raj when 
Bharata himself offered it. Rama regarded his arguments as 
atheistical and wanting in respect for his deceased father the 
Mahdr^ja. Javali ultimately recants. Mr. Wheeler regards the 
incident as an interpolation to bring forward Buddhism and 
Atheism for the sake of refuting them. 

Jaya — One of the kings of Mithila, the son of Gusruta. 
Jayadratha — A descendant of Anu and son of Viihanmanas. 
Also the name of a son of Vrihatkarman, a descendant of Hastin. 

Jayadhwaja — The king of Avanti ; one of chief of the 
hundred sons of Kdrttavirya. 

Jayanta — A name applied to one of the Rudras. The Puranic 
writers apply to the Rudras different appellations of the common 
prototype, or synonyms of Rudra and Siva, selected at random 
from his thousand and eight names. 

Jayantpura — A city founded by Nimi, near the Asrama of 

Jayas— In the beginning of the Kalpa twelve gods, named 
Jayas, were created by Bramha as his deputies and assistants in 
the creation. They, lost in meditation, neglected his commands ; 
on which he sentence 1 <li<in to be repeatedly born in each 

JAY— JUM 289 

Manwactara till the seventh. They were accordingly in the 
several successive Manwantaras, Ajitas, Treshitas, Satyas, Haris, 
Vaikunthas, Sadyas, and Adityas. 

Jayati — The metre created from the western mouth of Bramha 
along with the Sama Veda, the collection of hymns termed 
Saptadasa and the Aitaratra sacrifice. 

Jayasena — The son of Adina ; one of the descendants of 
Kuru, Sarvabhauraa had a son also named Jayasena. 

Jhajhara — A daitya of great prowess, the son of Hiranyaksha. 

Jillikas — one of the aboriginal or Non-Aryan tribes mentioned 
in the V. P. 

Jimuta — A prince, son of Vyoman, a descendant of Jyamagha. 

Jiva — The soul ; *' Spirit cannot change ; intelligence has no 
knowledge ; the soul (jiva) knowing things in excess is subject to 
illusion, and says, * I act, I see.' If spirit falls into the error of 
supposing the individual soul, jiva, to be itself, as one might 
suppose a rope to be a snake, it becomes frightened ; but so soon 
as it perceives I am not fwa, but the Supreme spirit, (pardtman) 
it is released from all fear." Atma Bodha^ quoted in A. and M. /., 
Vol. I, p. 212. 

Jivata — Man's individual spirit ; it is an error to attribute the 
spirit of life (or man's individual spirit, jivata,) to the Supreme 
Spirit, just as it is an error to take a post for a man. When once 
the true nature of jivata has been recognised^'ii'a^o- itself disappears." 
Atma Bodha, quoted in A. and M. I. p. 214. 

Jogi— See Yogi. 

Jumnotree — A sacred spot in the Himalaya mountains, near a 
junction of three streams. From the bed of the torrent the 
mountain rises at once to its height, apparently without any very 
extensive irregularities, and the steepness of the declivity at this 
point may in some degree be estimated, when it is understood that 
here, though at the foot 'of this upper region of the mountain, the 
very peaks are seen towering above as ready to overwhelm the 


290 JNA— JYA 

gazer with the snow from their summit, and, in fact, the avalanches 
from above fall into the channel of the river. The particular spot 
which obtains the name of Jumnotree is very little below the place 
where the various small streams formed on the mountain brow, by 
the melting of many masses of snow, unite in one, and fail into a 
basin below. Balfour^ s Cyclopcedia of India. 

Jnana»— " Wisdom," the various epithets applied to it in the 
Yoga philosophy are that it "requires no exercise," "without the 
practice of abstract contemplation ;" "not to be taught," "not 
capable of being enjoined" "internally diffused," etc., "of all 
means knowledge alone is able to effect emancipation ; as without 
fire there can be no cooking, so without ^*wa«o, science, there can be 
no final deliverance." Atma JBodha, A, and M, /., Vol. /, /?. 210. 

Jrimbhika — " Yawning," a form or manifestation of Brahma. 
V. P. 40. 

Jyamagha — A king, celebrated for his devotion to his wife. 
" Of all the husbands submissive to their wives, who have been or 
who will be, the most eminent is the king Jyamagha, who was the 
husband of Saivyi, who was barren : but Jyamagha was so much 
afraid of her, that he did not take any other wife. On one occasion 
the king, after a desperate conflict with elephants and horse, 
defeated a powerful foe, who abandoning wife, children, kin, army, 
treasure, and dominion, fled. When the enemy was put to flight, 
Jydmagha beheld a lovely princess left alone, and exclaiming, 
" Save me, father ! Save me, brother !" as her large eyes rolled 
wildly with aflfright. The king was struck by her beauty, and 
penetrated with affection for her, and said to himself, "This is 
fortunate ; I have no children, and am the husband of a sterile 
bride : this maiden has fallen into my hands to rear up posterity : 
I will espouse her ; but first I will take her in my car, and convey 
her to my palace, where I must request the concurrence of the 
queen in these nuptials." Accordingly he took the princess into 
his chariot, and returned to his own capital. 

When Jyamagha's approach was announced, SaivyA came to the 
palace gate, attended by the ministers, the courtiers, and the 

JYE— JYO 291 

citizens, to welcome the victorious monarch : but when she beheld 
the maiden standing on the left hand of the king, her lips swelled 
and slightly quivered with resentment, and she said to Jydmagha, 
*' Who is this light-hearted damsel that is with you in the chariot ?" 
The king unprepared with a reply, made answer precipitately, 
through fear of his queen ; This is my daughter-iu-lav\" " I have 
never had a son," rejoined Saivya, *' and you have no other children. 
Of what son of yours then is this girl the wife ?" The king 
disconcerted by the jealousy and anger which the words of Saivyi 
displayed, made this reply to her in order to prevent further 
contention ; " She is the young bride of the future son whom thou 
shalt bring forth," Hearing this, Saivy4 smiled gently, and said, 
*' So be it ;" and the king entered into his great palace. V. P. 

Jyeshta^A lunar month corresponding to May. 

Jyeshta — The goddess of misfortune ; produced at the churning 
of the ocean according to the enumeration in the Uttara Khanda 
of the Padma-Purana. — Also the name of a lunar mansion in 
J^radgavi in the Central Avashtana. 

Jyotiratha — The name of a river mentioned in the Puranas, 
but not identified . 

Jyotisha — " Astronomy ;" an anga of the Vedas, or subsidiary 
portion of the Vedas. "New moon festivals, and full moon 
festivals, were integral elements in early Hindu worship, and each 
veda appears to have had a calendar, called jyotisha ; but whether 
any original copies of these calendars still exist, seems doubtful. 
They are interesting as being first steps in astronomy, although 
constructed solely with a view to the regulation of religious 

The Surya Siddhanta, one of the most important of Sanscrit 
works on Astronomy, has been attacked and defended and explained 
by competent European scholars." 

" M. Biot believed that the Hindus derived their system of 
nakshatras, or moon stations, from the Chinese ; and Professor 
Whitney shows that the Hindu nakshatra does not mean the same 
thing as the Chinese stew, Siew means a single star, whereas 

292 JYO 

nakshatra generally expresses a group of stars, or rather a certain 
portion of the starry heavens. * * * * xhe Arab manazil, 
and the signs of the lunar zodiac, bear a marked resemblance to 
the Hindu nakshatras, being groups of stars marking out the 
ecliptic into twelve nearly equal divisions. Such a system. 
Professor Whitney observes, is as well suited as any that could be 
devised for a people seeking to define the daily stages of the moon's 
revolution, without the aid of fhstruments. 

** The path of the moon was in fact marked by twenty-seven 
stations believed by Hindu observers to be equi-distant. But when 
a * new aud more exact astronomy had been brought in from the 
West,' the moon was reduced in significance ' to one of a class of 
planetary bodies all whose movements were capable of being 
predicted, and their places at any given time determined, and their 
conjunctions calculated by an elaborate system of rules. Then first 
the lesser planets were mentioned by Hindu astronomers, and then 
first was an observation made by aid of the junction stars, which 
yielded a trustworthy date. That this must have been not far 
from A, D. 500 is. Professor Whitney considers, proved. 

" The results of this one grand effort, never repeated and never 
rivalled, are recorded with occasional slight and unexplained 
modifications, by every succeeding author from century to century. 
The date coincides with that of the Hindu Astronomer Aryabhata ; 
and Aryabhata we understand, * availed himself largely of the 
progress which the Greeks, (especially Hipparchus) had made in 
astronomy ; and * not only improved upon their new theories and 
inventions, but added also the results of his own independent 

'* The beginning of the sixth century stands out, therefore, as 
an important era in the history of astronomy in India ; and every 
fragment of intelligence concerning Aryabhata and his works 
becomes invested with peculiar importance. (See Appendix, Art. 
Aryabhata). His idea of the roundness of the earth is thus 
expressed : — 

' The terrestrial globe, a compound of earth, water, fire and air, entirely 
round, encompassed by a girdle {the equator) wtands in the air, in the centre 

JYO 293 

of the stellar sphere. Like as a ball formed by the blossoms of the nauclea 
kadamba is on every side beset with flowerets, so is the earth-globe with all 
creatures, terrestrial and aquatic' 

" And this globe he believed to have a daily revolution. 
* Aryabhata' says Dr. Kern, * for aught we know was the first, and 
remained almost the sole astronomer among his countrymen, who 
affirmed the daily revolution of the earth on its own axis.' He 
gives the following quotation from one of Aryabhata's works : — 

' As a person in a vessel while moving forward, sees an immovable object 
moving backwards ; in the same manner do the stars, however immovable, 
seem to move daily.' 

Thus showing it is the earth not the stars which move : — 

" On another occasion Aryabhata says, * the sphere of the stars 

is stationary ; and the earth, making a revolution, produces the 

daily rising and setting of stars and planets.' 

*' Mr. Colebrooke states that * Aryabhata affirmed the diurnal 
revolution of the earth on its axis ;' that he accounted for it by a 
wind or current of aerial fluid, the extent of which, according to 
the orbit assigned to it by him, corresponds to an elevation of little 
more than a hundred miles from the surface of the earth ; that he 
possessed the true theory of lunar and solar eclipses, and disregarded 
the imaginary dark planets of the mythologists and astrologers, — 
affirming the moon and primary planets (and even the stars) to be 
essentially dark, and only illumined by the sun, 

*' But after attaining this excellence, astronomy in India appears 
to have drifted away from science, for no second correct determi- 
nation of polar longitude and polar latitude is recorded ; and writers 
subsequent to Aryabhata confuse astronomy with astrology."* See 
Bhaskaracharya, Vai-ahamihira, &c. 

The popular notion even at the present day is that an eclipse is 
caused by R^hu, the demon, attempting to devour a portion of the 
sun or moon. See Rahu. 

Jyotishtoma — One of the great sacrifices, in which especially 
the juice of the soma plant is offered for the purpose of obtaining 
Swarga or heaven. 

* Mrs. Manning. A. and M. I., vol. 1, p. .367. 

294 JYO 

Jyotishmat — The youngest of the ten sons of Priyavrata, — 
installed by his father king of Kusa-dwipa. Jyotishmat had seven 
sons, after whom the seven portions or varshas of the island were 
named. At the end of all things the seven solar rays dilate to seven 
suns, one of which is termed Jyotishmat. — Vishnu Furdna. 

Jyotsna — " Dawn" — a form or manifestation of Brahma. 

Ka — 1, A name of Prajapati, the creator of the universe ; " Ka 
is Prajapati ; to him let us offer our oblations ;" 2, A name given 
to Daksha ; 3, The name of the divinity who presides over the 
excretory and generative organs. 

Kabandha—l, A pupil of the Muni Sumanta who became a 
teacher of the Sanhitas of the Atharva Veda ; 2, A mighty 
Rikshasa who attacked Rama and Lakshmana in the forest, and was 
slain by them. When mortally Avounded the Rakshasa informed 
them that he had originally been a Gandharva, but was changed 
by the curse of a sage to a Rakshasa until set free by Rama. He 
then, assuming his real shape as a Gandharva, counselled Rama 
to ally himself to Sugriva, with whose aid he might conquer 
Ravana. The story is thus translated by Mr. Griffiths. 
** A hideous giant then he saw, 

Kabandha named, a shape of awe. 

The monstrous fiend he smote and slew, 

And in the flame the body threw ; 

When straight from out the funeral flame 

In lovely form Kabandha came, 

And bade him seek in his distress 

A wise and holy hermitess. 

By counsel of this saintly dame 

To Pamp^'s pleasant flood he came. 

And there the steadfast friendship won 

Of Hanuman the Wind-God's son. 

Counselled by him he told his grief 

To great Sugriva, Vauar chief. 

Who, knowing all the tale, before 

The sacred flame alliance swore." 

Kabir— The most celebrated of the twelve disciples of the 
Hindu reformer Ramdnand. He produced a great eflect in the 

296 KAC—KAI 

state of popular belief ; assailing the whole system of idolatrous 
worship, and I'idiculing the learning of the Pandits and doctrines 
of the Sastras, in a style peculiarly suited to the genius of his 
countrymen. Kabir lived at the beginning of the 15th century. 
The Bhakta Mala gives an account of his birth and life. The 
doctrines taught by Kabir are contained in the Sukh Niddn, and 
do not differ much from those of the Vaishnavas. The moral code 
is short but favorable to morality. — Wilson's Works, Vol. I, p. 153. 

Kachchas — An aboriginal tribe, the name of which implies that 
the people dwelt in districts contiguous to water and in marshy 
spots : such as the province still called Cutch. 

Kachhapa — One of the sons of Visvamitra. 

Kadamba — The name of the tree that grows on Mount 
Mandara, the flowers of which are said to yield a spirit on 
distillation, whence Kadambari is one of the synonyms of wine or 
spirituous liquor. 

Kadru — One of the daughters of Daksha, who was married to 
Kasyapa and had a progeny of a thousand powerful many-headed 

Kaikasi— One of the daughters of Sumali and Ketumati ; 
Sumali with his family lived for a long time in Pdtala ; and once 
happening to visit the earth he desired his daughter Kaikasi to go 
and woo Visravas, who received her graciously, and she became the 
mother of the dreadful Ravana, the huge Kumbhakarna, and the 
two younger brothers, who all grew up in the forest. 

Kaikeya^One of the four sons of Sivi, who has given a name 
to a province and people in the northwest of India. 

Kaikeyi — One of the queens of Maharaja Dasaratha, and 
mother of Bharata. When it was proposed to instal Rama, the 
son of Queen Kausalya, as heir apparent, Kaikeyi was pleased, 
and offered a reward to her slave woman Manthara who brought 
her the news, saying 

" I joy that Rima gains the throne, 
Kauyalya'f: ,sou is :if^ mine own." 

KAI 297 

But the old hag Manthara, who disliked Rama, excited the 
jealousy of Kaikeyi by representing the degradation and ruin that 
would come to Bharata and herself. 

" When Rama's hand has once begun 
Ayodhya's realm to sway." 

This roused her to action and she ran to the chamber of 
displeasure, sulky and angry. The Maharaja afterwards sought 
her, and finding her in this state of affliction, protested his love 
and affection, but she remained silent ; at last in a critical moment 
she extorted a promise from him and then with *' a woman's 
obstinacy compelled him to keep his word." " He had made the 
promise and she insisted upon its fulfilment. To all he could urge 
she had but one answer ' Unless Rama is exiled and Bharata is 
installed, you will be stigmatized as a liar and I will take poison.' " 

" The monarch as Kaikeyi pressed 
With cruel words her due request, 
Stood for a time absorbed in thought, 
While anguish in his bosom wrought." 

The result was the exile of Rama ; and when her own son 
Bharata returned from Girivraja he strongly reproached his mother 
for what she had done. She lived, however, to rejoice in Rama's 
return to his kingdom. 

KaikeyaS--The five sons of Dhri^taketu, rajah of Kaikeya, 
are termed the Kaikeyas. 

Kailakila Yavanas — A race of kings, who lived when tlic 
Greek princes or their Indo-Scythic successors, following the 
course of the Indus, spread to the upper part of the western coast 
of the peninsula. From an inscription which has been found 
dated a. d. 1058, Kilakila, or Kilagila as it is there termed, is 
called the capital of Marasiuha Deva, king of the Konkau. 

Kailasa — A mountain situated like Meru, in the lofty regions 
to the north of the Himalaya, and celebrated in the traditions and 
myths of India. *' Meru and Kailas-a are the two Indian Olympi. 
Perhaps they were held in such veneration because the Sanskrit- 
speaking Indians remembered the ancient home where they dwelt 


298 KAI— KAK 

with the other primitive peoples of their family before they 
descended to occupy the vast plains which extend between the 
Indus and the Ganges." — Gorresio. 

In the Puranas Kailasa is a fabulous mountain several yojanas 
in breadth, to the west of Meru. Kailasa is described as a 
mountain of pure silver, brilliantly white, and as the residence of 
Siva. In former ages it is said all the mountains had wings ; but 
their flights were productive of so much mischief and danger, that 
Indra struck off their wings with his thunderbolts, and fixed them 
in their present position. Kailasa is often mentioned in tho 
Ramayana, as in the region of the sacred lakes, near the northern 
heights of the Himalayas. 

Kaisika — One of the sons of Vidarbha, (q. v.) and grandson of 

Kaitabha — A formidable demon, who with his companion 
Madhu, sprung from the ear of Vishnu, when he was sunk in his 
sleep of contemplation, ( Yoganidra) at the end of the Kalpa ; the 
demons were about to kill Brahma, when the latter, seeing Vishnu 
asleep, with the view of arousing him began to celebrate the 
praises of Yoganidra. O. S. T., Vol. IV., p. 371. 

Kaivalya — The fourth chapter of the Yoga Sutras, being a 
treatise on the extatic abstraction or isolation of the soul. The 
state of emancipation that may be obtained even during life : it is 
termed jivanmukti ; and is the highest state of Yoga before the 
soul is actually re-absorbed into the Supreme Beiug. The body 
still exists, and of course the soul exists within it ; but its 
connection with it is supposed to be entirely broken, and the soul 
can consequently quit and re-enter the body, and wander about 
where and as it lists. J. C. Thomson. 

Kajnghas — An aboriginal tribe mentioned in the Purana lists, 
but not satisfactorily identified. 

Kakamukhas — A nickname or term of derision, meaning crow- 
faced, applied to designate some of the aboriginal tribes. 

Kakas — A tribe of aborigines, dwelling on tho banks of tlio 
Indus, as it leaves the mountains. 

KAK 299 

Kakavarna— One of the kings of Magadha, who reigned for 
thirty-six years ; he was the son of Sisunaga. 

Kakshas — The same as Kaohchas. 

Kaksheya— One of the ten sons of Raudraswa, a descendant 
of Puru . 

Kakshivat — A young poet and sage, to whom Raja Swanaya 
on the banks of the river Indus, gave his ten daughters in 
marriage ; and in return was duly praised in a vedic hymn 
composed by his enthusiastic son-in-law. Wilson's Rig Veda. 
He was a worshipper of the Asvins, who bestowed on him wisdom, 
and caused a hundred jars of wine and honied liquor to flow forth 
from the hoof of their horse as from a sieve. O. S. T., Vol. V, 
p. 246. 

Kakubha — A mountain in Orissa. 

Kakud — One of the daughters of Daksha who was married to 

Kakudmin — A name of Raivata, the prince who went to the 
heaven of Brahma to consult the god where a bridegroom fit for 
his lovely daughter should be found. 

Kakutstha — In the Treta age a violent war broke out between 
the gods and the Asuras, in which the former were vanquished. 
They consequently had recourse to Vishnu for assistance and 
propitiated him by their adorations. Narayana had compassion 
on them and said, there is an illustrious prince named Puraujaya, 
the son of a royal sage ; into his person I will infuse a portion of 
myself, and by him subdue all your enemies. Acknowledging 
with reverence the kindness of the deity, the immortals quitted 
his presence, and repaired to Puranjaya to solicit his alliance. 

The prince replied, " Let this your Indra, the monarch of the 
spheres, the god of a hundred sacrifices, consent to carry me upon 
his shoulders, and I will wage battle with your adversaries as your 
ally." The gods and Indra readily answered, " So be it ;" and 
the latter assuming the shape of a bull, the prince mounted upon 
his shoulder. Being then filled with delight, and invigorated by 
the power of the eternal ruler of all movable and immovable 


things, he destroyed in the battle that ensued all the enemies of 
the gods ; and because he annihilated the demon host whilst 
seated upon the shoulder (or the hump, Kakud) of the bull, he 
thence obtained the appellation Kakutstha (seated on the hump), 
V. P. 

Kala — In the Vishnu Purana the moon's surface is said to be 
divided into sixteen Kalas or phases ; the moon is also apportioned 
as a receptable of nectar, into fifteen Kalas or digits, corresponding 
to the fifteen lunations on the fourteen of which during the wane, 
the gods drink the amvita, and in the fifteenth of which the Pitris, 
exhaust the remaining portion. Professor Wilson remarks on the 
indistinctness of this account, but states that none of the other 
Puranas make it any clearer. Colonel Warren explains Kdla, in 
one of its acceptations, * the phases of the moon, of which the 
Hindus count sixteen.' 

Kala — (Kala,) A gradation or manifestation of the Mula 
Prakriti ; the principal Kalas are Swaha, Swadha, Dakshina, 
Swasti, Pushti, Tushti, and others, most of which are allegorical 
personifications, as Dhriti, fortitude, Pratishta, fame, and Adharma, 
wickedness, the bride of Mrityu, or death, Aditi the mother of 
the gods, and Diti, the mother of the demons, are also KaUs of 
Prakriti. The list includes all the secondary goddesses. — Wilson's 
Works, Vol. /, p, 246. 

Kala— (Kala.) Time. A form of Vishnu. " The deity as Time 
is without beginning and his end is not known : and from him the 
revolutions of creation, continuance, and dissolution, unintermit- 
tingly succeed ; for when, in the latter season, the equilibrium of 
the qualities (Pradhana) exists, and spirit (Puman) is detached 
from matter, then the form of Vishnu, which is Time, abides." 
V. P., p. 12. 

" This being the case it is asked what should sustain matter 
and spirit whilst separate, or renew their combination so as to 
renovate creation ? It is answered, Time, which is when every 
thing else is not ; and which, at the end of a certain interval, 
unites Matter, Pradhana, and Purusha, and produces creation. 
Conceptions of this kind are evidently comprised in the Orphic 

KAL 801 

triad, or the ancient notion of the co-operation of three such 
principles in creation, as Phanes or Eros, which is the Hindu spirit 
or Purusha ; Chaos, matter or Pradhana ; and Chronos, or K^la, 
Time." (Professor Wilson). Kala is also a name of Yama, the 
Hindu Pluto. " In two remarkable hymns in the Rig Veda we 
find an altogether new doctrine ; Kala or Time is there described 
as the source and ruler of all things." O. S. T., Vol. V., p. 407. 
Kala — (Kala) Thirty Kashtas make one Kala ; fifteen twinklings 
of the eye make a Kashta. K41a or Time, is thus computed : 

15 Nimishas == 1 Kashta 

30 Kashtas = 1 Kala 

30 Kalas = 1 Kshana 

12 Kshauas = 1 Muhurtta 

30 Muhurttas = 1 day and night. 
Kala — (Kala) The name of one of the eleven Rudras according 
to the Bh^gavata ; the son of Vasu Dhruva was named Kala. 
One of the daughters of Daksha, who was married to Kasyapa was 
named Kala. 

Kalajoshakas— One of the aboriginal races mentioned in the 

Kalaka — One of the daughters of Daksha who was married to 

Kalakas, Kalakanjas, Kalakeyas— The names applied to a 

class of Danavas who were powerful, ferocious, and cruel. 

Kahlanabha — One of the many sons of Hiranyaksha ; also the 
name of a son of Viprachitti. 

Kalanara — A prince, the son of Sabhanara, one of the 
descendants of Anu. 

Kalanjara — A fabulous mountain, is placed in the Puranas to 
the north of Meru. 

Kala-nemi — The uncle of Ravana ; the.latter promised him half 
his kingdom if he would kill Hanuman. Kala-nemi consequently 
assumed the form of a devotee and created a magic hermitage on 
the mountain Gandha-madana. When Hanumun reached the 
mountain and perceived Kfila-nemi seated like a devotee upon a 

302 KAL 

deer skin, with various rosaries round his neck, and apparently 
absorbed iu meditation, he supposed he saw a devout sage 
worshipping the liuga. Presently Kala-nemi beheld Hanuraan, 
and welcomed him as his guest ; but Hanuman refused food and 
drink, and would only bathe in the pond which was near. When 
he dipped his foot in the water it was seized by a crocodile, which 
however he soon killed ; upon this a beautiful Apsara arose from 
the dead body, and told Hanuman how she had offended the sage 
Daksha, and had been cursed to become a crocodile until she 
should be delivered by Hanuman. She then thanked him for her 
deliverance and bade him beware of Kala-nemi, Meantime 
Kala-nemi being assured of the death of Hanuman, was pending 
over the division of the Raj of Lanka, when Hanuman suddenly 
appeared before him and said " O you false hermit I know who 
you are ;" and seizing him by the feet whirled him round and 
suddenly let him loose ; he flew through the air to Lanka to the 
utter surprise of Ravana and his councillors. " Kala-nemi," says 
Mr. Wheeler, " is a Hindu Aluaschar. He counts upon the 
pleasure he shall enjoy when taking half the Raj without consi- 
dering that Hanuman may be still alive. To this day when a 
Hindu thinks of future profit without being sure that he will get 
it, he is often compared with Kala-nemi." 

Kalansa— A sub-division of the more important Kalas, or 
manifestations of Prakriti ; the Kalansas are all womankind, who 
are distinguished as good, middling, or bad, according as they 
derive their being from the parts of their great original in which 
the Satya, Rajas, and Tamo Guna, or property of goodness, passion 
and vice predominate. 

Kalapa--The name of the fabulous village in which Maru, a 
descendant of Kusa, has lived for a long period, through the 
power of devotion, that in a future age he may be the restorer of 
the Khshatriya race in the solar dynasty. V. P. 

Kalasutra — One of the Narakas, or hells, enumerated iu the 
Vishnu Purana, and described as one of the awful provinces in 
the kingdom of Yama, terrible with instruments of torture. 

Xalavas — One of the aboriginal races mentioned in thePuranas. 

KAL 303 

Kalayavana — The sou of Gargya, as black as a bee, and heuce 
called Kalayavana. He was king of the Yavanas, and having 
assembled a large army of Mlechchas and barbarians, advanced 
impatiently against Mathura and the Y^davas. Through the 
intervention of Krishna Kalayavana was led to enter the cavern in 
which Muchukuuda was sleeping, and was there destroyed. 
Professor Wilson thinks the story may have originated in some 
knowledge of the power aud position of the Greek Bactrian 
princes, or their Scythiau successors, mixed up with allusions to 
the first Mahomedan aggressions. 

Kalayavi — A disciple of B^shkali and teacher of the Eig Veda. 

Kali — A male personification of the Kali age, or the fourth and 
last age through which the world is now passing. lie wished to 
obtain Damayanti in marriage, and when he found that she had 
chosen Nala, he was greatly enraged and determined to be revenged. 
One evening when Nala failed in some ceremonial observance Kali 
seized the opportunity and straightway entered into him and 
possessed his inmost soul. Nala had a brother named Pushkara, 
and Kali said to Pushkara, go you and play at dice with Nala, and 
I will make you the winner of his Raj. Pushkara challenged Nala 
to a game at dice, aud they sat down to play in the presence of 
Damayanti. They played for gold and jewels and raiment, for 
chariots and horses, but Nala was worsted at every throw, for 
Dwapara embodied the dice, and Kali had mastered him body and 
soul. Then the faithful friends of Nala prayed him to throw no 
longer, but he was maddened with the love of play, and shut his 
ears to all they said. He staked his Raj, aud the vestments which 
he wore, and he lost all to Pushkara. Then followed his exile, 
see jN"ala. Kali after this induced Nala to desert Damayanti in the 
jungle, and this completed his revenge. 

Kali— (K^li.) The Moloch of Indian Mythology. A form of 
Parvati, called Kali, or Maha-Kali, the consort of Siva, in his 
destroying character of T-me. As such, she is painted of a black or 
dark blue complexion. In Calcutta, her images are usually seen of 
the last-mentioned colour. In plates, she is shown as trampling (as 
the personification of Eternity) on the body of Siva (Time). In one 

304 KAL 

hand she holds the exterminating sword, in another a human head ; 
a third points downward, indicating, according to some, the 
destruction which surrounds her, and the other is raised upwards, 
in allusion to the figure of regeneration of nature by a new creation. 
Mr. Ward, however, is of an opinion, which he has expressed 
respecting others of the deities, but which appears to be much at 
variance with the character of Kali, who is here annihilating Time 
itself, viz., that of the two last mentioned hands, one is bestowing 
a blessing, the other forbidding fear. Whatever her gestures may 
import, the image of this goddess is truly horrid, as are the 
devotional rites performed in honor of her. Her wild dishevelled 
hair reaching to her feet, her necklace of human heads, the 
wildness of her countenance, the tongue protruded from her 
distorted mouth, her cincture of blood-stained hands, and her 
position on the body of Siva, altogether convey in blended colours 
so powerful a personification of that dark character she is 
intended to pourtray, that whatever we may think of their tastes, 
we cannot deny to the Hindus our full credit for the possession of 
most extraordinary and fertile powers of imagination. A model 
of this goddess has the body of a dark blue, the insides of the 
hands are red, as is also the circlet of hands round the waist. The 
heads which form the necklace have a ghastly appearance. Her 
tongue is protruded from her mouth, the sides of which are marked 
with blood. Her head-dress and other ornaments are splendidly 
adorned with gems of various kinds. The body of Siva is white. 
Kdli is also called the goddess of cemeteries, under which form she 
is described dancing with the infant Siva in her arms, surrounded 
by ghosts and goblins (likewise dancing) in a cemetery amongst 
the dead. A paragraph appeared sometime ago in a Calcutta 
paper, which stated, that her images, under this form, were now 
worshipped by the Hindus as a propitiation against the destructive 
ravages of the cholera. To this ferocious goddess sanguinary 
sacrifices are made. The Kalika JPurdna which details, in duo 
order and with much precision, the different descriptions of animals 
that ai*e to be sacrificed, and the length of time by which this 
insatiate lady will be gratified and kept in good humour by each, 
ordains that one man (ov a Hon) will please her for a thousand 

KAL 305 

years, but that by the immolation of three men she will graciously 
condescend to be pleased one hundred thousand years. The 
sacrificer must repeat the name Kali and pay her the compliment 
of saying " Hraug, hriug, Kali, Kali ! O horrid-toothed goddess ! 
eat, cut, destroy all the malignant, cut with this axe ; bind, bind, 
seize, seize, drink blood, spring, secure, secure, salutation to Kali !" 
Immense sums of money are annually spent in the worship of this 
terrific deity. There is a celebrated temple dedicated to her at 
Kali-ghat in the vicinity of Calcutta, or the city of Kali, and 
impure sacrifices are offered to it ; and on the occasion of the 
festivals of Kali, her temples are literally swimming with blood. 
An adequate delineation of the scene, and of the horribly disgusting 
appearance of the executioners and other attendants of the place is 
scarcely possible.— Coleman, Myth. Hind, p, 94. 

Kalidasa — The greatest dramatist, and one of the most 
celebrated poets of India. He is known to the literary public of 
Europe especially through his di-ama Sakuntala which, first 
introduced to the notice of the western world by Sir William 
Jones (1789,) created so great a sensation throughout Europe, that 
the early success obtained by Sanskrit studies in England and 
Germany may be considered due to this master-piece of Sanskrit 
literature. Another drama of the same poet, and next in renown 
to Sahmtala^ is the Vihramorvasi, or the Hero and the Nymph. 
Besides these works, Hindu tradition ascribes to his authorship a 
third drama and several poems, which no European critic will 
believe could ever have sprung from a mind like that of Kalidasa. 
Professor Lassen, in the Indische AIterthumsku7ide, i^asses the 
following judgment on this poet : 'Kalidasa may be considered as 
the brightest star in the firmament of Hindu artificial poetry. He 
deserves this praise on account of the mastery with which he wields 
the language, and on account of the consummate tact with which 
he imparts to it a more simple or more artificial form, according 
to the requirements of the subject treated by hira, without falling 
into the artificial diction of later poets, or over-stepping the limits 
of good taste ; on account of the variety of his creations, his 
ingenious conceptions, and his happy choice of subjects ; and not 
less on account of the complete manner in which he attains his 


306 KAL 

poetical euds, the beauty of his narrative, the delicacy of his 
sentiment, and the fertility of his imagination.* But although we 
are enabled by his works to appreciate the merits of this poet, we 
know little of his personal history. That he lived at Ujjayini or 
Oujeiu, and that he was 'one of the nine gems of the court of 
Vikramaditya,' is all that is related in regard to him. But as 
there have been several Vikramadityas at Ujjayini, his date is as 
uncertain as that of any personage of the ancient history of India. 
Dr. Bhao Daji, in a learned and ingenious essay ' On the Sanskrit 
Poet, Kalidasa' (Jour?ial of the Bombay Branch of the Boyal 
As. Soc.f October 1860), has endeavoured to identify Vikramaditya, 
the contemporary of Kalidasa, with Harsha Vikramaditya, and the 
great poet would, therefore, have lived in the middle of the sixth 
century of the Christian era. — Goldsiucker. 

Kalika — One of the daughters of Yaiswanara, the wife of 
Kasyapa and mother of the ferocious and cruel Danavas. 

Kalikamukha — A distinguished Rakshasa chief, the son of 
Sumali and Retumati ; he was the uncle of the great giant Ravana, 
and took part in the mythical battles with the gods. 

Kalika Purana — This work contains about nine thousand 
stanzas in ninety-eight chapters, and is the only work of the series 
dedicated to recommend the worship of the bride of Siva, in one 
or other of her manifold forms as Girija, Devi, Bhadrakali, Kali, 
Mahamya. It belongs therefore to the Sakta modification of 
Hindu belief, or the worship of the female powers of the deities. 
The influence of this worship shows itself in the very first pages 
of the work, which relate the incestuous passion of Brahma for 
his daughter Sandhya, in a strain that has nothing analogous to it 
in the Vayu, Linga, or Siva Puranas. 

The marriage of Siva and Parvati is a subject early described, 
with the sacrifice of Daksha, and the death of Sati ; and this work 
is authority for Siva's carrying the dead body about the world, and 
the origin of the Pithast'hanas, or places where the diflTerent 
members of it were scattered, and where Lingas were consequently 
erected. A legend follows of the births of Bhairava and Vetala, 
whose devotion to different forms of Devi furnishes occasion to 

KAL 307 

describe in great detail the rites and formulae of which her worship 
consists, including the chapters on sanguinary sacrifices, translated 
in the Asiatic Researches. — Wilson, 

Kalinda — The father of Kalindi, the goddess of the Jumna. 

Kalindas — One of the tribes of Kshatrijas who from seeing no 
brahmans became outcasts. O. S. T., Vol. I, p. 482. 

Kalindi — l, One of the wives of Krishna, the daughter of the 
Sun, whom Krishna met on one of his visits to Indraprastha, and 
who claimed him as the reward of her penance ; 2, The goddess 
of the Jumna ; 3, One of the widows of king Asit, and mother of 
Sagara ; 

There came the other widowed queen 

With lotus eyes and beauteous mien 

Longing a noble son to bear, 

And wooed the saint with earnest prayer. 

When thus Kalindi fairest dame, 

With reverent supplication came, 

To her the holy sage replied : 

' Born with the poison from thy side, 

O happy queen shall spring ere long 

An infant fortunate and strong 

Then weep no more and check thy sighs 

Sweet lady of the lotus eyes.' 

Griffiths^ Rdmdya7ia. 

4. The daughter of the king of the Asuras, who after her 
father's death offered her kingdom and herself, twin wives, to 
Matanga (q. v.) who readily assented, married the damsel, and 
became king of Patala. 

Kalinga — One of the five sons of Bali. Kalinga is the name 
of the sea coast west of the mouths of the Ganges, with the upper 
part of the Coromandel Coast. The inhabitants are called 

Kaliya — A serpent king, into whose lake Krishna when a boy 
once leaped, and was severely bitten ; Krishna was then exhorted 
to put forth his celestial vigour, and soon bruised the head of the 

308 KAL 

venomous and powerful snake. Kaliya then prayed for mercy 
saying, behold I am now without strength, without poison, 
deprived of both by thee, * Spare my life.' The snake king was 
then liberated and sent into the sea. 

Kali Yug^a — The last age. It consists of 1,200 years of the 
gods, a year of men being a day of the gods ; these divine years 
may, therefore, be converted into years of mortals by multiplying 
them by 360, which makes the duration of the Kali Yuga 432,000 
years. The date of its commencement is fixed in the thirteenth 
or fourteenth century b. c, when Vishnu returned to heaven after 
his incarnation as Krishna. During this age all things will 
decline, and the deterioration of mankind will be general. The 
Vedas will be disregarded. The minds of men will be wholly 
occupied in acquiring wealth ; and wealth will be spent solely on 
selfish gratifications. Women will follow their inclinations and be 
fond of pleasure. Men of all degrees will consider themselves 
equal to Brahmans. Cows will be held in esteem only as they 
supply milk. These are a few of the evils, selected from the long 
catalogue of them contained in the Vishnu Purana which are to 
prevail in the Kali age. A few redeeming properties of the age 
are, however, mentioned. The efficacy of devotion to Vishnu is 
more strikingly manifested. The least moral merit obtains in 
this age, the greatest reward ; and is by all classes most easily 
displayed. The Kali Yuga is to be followed by the Krita Yuga. 

Kalki — An Avatara of Vishnu to be born near the close of the 
Kali age, when all whose minds are devoted to iniquity shall be 
destroyed, and righteousness be established on earth ; and the 
minds of those who live at the end of the Kali age shall be 
awakened and be as pellucid as crystal. 

Kalmashapada — A prince, called also Saudasa. Kalm^shap^da, 
whilst hunting, encountered Saktri, the son of Vanish t'ha, in the 
woods ; and on his refusing to make way, struck the sage with his 
whip. Saktri cursed the king to become a cannibal ; and 
Viswamitra, who had a quarrel with Vasisht'ha, seized the 
opportunity to direct a Rakshasa to take possession of the king, 
that he might become the instrument of destroying the family of 

KAL 809 

the rival saint. Whilst thus influenced, Mitrasaha, a Brahman, 
applied to Kalm*shapida for food, and the king commanded his 
cook to dress human flesh, and give it to the Brahman, who, 
knowing what it was, repeated the curse of Saktri, that the king 
should become a cannibal ; which taking effect with double force, 
Kalm^shapada began to eat men. One of his first victims was 
Saktri, whom he slew and ate ; and then killed and devoured, under 
the secret impulse of Viswamitra's demon, all the other sons of 
Vasist'ha. Vasist'ha, however, liberated him from the Rakshasa 
who possessed him, and restored him to his natural character. 
V. P. For a somewhat different version of the legend, see O. S. T. 
Vol. I, p. 414. 

Kalpa — A period of time : a great mundane age ; a day of 
Brahma. The most simple calculation of a Kalpa is its being 
1,000 great ages or ages of the gods. Thus 4,320,000 years or a 
divine age, multiplied by 1,000 is equal to 4,320,000,000 years, or 
a day or night of Brahma. 

One year of mortals is equal to one day of the gods. 12,000 
divine years are equal to a period of four Yugas which is thus 
made up, viz. : — 

Krita Yuga, with its mornings and evenings, 4,800 divine years. 
TretdYuga, „ „ 3,600 „ 

Dvapara Yuga, „ „ 2,400 „ 

Kali Yuga, „ „ 1,200 

making 12,000 divine years. 

As a day of the gods is = to one year of mortals, the 12,000 
divine years must be multiplied by 360, the assumed number of 
days in a year, to give the number of the years of mortals in this 
great period of four Yugas, thus : 12,000 divine years X 360 = 
4,320,000 years of mortals. 1,000 of these periods of 12,000 
divine, or 4,320,000 human years— i c, 4,320,000,000 human 
years, are = 1 day of Brahma, and his night is of the same 
duration. Within that period of a day of Brahma, 14 Manus reign, 
and a Manwantara, or period of Mauu, is consequently = the 14th 
part of a day of Brahma. In the present Kalpa (= a day of 

310 KAL— KAM 

Brahma) six Manus, of whom Svayambhuva was the first, have 
ah'eady passed away, the present Manu being Vaivasvata. In each 
Manwantara seven Rishis, certain deities, an ludra, a Manu, and 
the kings, his sons, are created and perish. A thousand of the 
systems of four Yugas, as has been before explained, occur 
coincidently with these 14 Manwantaras ; and consequently about 
7i systems of 4 Yugas elapse during each Manwantara, and 
measure the lives of the Manu and the deities of the period. At 
the close of this day of Brahma a collapse of the universe takes 
place, which lasts through a night of Brahma, equal in duration to 
his day, during which period the three worlds are converted into 
one great ocean, when the lotus born god, expanded by his 
deglutition of the universe, and contemplated by the yogis and gods 
in Janaloka, sleeps on the serpent Sesha. At the end of that 
night he awakes and creates anew. — Wilson. 

Kalpa — The name of a son of Dhruva ; also an Anga of the 
Vedas, containing the Ritual : the ceremonials of the Atharva- 
Vedas are called the five Kalpas. 

Kalpa-SUtraS — Aphorisms regarding the performance of 
sacrifices enjoined by the vedas ; written by human authors, and 
therefore not considered as Sruti or revelation, are yet regarded as 
of very high authority. 

Kama-deva — The Hindu Cupid or Eros, or god of Love, 
considered to be one of the most pleasing creations of Hindu 
fiction, is the son of Vishnu or Krishna by Lakshmi, who is then 
called Maya or Rukmini. According to another account he was 
first produced in the heart of Brahma, and coming out in the form 
of a beautiful female, was looked upon by Brahma with amorous 
emotions. He is usually represented as a handsome youth, 
sometime conversing with his mother and consort in the midst of 
his gardens and temples ; sometimes riding by moonlight on a 
parrot or lory, and attended by nymphs, one of whom bears his 
banner, which consists of a fish on red ground. Endeavouring to 
influence Siva with a passion of love for his wife Parvati, he 
discharged an arrow at him ; but Siva, enraged at the attempt 
reduced him to ashes, or as some say to a mere mental essence, by 

KAM 311 

a beam of fire darted from his central eye. Afterwards the 
relenting god declared that he should be born again in the form of 
Pradyumna, son of Krishna by Maya or Rukmini. The bow of 
Kamadeva is made of flowers, with a string formed of bees, and 
his five arrows are each tipped with the blossom of a flower, which 
is devoted to and supposed to preside over a sense. He is lord of 
the Apsarasas. Many names are applied to Kama-deva. He is 
called the god of desire ; the mind agitator ; the maddener ; the 
inflamer ; the destroyer of devotional tranquillity. 

It is well known that Greek mythology connected Eros, the god 
of love, with the creation of the universe, somewhat in the same 
way as Kama is associated with it in the Rig Veda, x. 129. (See 
Eros in Dr. Smith's Dictionary.) In another hymn of the 
Atharva beda, Kama, like the Eros of the Greeks and Cupid of 
the Latins, is described as the god of sexual love. " May Kama, 
having well-directed the arrow which is winged with pain, barbed 
with longing, and has desire for its shaft, pierce thee in the heart." 
&c. O. S. T., Vol. V, p. 407. 

Kamagamas — A class of deities of the eleventh Manwantara. 

Kamakhya, Kamakshi — The name of a form of Durga in 
the north-east of Bengal. There are some celebrated temples in 
Assam dedicated to the goddess under this form. 

Kamarupa — The name given to the eastern part of Bharata- 
varsha. Also the name of a place of pilgrimage in Assam, where 
the temples referred to in the preceding article are built. 

Kambala — One of the many-headed serpent kings, of the 
progeny of Kadru. 

Kambalavarhish — One of the four sons of Andhaka. 

Kambojas — A north-western tribe famous for their horses, of 
which they appear to have possessed a remarkably fine breed. 
They were conquered by Sagara, who would have destroyed them 
utterly, but at the request of Vasisht'ha contented himself with 
imposing on all the vanquished tribes peculiar distinguishing 
marks, such as shaviug their heads, letting their beards grow, &c. 

512 KAM— KAN 

Kameri — The Indian cuckoo, or bird of Kama, whose emblems 
are peculiarly appropriate, being a bow and arrow composed of 
roses and jessamine, and other flowers in which no thorns ever 
lurk. Colonel Tod says " the Kameri poured forth its monotonous 
but pleasing notes, from an umbrageous peepul, amidst the stillness 
of a lovely scene, where the last tints of sunset illuminated the 
dark hues of the surrounding woods." 

Kampilya — One of the five sons of Haryaswa. Their father 
said these my five (pancha) sous are able (alam) to protect the 
countries ; hence they were called the Panchdlas. Panchala was at 
first the country north and west of Delhi, between the foot of the 
Himalaya and the Chambal. It was afterwards divided into 
northern and southern Panchala separated by the Ganges. Kampilya 
was the name also given to part of the country, and was called 
Kampil by the early Mahommedan invaders. Kampilya was the 
city of Raja Drupada. 

Kamya — Daughter of Kardanea who was married to Priyavrata. 

Kamyaka — An extensive forest on the banks of the Saraswati, 
to which the Pandavas retired, on the occasions of their second 

Kanakas — Inhabitants of Mushika, or the country of thieves, 
a name applied to the pirate coast of Konkan. Professor Wilson 
thinks it may also designate Malabar where polyandry then as now 

Kanakhala — The name of the village according to the Linga 
Purana, where the great sacrifice of Daksha took place. Gangad- 
wara, the place where the Ganges descends to the plains, — or 
Haridwar, as it is more usually termed, is commonly specified as 
the scene of action. 

Kanchana — The son of Bhima, a descendant of Pururavas. 

Kandarpa — A name of Kama the Indian Cupid. 

Kandu — An eminent sage, who practised pious austerities on 
the lovely borders of the Gomati river. ludra sent the nymph 
Pramlochi to disturb his penance, and the sweet-smiling damsel 
diverted the sage from his devotions. They lived together in the 

KAN 313 

valley of Mandura for a huudred and fifty years, wholly given up 
to enjoyment. Then the nymph requested permission to return to 
heaven ; but the sage still fondly attached to her, prevailed upon 
her to remain for some time longer ; and the graceful damsel 
continued to reside for another hundred years and delight the 
great sage by her fascinations. Then she again wished to return 
to the abodes of the gods, and again the Muni desired her to 
remain. Similar scenes occurred several times. 

" On one occasion the sage was going forth from their cottage 
in a great hurry. The nymph asked him where he was going. 
* The day,' he replied, * is drawing fast to a close : I must 
perform the Sandhya worship, or a duty will be neglected.' The 
nymph smiled mirthfully as she rejoined, * Why do you talk, 
grave sir, of this day drawing to a close : your day is a day of 
many years, a day that must be a marvel to all : explain what 
this means.' The Muni said, * Fair damsel, you came to the river- 
side at dawn ; I beheld you then, and you then entered my 
hermitage. It is now the revolution of evening, and the day is 
gone. What is the meaning of this laughter ? Tell me the truth.' 
Pramlocha answered, * you say rightly,' venerable Brahman, * that 
I came hither at morning dawn, but several hundred years have 
passed since the time of my arrival. This is the truth.' The 
Muni, on hearing this, was seized with astonishment, and asked 
her how long he had enjoyed her society ; to which the nymph 
replied, that they had lived together nine hundred and seven 
years, six months, and three days. The Muni asked her if she 
spoke the truth, or if she was in jest ; for it appeared to him that 
they had spent but one day together: to which Pramlocha 
replied, that she should not dare at any time to tell him who lived 
in the path of piety an untruth, but particularly when she had 
been enjoined by him to inform him what had passed. 

" When the Muni, princes, had heard these words, and knew 
that it was the truth, he began to reproach himself bitterly, 
exclaiming, * Fie, fie upon me ; my penance has been interrupted ; 
the treasure of the learned and the pious has been stolen from me ; 
my judgment has been blinded : this woman has been created by 
some one to beguile me : Brahma is beyond the reach of those 


314 KAN 

agitated by the waves of infirmity. I had subdued my passions, 
and was about to attain divine knowledge. This was foreseen by 
him by whom this girl has been sent hither. Fie on the passion 
that has obstructed my devotions. All the austerities that would 
have led to acquisition of the wisdom of the Vedas have been 
rendered of no avail by passion that is the road to hell.' The pious 
sage, having thus reviled himself, turned to the nymph, who was 
sitting nigh, and said to her, ' Go, deceitful girl, whither thou 
wilt : thou hast performed the office assigned thee by the monarch 
of the gods, of disturbing my penance by thy fascinations. I will 
not reduce thee to ashes by the fire of my wrath. Seven paces 
together is sufficient for the friendship of the virtuous, but thou 
and I have dwelt together. And in truth what fault hast thou 
committed ? why should I be wrath with thee ? The sin is wholly 
mine, in that I could not subdue my passions : yet fie upon thee, 
who, to gain favour with ludra, hast disturbed my devotions ; vile 
bundle of delusion.' 

" Thus spoken to by the Muni, Pramlocha stood trembling, 
whilst big drops of perspiration started from every pore ; till he 
angrily cried to her, * Depart, begone.' She then, reproached by 
him, went forth from his dwelling, and, passing through the air, 
wiped the perspiration from her person with the leaves of the 
trees. The nymph went from tree to tree, and as with the dusky 
shoots that crowned their summits she dried her limbs, which were 
covered with moisture, the child she had conceived by the Rishi 
came forth from the pores of her skin in drops of perspiration. 
The trees received the living dews, and the winds collected them 
into one mass. " This," said Soma, " I matured by my rays, and 
gradually it increased in size, till the exhalation that had rested on 
the tree tops became the lovely girl named Marisha." V. P. 

Kanishtas — A class of deities of the fourteenth Manwantara. 

Kanka — One of the sons of Ugrasena. 

Kanouj — A city on the banks of the river Soue. The 
Ramayana contains an extraordinary legend of its foundation. 
The Rdja Kusanabha had a hundred beautiful daughters to whom 
Vdyu the god of wind made some amorous proposals which they 

KAN— KAP 315 

rejected, declaring that they would only accept such husband as 
their father might give them. Vayu then rendered them hunch- 
backed. Subsequently they were all married to a young Raja, 
Brahmadatla, who cured them by a touch, and the city in which 
they dwelt was henceforth called Kanyakubja, the hunch-backed, 
and still goes by the name of Kanouj. — See GritdcM, Kusandbha. 

Kanyakagunas— A race of Aborigines. 

Kanyakubja — The city of the Bent Virgins, the modern 

Kansa— Rajah of Mathura ; he deposed his father Ugrasena ; 
and threatened to slay his cousin Devaki on her wedding day. 
Vasudeva engaged to deliver up her children to him. He was 
warned before the birth of Krishna, that the latter would take 
away his life. He accordingly attempted to destroy Krishna as 
soon as he was born ; failing in this he ordered that all the 
worshippers of Vishnu, young and old, should be slain ; and he 
commanded his warriors to make search for all young children 
throughout that country, and to slay every male child. He 
afterwards employed demons to find and kill Krishna, and sent 
Akrura to W'ing him to Mathura. Public games were celebrated 
with great splendour ; there was a severe contest in which Krishna 
slew the powerful demon Chdnura, and afterwards killed king 
Kansa himself. 

Kansa, Kansavati, Kanki — Daughters of Ugrasena. 

Kanwa — l, A teacher of the white Yajush, and founder of 
several schools for the purpose ; 2, The name of a son of Aprati- 
ratha from whom the Kanwayana brahmans descended ; 3, A son 
of Ajamidha, a descendant of Hastin. 

Kapali, Kaparddi — Two of the eleven Rudras according to 
the Vishnu Purana. 

Kapalika — The following description of the Kdpalika is from 
the Sankara Vijaya of Anaiidagiri : 

" His body is smeared with ashes from a funeral pile, around 
his neck hangs a string of human skulls, his forehead is streaked 
with a black line, his hair is wove into the matted braid, his loins 

316 KAP 

are clothed with a tiger's skin, a hollow skull is in his left hand 
(for a cup), and in his right he carries a bell, which he rings 
incessantly, exclaiming aloud, ho, Sambhu^ Bhairava — ho, lord 
of Kali." 

Kapi — A prince, the son of Urukshaja, who afterwards became 
a brahman. V. P., p. 451. 

Kapila — A great Rishi, who destroyed the sons of Sagara. 
When the latter commenced the performance of the solemn sacrifice 
of a horse, it was guarded by his own sons ; nevertheless some one 
stole the animal, and carried it oiF into a chasm in the earth. 
Sagara commanded his sons to search for the steed. They at last 
found it freely wandering about in Patala, and at no great distance 
saw the Rishi Kapila sitting, absorbed in profound meditation, and 
illuminating the surrounding space with radiance as bright as the 
splendour of the autumnal sun, shining in an unclouded sky* 
Exclaiming " This is the villain who has interrupted our sacrifice 
and stolen the horses, kill him ; kill him ; they ran towards him 
with uplifted weapons. The Muni slowly raised his eyes and for 
an instant looked upon them, and they were reduced to ashes by 
the sacred flame that darted from his person. Kajjjla was the 
founder of the Sankya school of philosophy. A work said to bo 
written by him, called the Sankya-Pravdchana, or Preface to the 
Sankya Philosophy, is still extant, and was printed at Serampore 
in 1821. The great reverence in which Kapila was held, may be 
presumed from the fact that he is sometimes considered as au 
incarnation of the god Agui ; and sometimes of Vishnu himself. 
He seems to belong only to the Puianic period. See Sinkya. 2, 
A renowned Danava. 3, One of the serpent kings of the progeny 
of Kadru. 4, The name of a mountain in the west of Meru. 5, 
One of the Purdnic rivers. 6, A city mentioned in the Puranas. 

Kapilasrama — The name of the hermitage of Kapila, on the 
shore of the island of Sagara, which is still the scene of an annual 

Kapilaswa — One of the three sons of Kuvalayaswa, who 
survived the great conflict with the demon Dhunda. 

Kapotoroman — The sou of Vrishta, a descendant of Sini. 

KAR 317 

Karabhanjikas — An aboriginal mountain tribe of the north. 

Karakas, KarataS — Aboriginal tribes enumerated in the 

Karali — The terrific one ; one of the many names of the 
consort of Siva. O. S. T., Vol. IV, p. 364. 

Karambhi — A prince, the son of Sakuni of the race of 

Karandhama — The powerful, wealthy, and valiant son of 
Khaninetra, who when besieged by revolted tributaries is said to 
have created an army by breathing in his hands ; hence his name. 

Kai^ari — Is the worshipper of Devi in her terrific forms, the 
representative of the Aghora Ghanta and Rdpalika^ who as lately 
as only seven or eight centuries ago, there is reason to suppose, 
sacrificed human victims to Kali, Chamunda, and other hideous 
personifications of the Sakti of Siva. — Wilson's ffWkSf Vol. I, 
p. 264. 

Kardama — A Prajapati, who was married to one of the 
daughters of Daksha named Devahuti. The names given to their 
daughters show that they are allegorical personifications of 
intelligences and virtues and religious rites. 2, A son of Pulaha. 

Karishakas, Karitis— Aboriginal tribes enumerated in the 

Karkkotta — One of the serpent kings of the progeny of 

Karli — Is situated about half way between Poona and Bombay, 
and is celebrated for the numerous inscriptions in its caves in the 
Pali language ; of a date estimated at 543 b. c. to 1 76 A. d. The 
religion, or divinities or sages mentioned are Buddhist ; the 
invocation is to the Triad ; no doubt meaning Buddha, Dharma, 
Sanga. The kings or princes mentioned, Dr. Wilson says, are, 
Vijara, but Dr. Stevenson, Arodhana, lord of India. Garga, ruler 
of the Sakas. Of the numerous Buddhist inscriptions in the cave 
temple at Karli, Drs. Wilson and Stevenson are not quite agreed 
about the reading. Garga, the '« ruler of the Sakas" (Sakya, 
Buddha's tribe), is mentioned. 

318 KAR 

The cave temples, in the southern part of India, are classed by- 
Mr. Fergusson into (a) the Vihara or monastery caves, which 
consist of (1) natural caverns or caves slightly improved by art. 
These are the most ancient, and are found appropriated to religious 
purposes in Behar and Cuttack ; next (2) a verandah, opening 
behind into cells for the abode of priests, as in Cuttack and in 
the oldest Vihara at Ajanta ; the third (3) has an enlarged hall 
supported on pillars : the most splendid of these caves are those 
of Ajanta ; though the Dherwarra at Ellora is also fine, and there 
are same good specimens at Salsette and Junir. 

(b) Buddhist Chetya caves form the second class. These are the 
temples or churches of the series and one or more of them is 
attached to every set of caves in western India, though none exist 
on the eastern side. Unlike the Viharas, all these caves have the 
same plan and arrangement, and the Karli cave is the most perfect 
in India. All these consist of an external porch or music gallery, 
an internal gallery over the entrance ; a central aisle, which may 
be called a nave, roofed by a plain waggon vault, and a semi-dome 
terminating the nave, under the centre of which always stands a 
Dagoba or Chaitya. In the oldest temples, the Dagoba consists 
of a plain central drum surmounted by a hemispherical dome 
crowned by a Tee, which supported the umbrella of state, of wood 
or stone. 

These two classes comprehend all the Buddhist caves in India. 

The third class consists of brahmanical caves, properly so called. 
The finest specimens are at Ellora and Elephanta though some 
good ones exist also on the island of Salsette and at Mahabalipur. 

In form, many of them arc copies of, and a good deal resemble 
the Buddhist Vihara. But they have not been appropriated from 
the Buddhists, as the arrangement of the pillars and position of the 
sanctuary are different. 

The Fourth class consists of rock cut models of structural 
Brahmanical temples. To this class belong the far famed Kylas 
at Ellora, the Sivite temple at Doomnar, and the Ruths at 
Mahabalipur. This last is cut out of isolated blocks of granite, 
but the rest stand in pits. 

The Fifth or true Jaina cavcs: occur at Khandagiri in Cuttack 

KAR 819 

and in the southern parts of India, but are few and insignificant. 
In that in the rock of Gwalior fort, there are cut in the rock a 
number of rude colossal figures, from 30 to 40 feet high, of one of 
the Thirtankaras, some sitting and some standing. 

The Ajanta, are the most complete series of Buddhist caves in 
India, without any mixture of Brahmanism, and contain types of 
all the rest ; they are in a ravine or small valley in the ghdt south 
of the Taptee. At Bang in a ravine or small valley in the ghat, on 
the north side of the valley of the Taptee, are three ancient 
Buddhistical caves. 

The Salsette or Kannari caves in the island of Salsette, are also 
purely Buddhist, but very inferior to the former. The Kannari 
caves are excavated in a hill situated in the midst of an immense 
tract of forest country, and Mr. Fergusson supposes their date 
about the 9th or 10th century of the christian era. 

Dhumnar, about 40 miles S. E. from Neemuch but close to 
Chundwassa, contains Buddhist caves with a Brahraanical rock 
temple behind. 

The Ellora caves are excavated in a porphyritic green stone or 

The Elephanta caves are cut in a harder rock than those of Ellora. 

Those of Dhumnar and Ellora contain a strong admixture of 
Brahmanism, and those of Elephanta are entirely Brahmanical, 
though perhaps of the same age as those of Ellora. — Balfour's 

Karma — According to the doctrines of Buddhism the power 
that controls the universe is Karma, literally Action ; consisting 
ofkusala and akusala, or merit and demerit. There is no such 
monad as an immaterial spirit, but at the death of any being, the 
aggregate of his merit and demerit is transferred to some other 
being, which new being is caused by the karma of the previous 
being, and receives from that karma all the circumstances of its 
existence. Thus, if the karma be good, the circumstances are 
favourable, producing happiness, but if it be bad, they are 
unfavourable, producing misery. 

The manner in which being first commenced cannot now be 
ascertained. The cause of the coyitinuance of existence is 

320 KAR 

ignorance, from which merit and demerit are produced, whence 

comes consciousness, then body and mind, and afterwards the six 

organs of sense. Again, from the organs of sense comes contact ; 

from contact, desire ; from desire, sensation ; from sensation, the 

cleaving to existing objects ; from this cleaving, reproduction ; 

and from reproduction, disease, decay, and death. Thus, like the 

revolutions of a wheel, there is a regular succession of death and 

birth, the moral. cause of which is the cleaving to existing objects, 

whilst the in^^^rumental cause is karma. It is, therefore, the great 

object of aVi beings who would be released from the sorrows of 

successiv^-fe birth to seek the destruction of the moral cause of 

continiaed existence, that is to say, the cleaving to existing objects, 

or ,f^vil desire. It is possible to accomplish this destruction, by 

/attending to a prescribed course of discipline, which results in an 

entrance to one of the four paths, with their fruition, that lead, by 

different modes, to the attainment of nirwana. They in whom evil 

desire is entirely destroyed are called arhats. The freedom from 

evil desire ensures the possession of a miraculous energy. At his 

death the arhat invariably attains nirwana, or ceases to exist. — 

Spence Hardy. 

Kanuosa — The eldest son of the Patriarch Pulaka. In the 
Bhagavata he is designated Karmasreshta. 

Kama — The son of Pritha, or Kunti, by the Phoebus of Hindu 
mythology. Pritha was the child of a Yddava prince, Sura, who 
gave her to his childless cousin Kuntibhoja, under whose care she 
was brought up. One day before her marriage she paid such 
respect and attention to the great sage Durvasas, a guest in her 
father's house, that he gave her a charm and taught her an incan- 
tation, by virtue of which she was to have a child by any god she 
liked to invoke. This power she did not suffer to lie idle, but 
invoked the sun by whom she had a child, born like Minerva 
ready equipped for the field ; armed with a miraculous cuirass and 
lance. Pritha, afraid of the censure of her relatives, deserted the 
child, and exposed it in the Jumna. It was found by Dhrita- 
rashtra*s charioteer Adhiratha, and nurtured by his wife Radha, 
whence the child was afterwards called R^dheya, though named 

KAR 321 

by his foster parents Vasushena. When he was grown up ludra 
tricked him out of his armour, by appealing to his generosity in 
the guise of a brahman. Indra in return conferred upon him 
enormous strength and changed his name to Kama, — Monier 
Williams, I, E.P., p. 94. 

Kama, though in reality the half-brother of the live P^^ndava 
princes, was on more friendly terms with their cousins, the Kurus, 
and joined Duryodhaua and Sakuni in various schemes for 
destroying the Pandus. In the great war he became a general in 
the Kuru army ; for five days he had the command of the whole 
army ; he engaged to slay Arjuna, and when the latter went forth 
to a final battle against him, the armies stopped fighting and the 
gods descended from heaven. He was finally slain by Arjuna 
with a crescent-shaped arrow. His widows, children and 
dependants were treated with great kindness by Arjuna and 
Yudhisthira. Kama's relationship to the Pandus was not known 
by Arjuna at that time, and his death was afterwards lamented by 
all the bi'others. 

" The birth of Kama was secret, and he was reputed to be the 
son of Naudana the charioteer of Dhritarashtra, having been found 
floating in the river Yamuna, although the son of Pritha by the 
Sun ; he was born in celestial panoply, and with splendid ear-rings, 
whence his first appellation was Vasushena, or abounding in 
wealth. Indra disguised as a brahman begged of him his divine 
coat of mail, in order to obtain it for his own son Arjuna, and from 
the act of cutting it or detaching it from his body, the prince was 
named Kama ; he is also entitled Vaikarttana from Vikarttana the 
sun. Indra in return for the armour presented Kama with a 
javelin freighted with the certain death of one individual whether 
god, man, or demon. Kama launched it at Ghotokacha, the 
Rakshasa son of Bhima, and it destroyed him, but left its 
possessor helpless against the charmed weapons, offensive and 
defensive, of Arjuna, by whose hand Kama ultimately fell." — 
Wilson's Works, Vol. Ill, p. 333. 

Karnapravaranas — A nickname applied in the Pur^nas to 
some of the aboriginal tribes, meaning those who wrap themselves 
up in their cars. 


322 KAR 

Kamatakas — The Canarese people ; the inhabitants of the 
centre of the peninsula, the proper Karnata, or Carnatic. 

Kartika — The name of one of the lunar months, corresponding 
to October. 

Kartikeya — The Hindu Mars, or god of war, generated from 
the vivifying principle of Siva cast into Agni, or Fire, -who unable 
to retain it, cast it into Ganga, or the Ganges. On the banks of 
this river was born the beautiful boy who was destined to lead the 
armies of the gods, and to be the destroyer of Tdraka, and Sura, 
a demon who by his austerities, had alarmed both gods and men, 
and gained the dominion of the universe. When born Kartikeya 
was nursed by six nymphs called the Krittikds, or Pleiades, who 
each called him her son, and offering her breast, the child assumed 
to himself six mouths and received nurture from each. He is 
considered to be the brother of Ganesa who was the reputed 
eldest son of Siva and Parvati. He is represented riding on a 
peacock ; sometimes with one face, sometimes with six faces and 
twelve arms. One account of his birth is as follows : Siva emitted 
from his eyes sparks of fire, which being thrown into the lake 
Saravana, became six infants, who were nursed by the wives of 
the Rishis who are to be seen in the sky as the Pleiades. When 
Parvati saw the children she was so transported with their beauty, 
and embraced all of them together so forcibly, that their six bodies 
became one, while their six heads and twelve arms remained, 
Kartikeya is better known in the south of India as Subramanya, 
and Tuesday is the weekly day of his devotees. The Skanda Purina 
gives the fullest account of Subramanya, containing his war with 
Sura, and relates how he was sent by his father to frustrate the 
sacrifice of Daksha, and, at the instigation of the latter, was delayed 
in his way by beautiful damsels, who entertained him with song and 
music. Hence it is the practice still for the dancing girls who 
serve in the pagodas, to be betrothed and married to him, and 
then not allowed to marry men though they may prostitute 

Karttavirya — The son of Kritavirya and sovereign of the 
Kaikaya tribe. He is said to have invaded Lanka and taken 

KAR— KAS 323 

Ravana prisoner. The Vishnu Purana says that by propitiating 
the sage Dattatreya he obtained these boons ; a thousand arms ; 
never acting unjustly ; subjugation of the world by justice, and 
protecting it equitably ; victory over his enemies ; and death by 
the hands of a person renowned in the three regions of the 
universe. With these means he ruled over the earth with might 
and justice ; and offered ten thousand sacrifices. At the expiration 
of his long reign (eighty-five thousand years) he was killed by 
Parasurama, as related under Jamadagni, 

Karundhaka — One of the tQn sous of Sura and brother of 
Visudeva, in whose family Krishna was born. 

Karusha — One of the sons of the Manu Vaiwaswata, from 
whom descended the celebrated warriors termed Karushas, who 
lived in the Paripatra or Vindhya mountains. 

Kasa— The son of Suhotra of the family of Ayus, and king of 

Kaseramat — One of the nine divisions of the Varsha of 

Kashtha — One of the daughters of Daksha and wife of 
Kasyapa ; she was the mother of beasts with uncloven hoofs. 

Kashtha — Fifteen twinklings of the eye, or Nimishas ; five 

Kasi, or Varanasi — Benares, q. V. the sacred city of the 
Hindus, which they believe to have descended from the gods 

Kasina — An ascetic rite among the Buddhists, by which it is 
supposed that a miraculous energy may be received. There are 
ten descriptions of this rite, 

1. Prathawi earth. 

2. Apo water. 

3. Tejo fire. 

4. Vayu wind. 

5. Nila blue. 

6. Pita golden. 

7. Lohita blood red. 

.'^24 KAS 

8. Odata white. 

9. Alaka light. 

10. Akasa space. 

There are various ceremonies prescribed for the performance of 
these different kinds of Kasiua, and from its practice in any one of 
its forms, a Buddhist priest expects to derive many advantages. 
See Hardy's Manual of Buddhism. 

Kasiraja — One of the kings of Kasi — the sou of Kasa, an ally 
of the Pandavas. 

Kasis — The people of the Benares district, and that opposite. 

Kasmiras—The people of Kashmir. 

Kasya — A prince, the son of Senajit, one of the descendants of 

Kasyapa — A sage, the son of Marichi, the son of Brahma, and 
one of the Prajapatis or progenitors of created things. He married 
thirteen of the daughters of Daksha ; from whom descended the 
twelve Adityas ; the nymphs of the lunar constellations ; the 
Daityas and Danavas ; many classes of animals, etc., etc. His 
share in creation was thus no unimportant one, as he w^as the 
father of the gods and demons, man, beasts, and reptiles. Kasyapa 
was the father of Vivasvat, and he again of Mauu. " Righteous 
was this wise Manu on whom a race was founded. Hence this 
family of men became known as the race of Manu. Brahmans, 
Kshatriyas, and other men sprang from this Manu." (0. S. T., 
Vol. I, p. 125.) "The Chhdndogya Upanishad agrees with the 
above passage from the Mahdbharata, in recognising Manu as the 
progenitor of the brahmans as well as the other castes." (p. 196.) 
*' Having assumed the form of a tortoise Prajapati created offspring. 
That which he created, he made ; hence the word kurma. Kasyapa 
means tortoise ; hence men say all creatures are descendants of 
Ka$yapa. This tortoise is the same as Aditya." (Vol. IV, p. 23.) 

The Mahdbhdrata states : " From Kasyapa, who was the son of 
Marichi, were produced the deities and the Asuras ; and he was 
the source from which all beings sprang. Aditi had twelve sons, 
beginning with Sakra. The youngest of them was Vishnu, on 

KAS 325 

whom the worlds are supported." " Ansa, Bhaga, Milj-a, Varuua, 
lord of the waters, Dh^tri, Aryaman, Jayauta, Bhaskara, Tvashtri, 
Pushan, Indra, and Vishnn, who is called the twelfth ; these aro 
the twelve Adityas, the sons of Kasyaj^a, according to tradition (or 
the veda sruti.y^ In another passage Vivasvat and Savitri occur 
instead of Jayanta and Bhaskara ; Tvashtri is placed the eleventh 
in order, and it adds " the twelfth is called Vishnu, who though 
the latest born, surpasses all the Adityas in his attributes." (Vol. 
IV, p. 103,104.) 

In the Ramayana the following passage occurs ; Visvaraitra 
speaks : — "At this period O Rama, the divine Kasyapa, luminous 
as fire, glowing, as it were, with splendour, attended by the 
goddess Aditi, having completed an act of austerity which had 
lasted for a thousand years of the gods, celebrated thus the praises 
of the boon-bestowing Madhusudana. ' Through intense austerity 
I behold thee the Supreme Spirit, whose essence is austerity, who 
art a congeries of austerity, the impersonation of austerity, whose 
wealth is austerity. In thy body, lord, I behold this whole 
universe ; thou art unbeginning, and ineffable ; to thee I have 
resorted as my refuge.' Then Hari, gratified, whose taint of sin 
had been purged away ; * Ask a boon ; may good attend thee ; 
thou art regarded by me as deserving a boon.' Hearing these 
words of his, Kasyapa, the son of Marichi, replied ; * Sinless lord, 
become the son of Aditi and myself. Slayer of the Asuras become 
the younger brother of Sakra. (Indra.) Thou oughtest to succour 
the gods who are oppressed with grief, Vishnu, of mighty energy, 
was accordingly born of Aditi, shaded by an umbrella, in the form 
of a mendicant, resplendent with a drinking gourd, and a lock of 
hair on his crown." {Ibidf p. 116.) 

Kasyapa is supposed by some modern writers to be a personifi- 
cation of the remains of the antediluvian race, who took refuge in 
tho central Asiatic chain, in which traces of his name so plentifully 
abound, as in the Koh-i-Kas or Caucasus, the Kaspian, and I{!ashmir. 
It is asserted that the thirteen Gotras or families of Brahmans owe 
their origin to as many divine sages called after their names. 
Kasyapa is one of the number. The Asvalayana Sutra of the Rig 
Veda contains the enumeration of the Gotras and their sub-divisions, 

326 KAS— KAU 

but iu a very involved and unintelligible style. The popular 
enumeration of them, however, is now wholly confined to the 
South of India, where several of the reputed representatives of 
these tribes yet exist ; especially about Gooty and Gondavir. 
Nandavaram, it is said, was a grant to the thirteen Gotras by the 
sovereign of India, Nanda, in the year of Kali 980 ; but if there 
be any foundation for the grant, it is of much more recent date, 
Nanda having lived in the fourth century before the Christian era. — 
Hind., Theatre, Vol. II, p. 11. 

Kasyata — A son of Paurnamasa, a descendant of one of the 
daughters of Daksha who was married to one of the Rishis. 

Katyayana — A Sanskrit author who lived at the time of and 
after Panini and published criticisms on the Sutra of the great 
grammarian. Max Miiller places him in the second half of the 
fourth century, b. c. Katyayana is said to have been a boy of great 
talent and extraordinaiy powers of memory. He was able to repeat 
to his mother an entire play after hearing it once at the theatre ; 
and before he was even initiated he was able to repeat the 
Pratisakhya which he had heard from byali. He completed and 
corrected Panini's Grammar such as we now possess it. Katyayana 
has been identified with Vararuchi (q. v.) the compiler of the 
doctrines of Saunaka. A. S. L. 

Kaukundakas, Kaukattakas, Kaunkanas— Aboriginal 

tribes inhabiting the mountainous districts of the Konkan and its 

Kaumara Creation — The creation of Rudra or Nilalohita, a 
form of Siva, by Bramhi, and of certain other mind-born sons 
of Brahma, termed Sanatkum?ira, &c., who declining to create 
progeny, remained, as the name implies, ever boys, kumaras, that 
is ever pure and innocent ; whence their creation is called the 
Kaumara. Sanatkumdra and his brethren are described in the 
Saiva Puranas as Yogis. The Linga Purina has " Being ever as 
he was born he is called a youth ; and hence his name is well 
known as Sanatkumara." 

Kaumarabhritya— One of the eight branches of medical 

KAU 827 

science embraciug midwifery and the management of children. 
Vishnu Purdna, p. 407. 

Kauravas — The sons of the Mahdraja Dhritarashtra and his 
wife Gandh^ri. At an early period they became jealous of their 
cousins, the Pandavas, who were brought up with them in their 
father^s court. Duryodhana, the eldest of the Kauravas, attempted 
to take the life of his cousin Bhima. The chief incidents of their 
lives are related under their respective names, q. v. 

Kausalya— One of the queens of Mahiraja Dasaratha and 
mother of Rama, of whom she was extremely fond. She was 
oveijoyed when it was decided that Rama should be installed as 
heir-apparent, and when Rama himself informed her that he was to 
be evicted and Bharata made Yuva-raja, " she fell down to the 
earth like the bough of a saul tree lopped by the axe of a 
forester." She urged Rama to seize the government and slay the 
Maharaja. She afterwards acknowledged her fault. Bharata 
declared to her his loyal attachment to Rdma. 

Kausambi — An ancient city of Hindustan, which appears as the 
capital of Vatsa. According to the Ramayana, it was built by 
Kusamba, the sou of Kusa, a descendant of Rama. Buchanan, 
upon the authority of the Bhagavata, ascribes its foundation to 
Chakra, a descendant of Arjuna ; but neither the Bhagavata nor 
Vishnu Purana state that Nimichakra built Kausambi. They 
only say that when Hastinipura shall be washed away by the 
Ganges, Nimichakra will reside at Kausambi. From which it is 
to be inferred, that Kausambi existed at the time that Hastinapura 
was destroyed. The site of Kausambi, Buchanan supposes to 
have been that of the ruins ascribed to Hastinapura, but it was 
most probably lower down in the Doab, bordering upon Magadha 
on one side, and Kosala on the other. In the Hindu drama 
Ratnavali the scene is laid in the palace of King Vatsa at Kausambi. 
^Wilson, ff. T. 

Kausharavi — A name of Maitreya, a disciple of Pardsara, 
who related the V. P. to him. 

Kausika — One of the sons of Vasudeva by his wife Vaisali : 
the half-brother of Kri.«hna. 

328 KAU 

Kausikas — The descendants of Viswamitra. The Gotras, the 
families or tribes of the Kausika brahmans are given in the V. P., 
(p. 405) and are said to have been multiplied by intermarriages with 
other tribes, who were originally of the regal cast, like Viswamitra ; 
but like him, obtained Brahmanhood through devotion. As these 
Gotras partook more of the character of schools of doctrine, in which 
teachers and scholars became one family by intermarrying, it shows 
the interference of the Kshatriya caste, with the Brahmanical mono- 
poly of religious instruction and composition. 

Kausiki — A character in the Hindu Drama Agnimitra and 
Malavika ; the sister of the Raja's minister Sumati. On one 
occasion when her brother had to convey the princess M^lavikd, 
she accompanied them, and on their way through the Vindhya 
mountains they were attacked by foresters, and in the affray 
Sumati w^as slain and Malavik^ was lost. Kausiki left alone com- 
mitted her brother's body to the flames, and resumed her journey. 
Kausiki soon found out Malavika but forbore to discover herself, 
confiding in the prophecy of a sage, who had foretold that the 
princess, after passing through a period of servitude would meet 
with a suitable match. 

Kausiki — The name of the river into which Satyavati was 
transformed for following her husband in death. It is now called 
the Kosi, which rising in Nepal, flows through Puraniya into the 
Ganges, nearly opposite to Rajamahal. 

Kaustabha — The jewel worn by Vishnu, and which was one 
of the articles produced at the churning of the ocean. 

" And Kaustabha the best 
Of gems, that burns with living light, 
Upon Lord Vishnu's breast." 

" And Kaustabha the gem 
Whose ever beaming lustre glows 
In Vishnu's diadem." 

Kautilya — A name of the brahman Chinakya, through whoso 
agency the Nandas were destroyed, and Chandragupta raised to 
the throne of Palibothra. 

KAV— KER 329 

Kavasha — The son of Iluslia by a slave girl. The Rishis, 
when holding a sacrificial session on the banks of the Saraswati 
expelled Kavasha from their Soma sacrifice, saying, how should 
the son of a slave girl, a gamester, who is no brahman, remain 
among us ? So they drove him into the desert that he might not 
drink the water of the Saraswati. But a prayer was revealed to 
him by which he obtained the favour of the waters, and the 
Saraswati surrounded him on all sides. When the Rishis saw 
this they said the gods know him let us call him back — Haug, 
Ait. Br. 

Kaveri — A river which takes its rise in Coorg, runs through 
the south of India, and empties itself in the Bay of Bengal. It 
seems always to have borne the same appellation, being the Chaberis 
of Ptolemy. 

Kavi — I, One of the sous of the Mauu Chakshusha ; 2, the 
name of one of the sons of Priyavrata according to the Bhagavata ; 
3, A son of the Kshatriya Urukshaya, who afterwards became a 

Kaviraja — The author of the curious poem entitled Raghava- 
Pandaviya, a remarkable specimen of " studied ambiguity," as it 
may, at the option of the reader, be interpreted as relating the 
history of Rama and the other descendants of Dasaratha, — or that 
of Yudhishthira and the other sons of P^ndu. — Colebrooke. 

Kavyas — l, The name given to the descendants of Kavi, as a 
race of brahmans ; 2, One of the classes of Pitris, or progenitors, 
identified with the cyclic years. 

Kekaya— An ancient city supposed to have been in the Panjab. 
The king Asvapati, (lord of horses) was the father of Raja Dasa- 
ratha's wife Kaikeyi. 

Kerala — An ancient name of Malabar proper ; the inhabitants 
arc called Keralas. 

Kerari — A sect who worshipped Parvati in her terrific forms, 
and used to offer up human sacrifices. They used to inflict upon 
themselves bodily tortures, and pierce their flesh with hooks, &c. 
Such things are now made a criminal offence. 


330 KES 

Kesidhwaja — The celebrated son of Kritadhwaja. He had a 
cousin named Khandikya, who was renowned for religious rites, 
and the importance he attached to them ; while Kesidhwaja 
regarded spiritual knowledge as the great object of pursuit. The 
quarrel became so serious that Khandikya was expelled from his 
dominions by Kesidhwaja. The latter, on an occasion of great 
perplexity, was informed by his counsellors, that none but his 
^emy Khandikya could give him the information he wished to 
obtain. The desired interview took place, and Kesidhwaja's 
difficulties were all removed. He, anxious to reward his preceptor, 
wished him to name the remuneration that would be most pleasing 
to himself. His friends recommended him to require his whole 
kingdom to be restored to him. But Khindikya, addressing 
Kesidhwaja said " As it is known that you are learned in the 
spiritual learning that teaches the doctrine of the soul, if you 
will communicate that knowledge to me, you will have discharged 
your debt. Declare to me what acts are efficacious for the 
alleviation of human affliction." Then Kesidhwaja delivered a 
discourse on the nature of ignorance and the benefits of the Yoga 
or contemplative devotion. See V. P., pp. 649—659. 

Kesin — A powerful demon, who was ordered by Kansa to 
destroy Krishna. He assumed the form of a horse " spurning the 
earth with his hoofs, scattering the clouds with his mane, and 
springing in his paces beyond the orbits of the sun and moon." 
The formidable demon, however, soon had " his mouth rent open 
by the arm of Krishna, and fell down, torn asunder like a tree 
struck by lightning ; thus he lay separated into two portions, each 
having two legs, half a back, half a tail, one ear, one eye, and one 
nostril." Krishna was afterwards called Kesava in honour of 
this exploit. V. P., p. 540. 

Kesini — l, One of the wives of Sagara, who beiug childless, 
solicited the aid of the sage Aurva, and the Muni pronounced this 
boon, that one wife should bear one sou, and the other sixty- 
thousand ; and he left it to them to make their election. Kesini 
chose to have the single sou ; 2, The name of the wife of Visravas. 

KeBini— 1, The fair-haired maid servant of Damayanti, who 


was sent with a message to Nala, and in the interview perceived 
his divine powers, and reported accordingly to Damayanti. 

KetU — One of the nine planets ; or the sons of Sinhika ; his 
chariot is drawn by eight horses of the dusky red colour of lac or 
the smoke of burning straw. 

Ketumala — One of the sons of king Agnidhra, and sovereign 
of Gaudhamadana. Also the name of a Varsha or country. 

Ketumta — l, A Lokapala, the son of Rajas, regent of the 
west ; 2, The name of the son of Dhanwantari. 

Ketumati — The wife of Sumali, the great Rakshasa chief. 

Kevala — l , A prince, the son of Nara ; 2, The name of one of 
the Pur^nic countries. 

Khandas — 1, The name applied to the divisions or portions of 
the Skandaand PadmaPuranas ; 2, The divisions of the Bhirata 

Khandapani — A prince, the son of Ahinara, of the race of 

Khandava-prastha — A country on the banks of the river 
Jumna, in which the Pandavas settled and reigned when the Raj 
of Bharata was divided between them and the Kauravas " It was 
ilot so much a division of the kingdom as of the family ; one branch 
remaining at Hastinapur, whilst the other went out to wrest a 
new country from the Aborigines." 

Khandikya — A son of Amitadhwaja, who taught his cousin 
Kesidhwaja the expiation of a sin, and was by him instructed in 
the Yoga doctrine. 

Khakis — One of the Vaishnava sects of Hindus, of modern 
origin. Many of them go nearly naked, smearing their bodies 
with ashes and earth. They add the worship of Hanuman to that 
of Vishnu. 

Khandas— The elements of sentient existence among the 
Buddhists, of which there are five constituents. 

332 KHA— KHO 

1 . The organized body, or the whole of being apart from 

mental processes. 

2. Sensation. 

3. Perception. 

4. Discrimination. 

5. Consciousness. 

The four last Khandas are results or properties of the first, 
which mu st be understood as including the soul as well as the 
body. At death the Buddhists believe the Khandas entirely 
vanish. Gautama says that none of the Khandas, taken separately, 
are the Ego ; and that taken conjointly they are not the Ego. 
Yet there is no such thing as an Ego apart from the five Khandas. 

Khaninetra, Khanitra — Two princes of the descendants of 
Nedishtha ; the priests of the royal family conspired against 
Khanitra, and were put to death by his ministers. 

Khara — The brother of Ravana, who after several unsuccessful 
contests with Rdma was at length slain by him. 

Khasa — One of the daughters of Daksha who was married to 

Khasikas, Khasiras — Non-Aryan or Aboriginal tribes in the 
north-east of Bengal ; or it has been thought that they may be 
referred to the situation of Kashgar. 

Khasrima — A chief of the Danavas, one of the sous of Vipra- 

Khatwanga — A prince, the son of Visivisaha, called also 
Dilipa. He rendered important aid to the gods in one occasion, 
and being asked by them to demand a boon, he enquired * what is 
the duration of my life.' * The length of your life is but an hour,* 
the gods replied ; on hearing which he descended to the world of 
mortals, and prayed for final emancipation. Thus he obtained 
absorption, according to this stanza * Like unto Khatwanga will 
be no one upon earth, who having come from heaven, and dwelt 
amongst men, became united with the three worlds by his 
liberality and knowledge of truth. 

Khonds— A uon-aryan or aboriginal tribe in Orissa. Their 

KHO . 333 

condition is in many respects peculiar. They have come less into 
contact with civilization, and evince greater wildness of deport- 
ment, than most of the other non-aryan tribes. " Their religion 
is very peculiar, and in its whole features entirely distinct from 
Hinduism. Their supreme god is called Bura-Pennou the 
god of light, who created for himself a consort, the earth-goddess 
called 7^ari-FefinoUi the source of evil in the world. The 
god of light arrested the action of physical evil, while he left man 
at perfect liberty to reject or receive moral evil. They who 
rejected it were deified, while the great mass of mankind who 
received it were condemned to all kinds of physical suffering, with 
death, besides being deprived of the immediate care of the Creator, 
and doomed to the lowest state of moral degradation. Bura-Pen- 
nou and his consort, meanwhile, contended for superiority, and 
thus the elements of good and evil came to be in constant collision 
both in the heart of man and in the world around him. At this 
point the Khonds diverge into two sects, which are thus described 
by Major Macphersou in an interesting memoir read before the 
Asiatic Society, and inserted in their Journal : — " One sect," says 
he, holds that the god of light completely conquered the earth- 
goddess, and employs her, still the active principle of evil, as the 
instrument of his moral rule. That he resolved to provide a par- 
tial remedy for the consequences of the introduction of evil, by. 
enabling man to attain to a state of moderate enjoyment upon 
earth, and to partial restoration to communion with the Creator 
after death. And that, to effect this purpose, he created those 
classes of subordinate deities, and assigned to them the office — 
first, of instructing man in the arts of life, and regulating the 
powers of nature for his use, upon the condition of his paying 
to them due worship ; secondly, of administering a system of 
retributive justice through subjection to which, and through the 
practice of virtue during successive lives upon earth, the soul of 
man might attain to beatification. The other sect hold, upon the 
other hand, that the earth-goddess remains unconquered ; that the 
god of light could not, in opposition to her will, carry out his 
purpose with respect to man's temporal lot ; and that man, there- 
fore, owes his elevation from the state of physical suffering into 

354 KEY 

wMeli lie fell through the reception of evil, to the direct exercise 
of her power to confer blessings, or to her permitting him to 
receive the good which flows from the god of light, through the 
inferior gods, to all who worship them. With respect to man's 
destiny after death, they believe that the god of light earned out 
his purpose. And they believe that the worship of the earth- 
goddess by human sacrifice, is the indispensable condition on which 
these blessings have been granted, and their continuance may be 
hoped for ; the virtue of the rite availing not only for those who 
practice it, but for all mankind. 

" In addition to these human sacrifices, which still continue to 
be offered annually, in order to appease the wrath of Tari, and 
propitiate her in favour of agriculture, there is a fearful amount of 
infanticide among the Khond people. It exists in some of the 
ti'ibes of the sect of Boora to such an extent, that no female infant 
is spared, except when a woman's first child is female ; and that 
villages containing a hundred houses may be seen without a female 

The revolting rites of human sacrifice and female infanticide 
have prevailed from time immemorial among these barbarous 
people. The British government, however, has happily succeeded 
in almost completely abolishing these bloody rites. Many children, 
who had been stolen from their parents, and sold to the Khonds 
for sacrifice, have been rescued from a cruel death, and put into 
asylums for Christian education and training. The manner in 
which the revolting human sacrifices were conducted by the 
Khonds is thus described by Mr. Fry, a government agents who 
has i-escued numbers from the sacrificial knife : — " The victim," 
he inform us, *Ms surrounded by a crowd of half-intoxicated 
Khonds, and is dragged around some open space, when the savages, 
with loud shouts, rush on the victim, cutting the living flesh piece- 
meal from the bones, till nothing remains but the head and bowels, 
which are left untouched. Death has by this time released the 
unhappy victim from his torture ; the head and bowels are burnt, 
and the ashes mixed with grain." These Meriah sacrifices,as they 
are called, are almost abolished. 

Khyati—* Celebrity,' a young and bright-eyed daughter of 

KHU— KIR 83i 

Daksha married to the Muni Bhrigu. Khyati is also the faculty 
of discriminating objects by appropriate designations ; or the 
means of individual fruition. — Wil&on's Notes to Vishnu Purdfia, 

Khumbandas — An order of beings among the Buddhists who 
are believed to be the attendants of Virddha who is one of the 
four guardian Devas. They are of great size and disgusting form, 
have blue garments, hold a sword in one hand, and ride on blue 
horses. They form one of the thirteen orders of intelligence, 
exclusive of the supreme Buddhas. 

Kichaka — The brother of the Rani of Raja Virata. He 
insulted Draupadi, and on her complaining to the Raja, followed 
her to the Council hall, where his influence was so great that the 
Raja refused to interfere. Di-aupadi then professed to receive his 
offers and engaged to meet him at midnight in the dancing room. 
On his arrival he was seized by Bhima, who, after a fight, slew 
him and rolled the body into a ball. 

Kikatas— A tribe of aborigines who lived to the east of Saras- 
wati, " they drew no milk to mix with the soma, and by them the 
sacrificial kettle was never heated." 

Kilakila— See Kailakila. 

Kimpumsha — One of the nine sons of Agnidhra, king of 
Jambu-dwipa, to whom his father gave the country of Hemakuta. 

Kimpurushas — Demigods, attached to the service of Kuvera, 
the god of wealth, celestial musicians, represented like centaurs 
reversed, with human figures and horses' heads. 

Kinnaru— A prince, the son of Sunakshatra, of the family of 

Kinnaras — A race of beings of human shape but with the heads 
of horses ; different to Naras, which are centaurs, or beings with 
the limbs of horses and human bodies ; created from the limbs of 
Brahma. Called also Kimpurushas. 

Kiratarjuniya — A poem written by Bharavi on the subject of 
Arj Una's obtaining celestial arms from Siva, Indra, and other gods, 


**by a rigid observance of severe austerities, and afterwards by 
his prowess in a conflict with Siva, in which Arjuna prevails : 
this is the whole subject of the poem, which is ranked among 
the six excellent compositions in Sanscrit. 

Kiratas — Aboriginal tribes dwelling in the East of Bhirata ; 
foresters and mountaineers are intended, the inhabitants to the 
present day of the mountains east of Hindustan. 

Kirtaratha— The son of Raja Pratindhak, and thirteenth in 
descent from Maharaja Janaka, 

Kirtirat — The great grandson of the above ; 

*' Mahandhrak's son of boundless might, 
Was Kirtirat who loved the right." 

Kirtti — " Fame." A daughter of Daksha, married to Dharma. 

Kirttimat — l, A son of the patriarch Angiras. 2, A son of 
the Manu Uttauapada. 3, A son of Vasudeva and Devaki, who 
was killed by Kausa. 

Kishkindhya — The monkey city of Bali, the elder brother 
and enemy of Sugriva. Kishkindhya is supposed to have been 
situated north of Mysore : " somewhere in that strip of British 
territory which separates the kingdom of Mysore from the Nizam's 
territory." — Cal. Rev. 

Ellesa — In the Patanjala philosophy Klesa is the term employed 
to designate the five afflictions of the soul, viz., Ignorance, 
Selfishness, Love, Hatred, Dread of temporal suffering. 

KodagU — Steep mountains ; the name of the country which has 
been anglicised into Coorg : a country formed by the summits and 
eastern declivities of the Western Ghauts ; about 60 miles in 
length and 40 in breadth. It comprises 1,585 square miles: 
covered by forest, save here and there where the clearing of a 
coffee plantation, or ragi patch, or the park like open glades with 
their beautiful green sward and varied foliage, afford a charming 
variety to the landscape. The Kodagus or Coorgs are supposed to 
belong to the Dravidian family ; and not to have descended from 
thePandavas as some have argued, but for which no evidence has 
been adduced. The Coorgs were probably connected with the 

KOK— KOS 337 

Pandya kiugdom which flourished in the South of India perhaps 
in the fifth century before Christ ; but the Mahabhdrata Pandavas 
have nothing to do with this Pdndyan kingdom, whose rulers were 
not Kshatriyas but belonged to the agricultural class. — JRichter's 
Manual of Coorg^ 1870. 

Kokanakas, Kokarakas — The names of aboriginal tribes 
enumerated in the Vishnu Purina. 

Kolaria — The ancient name for India. In the modern map of 
India we find indications of the same name in every province from 
Burmah to Malabar, viz., the Kols of Central India ; the Kolas of 
Katwar ; See Dr. Keith Johnston's Index to his Map of India from 
the Royal Atlas, for a full confirmation of this view, as stated in 
Mr. W. Hunter's Dissertation in his Dictionary of Non-Aryan 

Kolikod — The ancient and present native name of Calicut. 

Kosala — The Ramiyana contains the following description of 
Kosala : " In ancient times there was a great country named 
Kosala ; and that country was happy and joyous, and abounded in 
cattle, and grain, and riches. And in that country on the banks of 
the river Sarayu, was a famous city named Ayodhyi ; and there 
all the houses were large and beautifully arranged, and the streets 
were always watered, and there were very many temples richly 
decorated, and stately palaces with domes like the tops of 
mountains, with pleasant gardens full of birds and flowers, and 
shady groves of trees loaded with delicious fruits, and above all 
there were the sacred and resplendent chariots of the gods. And 
the tanks in that city were magnificent beyond all description, and 
covered with the white lotus ; and the bees thirsted for the honey, 
and the wind drove the white lotuses from the bees as modesty 
drives away the coy bride from her husband. And the ducks and 
the geese swam upon the surface of the tanks, or dived under the 
clear waters ; and the brilliant kingfishers, wroth as they beheld 
their own reflection in the bright wave, and under pretence of 
catching the fish, they beat the water with their wings. And the 
plantain trees round the tanks were bending with the weight of the 
fruit, like reverential pupils bowing at the feet of their preceptors. 


338 KOS 

The whole city .was adorned with gems, so that it resembled a 
mine of jewels, and it was like unto Amaravati, the city of India. 
It was perfumed with flow^ers and incense, and decked out with 
gorgeous banners ; and it was ever filled with the sweet sound of 
music, the sharp twanging of bows, and the holy chaunting of 
Vedic hymns. The city was encompassed round about with very 
lofty walls, which were set in with variously-coloured jewels ; and 
all round the walls was a moat filled with water, deep and 
impassable ; and the city gates were strongly barred, and the 
porticoes of the gates and the towers on the walls were filled with 
archers, and stored with weapons of every description. Every 
quarter of the city was guarded by mighty heroes, who were as 
strong as the eight gods who rule the eight points of the universe, 
and as vigilant as the many-headed serpents who watch at the 
entrance of the regions below." 

" On Sarju's bank of ample size, 
The happy realm of Kosal lies, 
With fertile length of fair champaign • 
And flocks and herds and wealth of grain, 
There, famous in her old renown 
Ayodhya* stands, the royal town 
In bygone ages built and planned 
By sainted Manu's princely hand. 
Imperial seat ! her walls extend 
Twelve measured leagues from end to end. 
And three in width from side to side, 
With square and palace beautified. 
Her gates at even distance stand ; 
Her ample roads are wisely planned. 
Right glorious is her royal street. 
Where streams allay the dust and heat. 
On level ground in even row. 
Her houses rise in goodly show : 

• " The ruins of the ancient capital of Rama and the children of the Sun, 
may still be traced in the present Ajudhya near Fyzabad. Ajudbya is the 
Jerusalem or Mecca of the Uindi\s>*' —Grijffiths. 

KOT— KRA 339 

Terrace and palace, arcli and gate, 
The queenly city decorate. 
High are her ramparts, strong and vast, 
By ways at even distance passed, 
With circling moat both deep and wide, 
And store of weapons fortified." — Griffiths. 
The name Kosala is variously applied. Its earliest and most 
celebrated application is that given above, to the country on the 
banks of the Sarayu, the kingdom of Rama, of which Ayodha was 
the capital. In the Mahabharata we have one Kosala in the east, 
and another in the south ; besides the Prak-kosalas and Uttara- 
kosalas in the east and north. The Purauas place the Kosalas in 
the back of Vindhya ; and it would appear from the Vayu, that 
Kusa, the son of Rama, transferred his kingdom to a more central 
position ; he ruled over Kosala at his capital of Kusasthali, or 
Kusavati, built upon the Vindhyan precipices. In later times the 
country of Kosala lay south of Oude, for in the Ratnavali the 
general of Vatsa surrounds the king of Kosala in the Vindhyan 
mountains : Ptolemy has a Kouta Kosala in the south, probably 
one of the Kosalas of the Hindus. Wilson's Notes to Vishnu 
Purana and Hindu Theatre, Vol. II. 

Kotavi — An eighth portion of Rudrani, and the tutelary goddess 
of the Daityas, composed of incantations. The Vishnu Purana 
states that as Krishna was in the act of casting his discus, to kill 
Bana, the mystical goddess Kotavi, the magic lore of the demons, 
stood naked before him, in order to prevent him. 

Koutsya — A mythical sage, the disciple of Maharishi Varatanta, 
who rewarded his tutor with fourteen crores of rupees for the 
fourteen branches of study completed under him. For the way in 
which the money was obtained, see Raghu. 

Kratha — The son of Vidarbha ; and grandson of Jyimagha, q. v. 

KratU — 1, A Praj^pati, or one of the mind-born sons of 
Brahma and one of the seven glorious spirits who abide in the orb 
of the sun, scattering light throughout the universe, married to 
Saunati, daughter of Daksha ; 2, A son of Uru, of the race of 

340 KRA— KRI 

KratUSthala — The celestial nymph who resides in the car of 
the sun during the month Chaitra, as one its seven guardians. 

Krauncha — l, The fifth of the seven great insular continents, 
or dwipas ; the king of this Dwipa was Dyutirndn : it had seven 
boundary mountains, each in succession twice as lofty as the one 
preceding it ; the inhabitants resided there without apprehension, 
associating with the bands of divinities ; the Brahmans were called 
Pushkaras ; the Kshatriyas, Pushkalas ; the Vaisyas were termed 
Dhanyas ; and the Sudras, Trishyas. 

Kriaswa— l, A sage, who was married to two of the daughters 
of Daksha ; and the deified weapons of the gods were the progeny 
of Kriaswa. These are also called the Sastra devatas, gods of the 
divine weapons ; a hundred are enumerated in the Ramayana, and 
they are there termed the sons of Kridswa by Jaya and Vijayd, 
daughters of the Prajapati, that is of Daksha ; 2, A son of Saha- 
deva ; 3, A son of Santrataswa. 

Krikana, or Krimi— The son of Bhajamana Krimi ; also the 
name of a son of Usinara, a descendant of Anu. 

Krimibhojana, Krimisa — The names of the two of the hells 
or divisions of Naraka below Patala. The specific punishments 
of each are described in the Vishnu Purana, p. 207-9. 

Kripa and Kripi — The son and daughter of Satyadhriti, who 
was a proficient in Military science. Being enamoured of the 
nymph Urvasi he became the parent of two children, a boy and a girl. 
The Raja Santaua whilst hunting, found these children exposed 
in a clump of long Sara grass ; and compassionating their condition 
took them and brought them up. As they were nurtured through 
pity (Kripa) they were called Kripa and Kripi. The legend of 
their birth is thought to be a Puranic invention to explain the 
origin of their names. The latter became the wife of Drona and 
mother of Aswatthaman. Kripa was one of the Kuru generals. 
lie rebuked Kama for wishing to measure weapons with Arjuna, 
and advised Duryodhana to conclude a treaty with the Pindavas. 
When Duryodhana was mortally wounded Kripa hastened to him, 
fetched him water, and inaugurated AswatthAmau general. Kripa 
is also called Saradvata. 

KRI 841 

Krisanu— An archer mentioned in the Rig Veda. 

Krishna — The Indian Hercules and Apollo combined. The most 
renowned demigod of Indian mythology, and most celebrated hero 
of Indian history, is the eighth Avatara or incarnation of Vishnu. 
" Vishnu was born as Krishna for the destruction of Kansa, an 
oppressive monarch, and, in fact, an incarnate Daitya or Titan, the 
natural enemy of the gods. Kansa being forewarned of his fate 
seeks to anticipate his destroyer ; but Krishna is conveyed secretly 
away from Mathura, the capital of Kansa, and is brought up as the 
child of a cowherd at Vrinduvau, a pastoral district near Mathura. 
It is whilst thus circumstanced that he has been exalted into an 
object of adoration, and the mischievous follies of the child, the 
boy, and the lad, are the subject of popular delight and wonder. 
His male companions are not very prominent in the tale of his 
youth ; but the females, the deified dairy maids, play a more 
important part in the drama. Amongst the most conspicuous is 
Radha, and she receives scarcely less universal homage than 
Krishna himself."* 

Krishna cannot be said to belong really to the Epic age, but 
almost exclusively to the Puranic. When the story of his life 
is divested of the marvellous, he will be found to be an historical 
personage, belonging to that epoch when the Aryan race, leaving 
the north-western corner of the peninsula, began to make their 
way by gradual conquests towards the interior and the east. The 
enemies whom he attacks and subdues are the aborigines of the 
interior, who, to heighten the glory of the hero, are called giants 
and demons, Daityas and Danavas. The Aryans were still a 
nomad people, pasturing their herds of cattle at the foot of the 
Himalaya range and in the plains of the Panjab ; and the legend 
would further lead us to believe that the primitive elementary 
worship now yielded to the more systematic religion of Brahmanism 
and the institutions of caste. His identification with Vishnu 
would follow as a natural apotheosis of a monarch and warrior of 
such fame ; but the very legend itself, even as it is given in the 
Puranas, seems to show that he existed long before the my- 

• Wilson's Works, Vol. IL pp. CG,67. 

342 KRI 

thological triad of Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva had ever been 
dreamed of. The following is a curtailed account of his birth and 
actions, borrowed partly from the Puranas, and partly from Monier 
Williams' Eng.-Sanskrit Dictionary. 

The king of the Daityas or aborignes, Ahuka, had two sons, 
Devaka and Ugrasena. The former had a daughter named Devaki, 
the latter a son called Kansa. Devaki was married to a nobleman 
of the Aryan race named Vasudeva (or Anakadundubhi), the son 
of Sura, a descendant of Yadu, and by him had eight sons. 
Vasudeva had also another wife named Rohini. Kansa, the cousin 
of Devaki, was informed by the saint and prophet Nirada, that 
his cousin would bear a son, who would kill him and overthrow 
his kingdom. Kansa was king of Mathura, and he captured 
Vasudeva and his wife Devaki, imprisoned them in his own palace, 
set guards over them, and slew the six children whom Devaki had 
already borne. She was now about to give birth to the seventh, 
who was Bala Rama, the play fellow of Krishna, and, like him, 
supposed to be an incarnation of Vishnu (see Rama) ; but by 
divine agency, the child was transferred before birth to the womb 
of Vasudeva's other wife, Rohini, who was still at liberty, and 
•was thus saved. Her eighth child was Krishna, who was born 
at midnight, with a very black skin (the name Krishna, as an 
adjective, means * black,') and a peculiar curl of hair called the 
Shrivatsa, resembling a Saint Andrew's cross, on his breast. The 
gods now interposed to preserve the life of this favoured babj 
from Kansa's vigilance, and accordingly lulled the guards of the 
palace to sleep with the Yoga-nidra, or mysterious slumber. 
Taking the infant, its father Vasudeva stole out undiscovered as far 
as Yamuna, or Jumna river, which seems to have been the boundary 
between the Aryans and the aborigines. This he crossed, and 
on the other side found the cart and team of a nomad Aryan 
cowherd, called Nanda, whose wife, Yasoda, had by strange 
coincidence just been delivered of a female child. Vasudeva, 
warned of this by divine admonition, stole to her bedside, and 
placing Krishna by her, re-crossed the river, and re-entered the 
palace, with the female baby of Yasodd in his arms, and thus 

KRI 843 

substituted it for his own son. When Kansa discovered the cheat, 
he for a while gave up the affair, and set the prisoners at liberty, 
but ordered all male children to be put to death. Vasudeva then 
entrusted Krishna to the care of Nanda, the cowherd, who took 
him to the village of Gokula, or Vraja, and there brought him up. 

Here Krishna, and his elder brother Bala Rama, who joined 
him, wandered about together as children, and evinced their divine 
character by many unruly pranks of surprising strength, such as 
kicking over the cart, which served as conveyance and domicile to 
Nanda and his family. The female Daitya Putana was sent to 
suckle him, but the refractory baby discovering the trick, showed 
his gratitude by slaying her. Later in life he vanquished the 
serpent K^liya in the middle of the Yamuna (Jumna) river. A 
demon, Arishta, assuming the form of a bull ; another, Keshin 
that of a horse ; and a third, Kdlanemi, all undertook to destroy 
the boy, but each fell victims to his superhuman strength. 
Krishna now incited Nanda and the cowherds to abandon the 
worship of Indra, and to adopt that of the cows, which sup- 
ported them, and the mountains, which afforded them pasturage. 
Indra, incensed at the loss of his offerings, opened the gates 
of heaven upon the whole race, and would have deluged them, 
had not our hero plucked up the mountain Govarddhana, 
and held it as a substantial umbrella above the land. He soon 
took to repose from his labours, and amused himself with the 
Gopis, or shepherdesses, of whom he married seven or eight, 
among whom Radha was the favourite, and to whom he taught 
the r'^v.nJl dance called Rhsa, or Mandala-nrityam. Meanwhile 
Kansa had not forgotten the prophecies of Narada. He invited 
the two boys, Krishna and Ealarama, to stay with him at 
Mathura ; they accepted, and went. At the gates, Kansa's washer- 
man insulted Krishna, who slew him, and dressed himself in his 
yellow clothes. He afterwards slew Kansa himself, and placed 
his father Ugrasena on the throne. A foreign king of the Kala- 
yavana (Indo-Scythian) race soon invaded the Yadu, or Aryan, 
territory, whereupon Krishna built and fortified the town of 
Dw^raka, in Guzerat, and thither transferred the inhabitants of 

344 KRI 

Mathura. He afterwards married Satyabhama, daughter of 
Satrajit, and carried off Rukmini, daughter of Bhishmaka. His 
harem numbered sixty thousand wives, but his progeny was 
limited to eighteen thousand sons. When afterwards on a visit to 
Indra's heaven, he behaved, at the persuasion of his wife, Satya- 
bhama, in a manner very unbecoming a guest, by stealiug the 
famous parijata tree, which had been produced at the churning of 
the ocean, and was then thriving in Indra's garden. A contest 
ensued, in which Krishna defeated the gods, and carried off the 
sacred tree. At another time, a female Daitya, Usha, daughter of 
Bana, carried off Krishna's grandson, Aniruddha. His grandfather, 
accompanied by Rama, went to the rescue, and though Bana was 
defended by Siva and Skanda, proved victorious. Paundraka, 
one of Vasudeva's family, afterwards assumed his title and insignia, 
supported by the king of Benares. Krishna hurled his flaming 
discus {chakra) at this city, and thus destroyed it. He afterwards 
exterminated his own tribe, the Yadavas. He himself was killed 
by a chance shot from a hunter. He is described as having curly 
black hair, as wearing a club or mace, a sword, a flaming discus, 
a jewel, a conch, and a garland. His charioteer is Sdtyaki ; his 
city, Dwaraka ; his heaven, Goloka." (Thomson). 

Krishna is the principal speaker in the Bhagavat Gita ; where 
he expounds the S^nkya system of philosophy to Arjuna. In the 
great war he took part with the Pandavas, and it was mainly 
owing to his powerful assistance that the opposite party were 

Krishna is known in the Mahabharata by the following names : — 
Vasudeva, Kesava, Govinda, Janardana, Damodai'a, Dasara, 
Ndrayana, Hrishikesa, Purushottama, Madhava, Madhusrudana 
and Achyuta. 

Krishna — An Asura or Dasyu mentioned in the Rig Veda, 
who was slain together with his wives that none of his posterity 
might survive. " Krishna means black, and the name may, on 
this occasion, Professor Wilson thinks, allude to the dark com- 
plexioued aborigines. But there is anotlicr Krishna, even in the 
Rig Veda, and he and his son Viswaka arc members of the 

KRI 345 

Angirasa family, who may be called Rig Veda aristocrats of good 
old family descent ; and both father and son appear among the 
Rishis of the hymns." — Mrs. Manning, A. Sf M. /., Vol. /, p, 65. 

Krishna — l, One of the sons of Havirdhana, a descendant of 
Prithu ; 2, One of the Andhra kings who reigned 10 years. 

Krishna — l, The name of one of the Narakas, in which those 
who live by fraud, &c., are punished ; 2, The name of the Krish- 
navena river of the Dakhin, meaning the dark river. 

Krishna Misra — The author of Prabodha-Chandrodaya ; or 
Rising of the Moon of Awakened Intellect. This is a theological 
and philosophical drama, supposed to have been written about the 
twelfth century, with the object of establishing the Vedanta 
doctrine. What others have assailed by reason and argument 
Krishna Misra combats by ridicule. His work is praised by 
Professor Lassen, who calls it peculiarly Indian, and unlike anything 
in the literature of other countries. — Mrs. Manning. 

Krishnaveni — The river now called the Krishna or Kistna. 

Krita — The first Yuga or age ; consisting of four thousand 
eight hundred divine years, thus : 

Krita Yuga 4000 

Sandhya 400 

Saudhyasana 400 


If these divine years be converted into years of mortals, by multi- 
plying them by 360, a year of men being a day of the gods, we 
obtain one million seven hundred and twenty-eight thousand, 
(1,728,000) ordinary years, the duration of the Krita Yuga, 
according to the Hindu books. 

Krita — l, A prince, the son of Kritaratha, king of Mithila ; 
2, A son of Sannatimat, to whom Hiranyanabha taught the philo- 
sophy of the Yoga, and who compiled twenty-four Sanhitas for the 
use of the Eastern Brahmans who study the Sama Veda. 

Kritadhwaja— The son of Dharmadhwaja ; the Vishnu Purana 
says of him that he was a king ever intent upon existent supreme 


346 KRI 

Kritagni, Kritavarman, Kritavirya— Three princes, the 
sous of Dhauaka, of the Yadava race. 

Kritaka — l, One of the sons of Vasudeva by his wife Madiri ; 
2, One of the kings of Magadha. 

Kritamala — A river that takes its rise in the Malaya hills. 

Kritanjaya — l, The Vyasa of the seventeenth Dwapara ; 2, A 
prince, the son of Dharmau, of the family of Ikshvaku. 

Kritanta — The destroyer ; a name of Yaraa, the Hindu Pluto. 

Kritanta-dutaru — Yama's officers ; frequently represented as 
hovering, in a frightful shape, over the beds of the dying, to carry 
off the departing spirit to Pat^la. 

Kritaratha—One of the kings of Mithila, the son of Prati- 

Kritavarman — One of the three warriors on the Kaurava side 
who survived at the end of the great war ; the three visited the 
wounded Duryodhana on the plain of Kurukshetra. He was 
ultimately slain by S^tyaki at Prabhasa. 

Kriti — 1, The son of Bahulaswa, and the last of the kings of 
Mithila, in whom terminated the family of Janaka. 

Kritirata — One of the kings of Mithila, the son of Mah^driti. 

Krittika — A lunar mansion in Nagavithi in the K'orthern 
Avashtana ; when the sun is in the first degree of the lunar 
mansion, Krittika, and the moon is in the fourth of Visdkha, it 
is the great equinox, or holy equinoctial season. 

Kritwi — The wife of Anaha, one of the descendants of Hastin. 

Kriya — * Devotion*, a daughter of Daksha married to Dharma : 
an allegorical personification of religious rite married to the equally 
allegorical representation of the Hindu Code, viz., Dharma, moral 
and religious duty. Wilson's notes to V. P., p. 55 ; 2, A magical 
creation, represented in the Vishnu Purdua as a vast and formidable 
female springing from the southern fire, blazing with ruddy light, 
and with fiery radiance streaming amidst her hair. 

KRO— KSH 347 

Krodha — l, * Passion,' represented as a son of Brahma : one of 
the allegorical personages occurring in the list of Brahma's progeny 
amongst the series of ' virtues and vices ;' 2, ' Wrath', a son of 
Mritha ; called in the Vishnu Purana an inflictor of misery, and 
one of the progeny of vice ; also, as a terrific form of Vishnu, 
operating as a cause of the destruction of this world. 

Krodhaghara — The chamber of displeasure ; an institution 
still in vogue in Hindu families, wives resorting to it when 
discontented or angry with their husbands. 

Krodhavasa — A daughter of Daksha, married to Kasyapa. 

Kroshtu — A son of Yadu, the family in which Krishna was born. 

Kshana — A measure of time, said in the Vishnu Purdna to be 
equal to thirty kalas ; it is often used to express a very minute 
portion of time, a moment, an instant. 

Kshama — * Patience.' One of the daughters of Daksha who 
was married to the Muni Pulaka. 

Kshatradhanuan — A prince, the son of Sankriti, a descendant 
of Raji. 

Kshatranjas — A king of Magadha, the son of Kshemadarman. 

Kshatravriddha — One of the five sons of Ayus, from whose 
family many names of celebrity proceeded. 

Kshatriyas — The second of the four castes, said to have been 
produced from the breast, some authorities say the arms, of Brahma ; 
their duty being to protect the earth, the cattle, and brahmans. 
Kings, governors, and all intrusted with civil and military affairs, 
in general belong to the Kshatriya caste. Parasurama vowed that 
he would extirpate the whole Kshatriya race, and thrice seven 
times, says the Vishnu Purana, he cleared the earth of them : a 
legend, says Professor Wilson, which intimates a violent and 
protracted struggle between the Brahmans and Kshatriyas for 
domination in India. 

Kshema — * Prosperity.' A son of Dharma by his wife Santi. 

Kshemadhanwan— A prince, the son of Pundarlka, a descend- 
ant of Kusa. 

348 KSH— KUK 

Kshemaka — The last prince of the race of Puru : " the race 
which gave origin to Brahmaus and Kshatriyas, and which was 
purified by regal sages, terminated with Kshemaka in the Kali 

Kshemya — l, A prince, the son of Ugrayudha, descendant of 
Dwimidha ; 2, A son of Suchi, king of Magadha. 

Kshetrajna — "Embodied spirit," or that which knows the 
Kshetra, ' body' ; a form of Vishnu, implying the combination of 
spirit with form or matter, for the purpose of creating . 

Kshudraka — A prince, the son of Prasenajit, of the line of 

Kubja — A deformed young female servant of Kansa. Meeting 
her in the high road carrying a pot of unguent, Krishna addressed 
her sportively, and said ' For whom are you carrying that unguent, 
tell rae lovely maiden, tell me truly.' Kubja, smitten by his 
appearance, and well disposed towards Hari, replied mirthfully, 
*Know you not beloved, that I am the servant of Kansa, and 
appointed, crooked as I am, to prepare his perfumes.' Krishna 
asked her for some of it, and she gave him and Balarama as much 
of the unguent as was sufficient for their persons ; and they 
smeared their bodies with it, till they looked like two clouds, one 
white and one black, decorated by the many-tinted bow of Indra. 
Then Krishna made her perfectly straight ; and when she was 
thus relieved from her deformity, she was a most beautiful woman ; 
and from gratitude invited Goviuda to her house. He promised 
to go some other time. V. P. 

Kuhu — 1, A daughter of Angiras. The name means the last 
day of the moon's wane. The four daughters of Angiras designated 
phases of the moon ; 2, The name of a river in the Himalaya. 

Kukkura — A prince, the son of Andhaka. Kukuras, and 
Kukkuras, are given in the Vishnu Purana as names of tribes of 

Kukshi — The son and successor of IkshvAku, king of Ayodhya ; 
the second of the solar line of kings. 

KUK— KUM 349 

" Mauu who life to mortals gave, 
Begot Ikshvaku good and brave, 
First of Ayodhya's kings was he, 
Pride of her famous dynasty. 
From him the glorious Kukshi sprang 
Whose fame through all the regions rang." — Griffiths. 
Kukshi — One of the daughters of Priyavrata, the grea 

Kuladevata — The deity who is the object of hereditary and 
family worship, and is always one of the leading personages of 
Hindu mythology, as Siva, Vishnu, or Durga. No house is 
supposed to be without its tutelary divinity, but the notion attached 
to this character is now very far from precise. 

KulapavatUS — Mountain-ranges in Central India : sometimes 
termed family mountains or systems ; embracing the various 
chains described under Mahendra, Malaya, Riksha, Vindhya, &c. 

Kulatthas — Aboriginal mountain tribes, described in the Vishnu 
Purdna as * ferocious and uncivilized races.' 

Kulindas, Kulindapalyakas, Kulutas — Tribes enumerated 
in the V. P. but not identified. 

Kumar a — l, A Prajapati, of whom there appear to have been 
twenty-one ; the Vayu Purana states that they are numerous. 

Kumara-sambhava — The Birth of the War God ; a poem by 
Kalidasa, that has been translated into English verse by Mr. 

Kumari — ^A river that rises in the Saktimat mountains. 

Kumbhaka — A suspension of breath by the closing of both 
nostrils : being part of the brahmanical ritual for obtaining control 
of the external senses. 

Kumbhakarna — A R^kshasa, the son of Visravas, and brother 
of Ravana. He was brought up in the forest with his brothers, 
and went about eating Rishis. When Brahma had granted boons 
to Ravana and Vibhishana, and was about to confer one on 
Kumbhakarna, the gods interposed, saying he had eaten seven 
Apsarases and ten followers of Indra, besides Rishis and men ; and 

350 KUM—KUN 

begged that under the guise of a boon stupefaction might be 
inflicted on him. Brahma thought on Sarasvati, who arrived, and 
by Brahma's command entered into Kumbhakarua's mouth, to 
speak for him. Under this influence he asked that he might 
receive the boon of sleeping for many years, which was granted to 
him. 0. S. T., Vol. IV, p. 416. 

The description given of Kumbhakarna in the Ramayana is 
ridiculously extravagant and exaggerated. At the siege of Lanka 
when Havana decided to avail himself of the Services of his gigantic 
brother, the difficulty was to know how to awake him, as he was 
buried in sleep for six months together, and then only awoke for a 
short time to gorge himself with enormous quantities of food. The 
messengers tried to enter his room but were blown away from the 
door by the wind caused by the deep breathing of the sleeping 
monster. At last, after violent efforts, they forced an entrance ; 
and ten thousand Rakshasas made every sort of din in his ears by 
beating drums, &c. Then they hammered his limbs with mallets, 
danced upon him, caused a thousand elephants to walk over his 
body, piled heaps of food under his very nose, all without eflfect. 
Nothing availed but the touch of some beautiful women who 
eventually succeeded in rousing him. Kumbhakarna consented to 
go out to battle, and displayed extraordinary valour, routing, 
wounding, and even devouring thousands of the monkey army, 
but was ultimately conquered and killed by Rama. The figure of 
Kumbhakarna is a favourite one in village representations of the 
siege of Lanka, and he is generally exhibited asleep. I. E. P. 

Kumuda — l, One of the six minor Dwipas, situated beyond the 
sea ; 2, A mountain forming the northern buttress of Mount Meru. 

Kumudali — A pupil of Pathya and teacher of the Atharva 

Kumadvati — A river that rises in the Vindhya mountains. 

Kundaka — A prince, the son of Kshudraka, and grandfather 
of Sumitro, who was the last of the kings of the family of 

Kundinapur — The capital of Vidarbha, a country of consi- 
derable extent and power at various periods. The name remains 

KUN— KUR 351 

in Beder, which may have been the ancient capital ; but the 
kingdom seems to have corresponded with the great part of Berar 
and Kandesh. It is mentioned in the Eamayana amongst the 
countries of the south. 

Kuntala, Kunthakas — Kuntala is in one place one of the 
central countries ; in another one of the southern ; the name is 
applied in inscriptions to the province in which Kurgode is situated ; 
part of the Adoni district : and consistently with this position it is 
placed amongst the dependant or allied states of Vidarbha, in the 
Dasa Kumara. 

Kunti or Pritha— The eldest of the five daughters of Sura 
and Marishi. Sura had a friend named Kuntibhoja, to whom as he 
had no children, he presented in due form, his daughter Kunti. 
She was married to Pandu, to whom she bore three sons, 
Yudhishthira, Bhima, and Arjuua, Pandu, however, had by the 
curse of a deer, been prevented from having progeny, and she 
therefore conceived these children by connection with the deities 
Dharma, Vayu, and Indra respectively. Yudhishthira, as the son 
of Dharma, is considered justest ; Bhima, Vayu's son, the strongest ; 
and Arjuua, Indra's son, the best bowshot. See Karna, for an 
account of Kunti's son before her marriage ; 2, Kunti was also the 
name of a son of Dharmanetra of the Vddava race ; and of a son 
of Kratha, of the family of Jyamagha. 

Kuntibhoja — A friend of Sura's who adopted his daughter 
Kunti ; he was an ally of the Pandus in the great war. 

Kurma Purana — The Purana in which Janarddana, in the 
form of a tortoise, in the regions under the earth, explained the 
objects of life — duty, wealth, pleasure and libei^ation — in commu- 
nication with Iridradyumna, and the Rishis in the proximity of 
Sakra ; which refers to the Lakshmi Kalpa, and contains seventeen 
thousand stanzas. V. P. 

Kurma or Tortoise Avatara — The second of the ten 

Avataras of Vishnu. The legend is that at a very remote period 
when the gods felt their powers weakened, and were desirous of 
obtaining Amrita (q. v.) the beverage of immortality, Vishnu 
directed them to churn, together with the demons, the milk-sea, 

352 KUR 

by taking the mountain Mandara for their staff, and his serpent 
Vasuki for their cord, the gods to stand at the tail, and the demons 
at the head of the serpent ; while he himself consented to support 
the mountain on his back, after having assumed the shape of a 
gigantic tortoise. The result of this churning of the sea of milk, 
was, besides the ultimate recovery of the Amrita, the appearance 
of a variety of miraculous things and beings ; but it also led to a 
violent contest between the gods and demons, in which the latter 
were defeated. The idea of the lord of creation assuming the 
shape of a tortoise, and that of sacrificial liquids, especially clari- 
fied butter, becoming tortoise-shaped (Kama, the word for 
tortoise, meaning literally, ' badly or slowly going'), occurs also 
in the Yajurveda ; but the legend on which the tortoise- A vatara of 
Vishnu is based seems to belong entirely to the post-Vedic period 
of Hinduism. 

Kurmis — Semi-aboriginal cultivators to the south of the Raj- 
puts and Jats. 

Kuru — 1, One of the sous of Agnid'hra, to whom his father 
gave the country north of the Sweta mountains, bounded by the 
Srinagavan range ; 2, An ancient king, the son of Samvarna, who 
gave his name to the district Kurukshetra. He was the ancestor 
of Vichitravirya, the grandfather of the Kurus and Pandavas. 
Kuru, it is usually supposed, is the prince who gives the designa- 
tion to Duryodhana and his brothers, thence called Kauravas, in 
opposition to their cousins the sons of P^ndu, termed Pandavas, 
Kuru being a remote ancestor of both. The Mahabharata however 
gives a different account, and derives the term Kaurava from the 
country, Kuru-jangala, or Kurukshetra (Lassen, Ind. Alt. I, p. 
593,) which was subject to the family of Duryodhana, the upper 
part of the Panjab beyond Delhi, or Panniput, which is still 
commonly called by the Hindus Kurukhetr. Kuru, the prince, 
was descended from Nahusha, the great grandson of Soma, or the 
moon, by his grandson Puru. The thirteenth descendant of Kuru 
was Santanu, who had four sons, Bhishma, Chitrangada, Vichitra- 
virya, and Vyasa. Of these Bhishma and Vyasa lived unmarried, 
and fhc other two died without offspring ; on which, to prevent 

KUR 353 

the extinction of the family, and conformably to the ancient Hindu 
law, Vyasa had chiklren by his brother's widows. The sons 
were Dhritarashtra and Pandu, who became the founders of tlie 
two families of the Kauravas and Pandavas. Wilsori^s Works, 
Vol III, p. 290. 

Kurus — A very ancient people, who seem to have been origi- 
nally situated in Central and Northern Asia, as the Vishnu Purana 
says they inhabited the middle districts of Eharata. They probably 
entered India with the Aryans or were a tribe of that great race, 
and settled in Kurukshetra. With this meaning the name applies 
to both Kurus and Pandavas — hence Arjuna is called the best 
of the Kurus. In its particular and exclusive sense the name is 
given only to that party which adhered to Duryodhana, and opposed 
the Pandavas, Both names belong to the Epic period. 

Kurukshetra — The plain of the Kurus. A tract of land to 
the east of the Yamuna or Jumna river, in the upper part of the 
Doab, near the city of Delhi, and the river Saraswati. Hastina- 
pura was its capital. 

" The Sarasvati (Sursooty) is an insignificant stream flowing 
through Sirhind, between the Yamuna and the Shatadru. It even- 
tually loses itself in the sand of the desert, and is, on that account, 
fabled by the Hindus to flow underground into the ocean. It is 
held, however, as one of the most sacred streams of India. Lassen 
calls the Doab the Belgium of India. It is the gateway of the 
peninsula, where the eastern and western races have always met 
in battle. Here in later days was fought the battle of Panniput ; 
and here was laid the scene of that war which transferred the 
sovereignty of middle India from the Kurus to the Pandavas. As 
it was the gate of India so does it in all probability derive its 
sacred name from being the first seat of the Aryan race, whence 
it worked its way from the Indus to the Ganges, and from being 
retained in their memory with all the respect due to a fatherland." 
— J. C Thomson. 

Kurumbas — The aboriginal cultivators of South Kanara. 

Kuruvarnakas— The aboriginal people of the forests in the 
upper part of the Doab. 


354 KUR— KUS 

Kuruvatsa — A prince, the son of Anavaratha, a descendant of 

Kusa — 1> Sacrificial grass ; which, on occasion of offerings made 
to the gods, is placed upon the ground as a seat for them, having 
its tips towards the east ; 2, the name of the fourth of the great 
insular continents, or Dwipas ; so named from a clump of* Kusa 
grass (Poa) growing there. There reside mankind along with 
Daityas and Danavas, as well as with spirits of heaven and gods. 

Kusa — 1, A son of Rama " Kusa and Lava were the twin sons 
of Rama and Sita, born after Rama had repudiated Sita, and brought 
up in the hermitage of Valmiki. As they were the first rhapso- 
dists the combined name Kusilava signifies a reciter of poems, 
or an improvisatore, even to the present day." {Griffiths.) Kusa 
built Kusasthali, on the brow of the Viudhya, the capital of 
Kosali ; the Ragha Vansa describes Kusa as returning from 
Kusavati to Ayodhya, after his father's death ; but it seems not 
unlikely that the extending power of the princes of the Doab, of 
the lunar family, compelled Rama's posterity to retire more to the 
west and south ; 2, A son of Valakaswa, a descendant of Pururavas. 

Kusadhwaj — The younger brother of Janaka, king of Videha. 

Kusadhwaja — The king of Kasi in the Epic period. According 
to the Vishnu Purana he was the brother, and according to the 
Bhagavata, the son, of Siradhwaja. 

Kusagfra—- The son of Vrihadratha, one of the ancient kings of 


Kusamba — l, The brother of Vrihadratha, and uncle of 
Kusagra ; 2, The eldest son of Kusa, aud founder of Kausambi, 
afterwards Kanouj. 

Kusanabha — The second son of Kusa, who also took part in 
building Kausambi. 

Kusasthali — 1, The capital of Anartta, which was part of 
Kutch of Guzemt ; it appears to have been the same, or in the same 
spot, as Dwaraka. The Vishnu Purana says, " that city 
Kusasthali which was formerly your capital, and rivalled the city 

KUS— KUV 355 

of the immortals, is now known as Dvvaraka ; and theie reigns a. 
portion of Vishnu in the person of Baladeva," &c. ; 2, The city 
built by Kusa on the brow of the Viudhya. (See Kusa.) 

KusMdi — A pupil of Paushyinji, and teacher of the Samaveda. 

Kushmandas — A class of deities mentioned in the Vishnu 
Purana and other Puranas. They are described as taking counsel 
with Indra how best to interrupt the devout exercises of Dhruva, 
when, as a child, he commenced the rigorous penance that caused 
alarm in the celestial regions. 

Kusika — According to the Brahma and Harl Vansa, the father 
of Gadhi, the incarnation of Indra. 

Kusumayudha — A name of Kamadeva, the Hindu Cupid. The 
w^ord means. " He whose weapons are flowers." O. S. T., Vol. 
I, p. 112. 

Kuthumi — A pupil of Paushyinji and teacher of the Sama Veda. 

Kuvalayaswa — The son of Vrihadaswa. This prince, inspired 
with the spirit of Vishnu, destroyed the Asura Dhundu, who had 
harassed the pious sage Uttanka ; and he was thence entitled 
Dhundumara. In his conflict with the demon he was attended by 
his sons to the number of twenty-one thousand ; and all these, with 
the exception of only three, perished in the engagement, consumed 
by the fiery breath of Dhundu ; a legend originating probably in 
some earthquake or volcano. V. P. 

Kuvera — The Hindu Plutus ; he is the son of Visravas by 
Ilavila, and is the god of riches and regent of the north ; the 
keeper of gold, silver, precious stones, pearls, and all the treasures 
in the earth, which he gives to those for whom they are destined 
by Isvara. He is the chief of the Yakshas, and Guhyakas, into 
•whose forms transmigrate the souls of those men who in this life 
are absorbed in the pursuit of riches. He is represented in 
external appearance as a mere man, but with a deformed body, of 
-white colour, having three legs and but eight teeth, with a crown 
on his head, and a club in one of his hands. His whole body is 
adorned with various ornaments, and his vehicle is a self-moving 
chariot. The poets have written many stories concerning him, and 

356 KUS 

.when they praise a man on account of his riches they compare him 
to Kuvera. His attendants are Kinneras, who are shaped like men 
with heads of horses. 

Kuvera is said to have performed austerity for thousands of 
years, in consequence of which he obtained from Brahma as a boon 
that he should be one of the guardians of the world and the god of 
riches. He afterwards consulted his father, Visravas, about an 
abode, and at his suggestion took possession of the city of Lanka, 
which had formerly been built by Visvakarman for the Rakshasas, 
but had been abandoned by them through fear of Vishnu, and was 
at that time unoccupied. O. S. T., Vol. IV, p. 414. 

In the RamayanaKailasa is spoken of as the residence of Kuvera. 

"Having quickly passed over that dreadful desert, you shall 
then see the white mountain, called Kailasa, and there the celestial 
palace of Kuvera, formed by Visvakarman, in colour like a brilliant 
cloud, and decorated with gold." O. S. T., Vol. IV, p. 308. And 
in one passage Siva is represented as paying a visit to Kuvera on 
mount Kailasa, and as acknoAvledging the divine character of 
Rama. O. S. T., Vol. IV, p. 310. But in general Kuvera is 
represented as residing in Alaka, (also in the Himalaya) which is 
termed in the Cloud Messenger the city of the blessed, and is 
always described as abounding in wealth and magnificence, and 
being surrounded with a garden of surpassing loveliness, in which 
was a lake covered with lotuses. 

Laghu — A measure of time equal to fifteen Kashtas. 

Lajja — Modesty — One of the daughters of Daksha, who was 
married to Dharma. 

Lakshmana — One of the sons of Dasaratha, and brother of 
Rama, to whom he was faithfully attached throughout all his 

Then Lakshman's truth was nobly shown, 
Then were his love and courage known, 
When for his brother's sake he dared 
All perils, and his exile shared. 

He followed Rama to the wilderness and was with him when 
crowned. The latest incident recorded of him is that he was 
entrusted with the care of Sita, when she was taken to the hermit- 
age of Valmiki and delivered of twins, Kusa and Lava. In Dr. 
Muir's O. S. T., Vol. IV, p. 107, the following legend of laksh- 
mana's death occurs : Time, in the form of an ascetic came to the 
palace gate of Rama ; and asked as the messenger of Brahmi, to 
see Rama. He was admitted and received with honour, but stated 
that his message must be delivered in private, and that any one 
who witnessed the interview would lose his life. Rama informed 
Lakshmana of this and desired him to stand outside. * * * * 
Soon after the irritable Rishi Durvasas came, and insisted on 
seeing Rama immediately, under a threat, if refused, of cursing 
Rama and all his family. Lakshmana, preferring to save his 
kinsmen, though knowing that his own death must be the conse- 
quence of interrupting the interview of Rama with Time, entered 
the palace and reported the Rishi's message to Rama. Rama came 
out, and when Durvasas had got the food he wished and departed, 
Rama reflected with great distress on the words of Time, which 
required that Lakshmana should die. Lakshmana, however, 

358 LAK 

exhorted Rama not to grieve but to abandon him, and not break 
his own promise. The counsellors concurring in this advice Rama 
abandoned Lakshmana, who went to the river Sarayu, suppressed 
all his senses, and was conveyed bodily by Indra to heaven. 

Lakshmana — One of the wives of Krishna. 

Lakshmi— " Prosperity." The daughter of Brighu, and bride 
or Sakti of Vishnu. The goddess of fortune, wealth and prosperity. 
She is also represented as the counterpart of Vishnu. Vishnu is 
meaning ; she is speech. Vishnu is understanding ; she is intellect. 
He is righteousness ; she is devotion. He is the Creator ; she is 

creation, &c. &c in a word Vishnu is all that is called male ; 

Lakshmi is all that is termed female ; there is nothing else than 
they. V. P., p. 61. She is represented as having been born from 
the churning of the ocean, * rising from the waves, radiant with 
beauty.' Indra recited a hymn to her praise, calling her the mother 
of all beings. 

Mr. Griffiths thus translates the story of her birth from the 
Ramaydna and adds a note from Schlegel. 

At length when many a year had fled, 

Up floated, on her lotus bed, 

A maiden fair and tender-eyed, 

In the young flush of beauty's pride. 

She shone with pearl and golden sheen, 

And seals of glory stamped her queen. 

On each round arm glowed many a gem. 

On her smooth brow^s, a diadem. 

Rolling in waves beneath her crown 

The glory of her hair flowed down. 

Pearls on her neck of price untold. 

The lady shone like burnisht gold. 

Queen of the Gods, she leapt to land, 

A lotus in her perfect hand. 

And fondly, of the lotus sprung. 

To lotus-bearing Vishnu clung. 

Her, Gods above and men below 

As beauty's Queen and Fortune know. 

LAL— LAM 359 

* That this story of the birth of Lakshrai is of considerable 
antiquity is evident from one of her nanaes Kslurdhdhi-tanaya, 
daughter of the Milky Sea, which is found in Amarasinha, the most 
ancient of Indian lexicographers. The similarity to the Greek 
myth of Venus being born from the foam of the sea is remarkable/ 

* In this description of Lakshmi one thing only offends me, that 
she is said to have four arms. Each of Vishnu's arms, single as 
far as the elbow, there branches into two ; but Lakshmi in all the 
brass seals that I possess or remember to have seen has two arms 
only. Nor does this deformity of redundant limbs suit the pattern 
of perfect beauty.' (Schlegel.) 

Mr. Griffith has omitted the offensive epithet four-armed. In a 
passage quoted by Dr. Muir it is said that when Vishnu was 
incarnate as Rama then Lakshmi became Sita ; and that when he 
was born as Krishna she became Rukmini. O- S. T., Vol. IV, p. 392.» 

" Lakshmi is not found in the Rig Veda in the sense which the 
word bears in the later mythology, of a goddess personifying good 
fortune, though the word itself occurs in a kindred signification." 
O. S. T., Vol. V, p. 348. 

The beautiful goddess is also said to have been produced at the 
churning of the ocean. In the Brahma Vaivartta Puraua, Lakshmi 
is said to be a portion of Prakriti ; and in another place is made to 
issue from the mind of Krishna ; in a different part of the work 
she is described as one of two goddesses into which the first 
Sarasvati was divided, the two being Sarasvati proper, and Kamala 
or J.2k^hmi.— Wilson's Works, Vol. Ill, p. 102. 

2, The name of a daughter of Daksha who was married 
to Dharma. 

Lalabaksha — One of the Narakas, that in which those are 
punished who eat their meals without offering food to the gods, to 
the manes, or to guests. V. P., p. 208. 

Lalita — A distinguished name of the personified female energy. 
See Sakti. 

Lamba — One of the daughters of Daksha and wife of Dharma. 

Lambodara — One of the Audhra kings who reigned eighteen 
years : he was the son of Salakarni the 2ud. 

360 LAN— LIG 

Langalas — One of the aborigmal tribes who dwelt ia jungles 
aud forests. 

Langali — A pupil of Paushyinji and teacher of the Sama Veda. 
Langalini— A river that has its source in Maheudra. 

Lanka— The island of Ceylon, the ancient capital of Ravana, 
described in the Ramayana as the capital town of the kings of the 
race of Pulastya, known as Yakshas. Some pandits in the north 
of India deny the identity of Lanka and Ceylon. 

Laukika — "Worldly," the opposite to Daivika or " Divine'* 
— e. g., The Apsarasas are thus distinguished, thirty-four of them 
being specified as Laukika, and ten as Daivika. 

Lauhitya — An ancient river mentioned in the Puranas, now 
part of the Brahmaputra. 

Lava— The younger of the twin sons of Rama by Sita, and 
king of Srawasti, in northern Kosala, by which a part of Oude is 
commonly understood. He was trained up by his mother in the 
hermitage of Vdlmiki, and appears to have become a strong 
muscular man ; having also acquired great skill in archery. When 
R^ma sent off a horse, previous to its sacrifice, Kusa and Lava 
seized it, and maintained their hold till Rama himself came and 
recognised his two sons. 

Lavana — l, A Rakshasa Chief, the son of Madhu, who reigned 
at Mathura ; he was killed by Satrughna, who took possession of 
his cajntal ; 2, One of the Narakas, (the salt) in which those ;are 
punished who associate with Avomen in a prohibited degree. 

Lekhas — A class of deities of the sixth Manwantara. 

Lesa — A son of Suhotra, of the line of the kings of Kasi. 

Libations — To be offered to the gods, sages, and progenitors, 
with the parts of the hand severally sacred to each. The offerer 
is first to bathe, dress in clean clothes, and scatter water thrice to 
gratify the gods ; as many times to please the Rishis ; and once to 
propitiate Prajapati ; he must also make three libations to satisfy 
the progenitors. For full details see V. P., pp. 302, 303. 

Light, or fire—Sec Tejas. 

LIL--LOH 361 

Lila — A pastime ; but mythologically used of certain libidinous 
amusements of gods among mortals on earth. Krishna's adventures 
with the Gopis and Siva's pastimes at Madura, are termed Lilas in 
Sanskrit books. 

Linga Purana — The Puraua in which Siva explained the 
objects of life, viz., virtue, wealth, pleasure, and final liberation at 
the end of the Agni Kalpa. Professor Wilson says there is 
nothing in it like the phallic orgies of antiquity : it is all mystical 

and spiritual. The Linga is twofold, external and internal 

whatever may have been the origin of this form of worship in 
India, the notions upon which it was founded, according to the 
impure fancies of European writers, are not to be traced in even 
Saiva Purauas. 

Lingam — In grammar means Gender. Mythologically it 
designates a phallic emblem, and is represented by a cylindrical 
stone rounded off at the top ; and at the other end inserted iu 
masonry or in the ground, but transfixiug another horizontal and 
flat stone named Yoni. This emblem is placed in the open field, 
on the way side, and in temples, and worshipped from the Hima- 
layas to Cape Comorin ; and from the mouths of the Ganges to 
those of the Indus. The worship of the Lingam and Yoni marks 
the Saivas ; the worship of the Liugam alone denotes the Vira 
Saivas. The latter attach a further meauing to the word, indicating 
various heavens or Lokas in the invisible world. The uppermost 
is the Brahma, or sometimes Siva lingam ; concerning which 
metaphor is exhausted. 

Lingadhari — One who wears a small liugam on his person, 
usually in a little silver box, hanging on his breast from a string 
round the neck ; or sometimes fastened to his right arm. 

Lobha—" Covetousness," a son of Brahma — being one of his 
progeny of virtues and vices as enumerated in the Vishnu Purana. 
In another part of the same Purana, Lobha is described as the son 
of Dharma by one of the daughters of Daksha ; also as the son of 
Adharma (vice) and it states that he was married to Nikriti, and 
their progeny was Krodha, Hiusa, &c. 

Lohitas— A class of deities in the twelfth Mauwantara. 


362 LOK 

Lokakshi — Oue of the pupils of Paushyinji, and a tobcher of 

the Sam a Veda. 

Lokaloka — The mountain belt beyond the sea of fresh water ; 
the circular boundary between the world and void space. The 
mountain range encircling the world is termed Lokaloka, because 
the world is separated by it from that which is not world. The 
Mahommedan legends of Eoh Kaf, * the stony girdle that surrounds 
the world,' are evidently connected with the Lokiloka of the 
Hindus. According to the Siva Tantra, the £1 dorado, at the foot 
of the Lokaloka mountains, is the play-ground of the gods. V. 
P., p. 202. 

Loka Palaka— World-protector, an epithet constantly given by 
Hindu writers to a rajah. 

Loka-palas— The rulers stationed by Brahmi for the protection 
of the different quarters of the world : they are termed the regents 
of the east, south, west and north. In another part of the Vishnu 
Purfina eight are mentioned as regents of the spheres ; or eight 
deities in that character ; Indro, Yama, Varuna, Kuveiti, Vivaswat, 
Soma, Agni, and Vdyu. 

Lokas — The seven spheres above the earth. 

1. Prajapatya or Pith loka. 

2. ludra loka, or Swerga. 

3. Marutloka, or Diva loka, heaven. 

4. Gandarbha loka, the region of celestial spirits, called also 


5. Janaloka, or the sphere of saints. 

6. Tapaloka, or the world of the seven sages. 

7. Brahmi loka, or Satya loka, the world of infinite wisdom 

and truth. 

For a full account of these lokas, see the Vishnu Purana, pp. 
212—215. In the Brahma Vaivartta Pui-ana another Loka is 
mentioned as the residence of Krishna denominated Goloka ; it is 
far above the three worlds, and has, at five hundred millions of 

LOM 863 

yojanas beloi^ it, the'separate Lokas of Vishnu and ^iva, Vaikunta 
and Kailas. This region is indestructible, while all else is subject 
to annihilation, and in the centre of it abides Krishna, of the colour 
of a dark cloud, in the bloom of youth, clad in yellow raiment, 
splendidly adorned with celestial gems, and holding a flute. He is 
exempt from Mdya and all qualities, eternal, alone, and the Pai*a- 
mitma, or supreme soul of the world. 
Lomaharshana— A name of SuU. 


Mabali— A name of Bali, q. v. 

Mabalipuram— A sacred place 34 miles north of Madras called 
the Seven Pagodas. 

Mada — Insanity. One of the progeny of Brahma, Vishnu 
Parana, p. 50. 

Madayanti — The wife of the R^ja Saudasa, q. v. 

Madhava-Madhu — The names of two of the months as they 
occur in the Vedas, and belonging to a system now obsolete ; 
corresponding to the lunar months Magha and Palguna, or December 
and January. 

Madhava — A name of Krishna, which may be either derived 
as a patronymic from Matha, who is mentioned among his ancestors, 
or be considered equivalent to Madhusudana. * Slayer of Madhu.' 

Madhavacharya— The founder of a school of philosophy, 
opposed to the system of Vyasa in the Brahma Sutras ; and that 
contained in the last portion of the Bhdgavat Gita ; maintaining 
that the Divine being and the soul of man (Paramatma and Jivatma) 
are two, separate and distinct. Hence his system is spoken of as 
the Dvaita. It closely resembles that termed the Satwata which 
was revived by Ramanuja chary a and is now found to prevail to 
some extent in all large communities. See Satwata. 

Madhavas — The name of a tribe, descendants of Madhu the son 
of Vrisha. 

Madhu — 1, One of the sons of Kdrttavirya ; 2, A son of 
Vrisha ; 3, A son of Devakshatra. All the above are of the race 
of Yddu to whose family, ih6 Yadavas, Krishna belonged ; 4, The 
name of a formidable R^kshasa chief, termed a great demon, pro- 
bably one of the aborigines, who was killed by Krishna. 

Madhuvana— The grove of Madhu, the demon referred to 
above. After his death Satrughna founded a city on the spot. 

MAD— MA H 365 

which was called MatHura : this became celebrated as a holy shrine, 
and it was hcie that Dhruva performed penance. 

Madhwacharya — A celebrated Vaishnava teacher, who is 
placed by Professor Wilson in the thirteenth century. 

Madhyandina — A teacher of the white Yajush. 
Madira— One of the wives of Vasudeva. 

Madra — l, One of the four sons of Sivi ; who has given a 
name to a province and tribe in the north of India ; 2, The name 
of a river that rises in the Vindhya mountains. 

Madrabhujingas, Madras, Madreyas— Tribes of people 
mentioned in the Pui-anas but not yet satisfactorily identified. 

Madri — One of the wives of Pandu, and mother of Nakula and 
Sahadeva, by the celestial twin-sons, the Aswiui. 

Magadha — The modern Behar. A celebrated country in the 
Purdnas, which furnish lists of the kings who reigned over it. 

Magadha — The bard and herald of the Hindus, being attached 
to the state of all men of rank to chaunt their praises, celebrate 
their actions, and commemorate their ancestry. Wilson. The 
name of a herald, a bard who was produced at the sacrifice per- 
formed by Brahm^ at the birth of Prithu. 

Magha —A lunar mansion in Asbarbhi, in the Central Avasthana. 

Magha— The name of one of the lunar months corresponding 
to December. 

Mahabali— A name of Bali, q. v. 

Mahabhadra — One of the four great lakes, the waters of which 
are partaken of by the gods. The Bhagavata calls it a lake of honey. 

Mahabharata— This huge epic, which is in all probability later 
in date than the Ramiyana, and consists of about 220,000 long 
lines, is rather a cyclopaedia of Hindu mythology, legendary history, 
and philosophy, than a poem with a single subject. It is divided 
into eighteen books, nearly every one of which would form a large 
volume ; and the whole is a vast thesaurus of national legends, said 
to have been collected and arranged by Vi/dsa (the supposed compiler 

366 MAH 

of the Vedas and Puranas), a name derived from a Sanskrit verb, 
meaning " to fit together," or " arrange." 

The following is an outline of the leading story, though this 
occupies little more than a fifth of the whole work, numerous 
episodes and digressions on all varieties of subjects being 
interspersed throughout the poem : — 

According to the legendary history of India, two dynasties were 
originally dominant in the north — called Solar and Lunar^ under 
whom numerous petty princes held authority, and to* whom they 
acknowledged fealty. The most celebrated of the Solar line, which 
commenced in Ikshvdku, and reigned in Oude, was the Rama of 
the Ramayana. Under this dynasty the Brdhmanical system 
gained ascendancy more rapidly and completely than under the 
Lunar kings in the more northern districts, where fresh arrivals of 
martial tribes preserved an independent spirit among the population 
already settled in those parts. 

The most famous of the Lunar race, who reigned in Hastinapura, 
or ancient Delhi, was JB karat a, whose authority is said to have 
extended over a great part of India, and from whom India is to 
this day called by the natives Bhdrat-varsha (the country or domain 
of Bharata.) This Bharata was an ancestor oi Kuru, the twenty- 
third in descent from whom was the Brahman Krishna Dwaipdyana 
Vydsa (the supposed author of the Mahabharata), who had two 
sons, Dhriiardihtra and Pdndu. The former, though blind, 
consented to assume the government when resigned by his younger 
brother P^ndu, and undertook to educate, with his own hundred 
sons, the five reputed sons of his brother. These five sons were, — 
1st, Yudhishthira {i.e., "firm in battle"); 2nd, Bhima {i.e., 
" terrible") ; 3rd, Arjuna {i. e., " upright") ; 4th, Nakula {i. e., 
"a mungoose") ; 5th, Sahadeva {i. e., "a twining plant.") 

The three first were born from Pandu's wife, Prithd, or Kunti, 
but were really her children by three gods, viz., Dharma, Vdyu and 
Indra'respectively. The two last were children of his wife Madri, 
by the Asvini-Kumdras, or " twin-sons," i. e., of the Sun. As, 
however, Pandu had acknowledged these princes as his sons, the 
objection to their birth was overruled by his example. Pindu {i. e., 
*' the pale") was probably a leper, and so incapable of succession. 



To make the genealogy more clear it may he shown in a tabular 
form as drawn up by Professor M. Williams. 

Atri, the muni, generally reckoned among the seven Rishis or sages. 

Soma, (or Chandra) the moon. 

Budha (or Mercury) married Ila, daughter of Ikshwaku. 

Pururuvas (or Aila) married the nymph Urvasi. 


I , 
Yayati (husband of Sarmishtha and Devayani.) 

Line of Puru. 

Puru (king in Prakshthana.) 

Dushyanta (h. of Sakuntala). 


Hastin (built Haatinapur), 



Line of Yadu. 






Vasudeva, brother of Kunti or Pritha. 

Krishna and Balarama, with whom the 

line becomes extinct. They were 

contemporary with the sons of Pandu 

and Dhritarashtra. 


Line of Puru and Kuru — continued. 



son of both 
died childless. 


son of Satyavati 

married the two 

widows of Vichi- 


called Santanava 

and Gangeya 

as son of Santanu 

by Ganga. 

r r 

Dhritarashtra — Kunti or Pritha-p Pandu -j-Madri. 
Gandhari. , 1 i 1 


called Kshattri. 

Kama, Yudhishthira. Bhima Arjuna Nakula Sahadeva. 


and 99 
other sons. 

368 MAH 

The characters of the five Pindavas are drawn with much 
artistic delicacy, and maintained consistently throughout the poem. 
The eldest, Yudhishthira, is a pattern of justice, integrity, and 
chivalrous honour and firmness, Bhima is a type of brute courage 
and strength, of gigantic stature, impetuous and irascible ; he is 
capable, however, of warm, uuselfish love, and shows devoted 
affection for his mother and brothers. Arjuna, who is the chief 
hero of the poem, is represented as a man of undaunted courage, 
and, at'the same time, generous, modest, and tender-hearted ; of 
super-human strength, withal, and matchless in arms and athletic 
exercises. Nakula and Sahadeva are amiable, noble-minded, and 
spirited. All five are as unlike as possible to the hundred sons of 
Dhritarashtra, commonly called the Kuru princes, or Kauravas, 
who are represented as mean, spiteful, dishonourable, and vicious. 
The cousins, though so uncongenial in character, were educated 
together at Hastinapur by a Brahman named Drona, who found in 
the Pandu princes apt scholars. Their education finished, a grand 
tournament is held, at which the cousins display their skill in 
archery, the management of chariots, horses, &c. Arjuna 
especially distinguishes himself by prodigies of strength and skill ; 
but suddenly a stranger enters the lists, named Karna, who, after 
performing the same feats, challenges Arjuna to single combat. 
But each champion is obliged to tell his name and pedigree, and 
Karna's parentage being doubtful (he was really the illegitimate 
son of Pritha, by Surya (the sun), and, therefore, half-brother of 
Arjuna), he is obliged to retire ignominiously from the arena. 
Thus publicly humiliated, Karna joins the party of their enemies, 
the Kurus, to whom he renders important service. Enraged at 
the result of this contest, the Kurus endeavour to destroy the 
Pandavas by setting fire to their house ; but they, warned of their 
intention, escape by an under-ground passage to the woods. Soon 
after, in the disguise of mendicant Brahmans, they repair to the 
Swayamvara of Draupadi, daughter of Drupada, king of Pancliala. 
Arjuna, by the exhibition of his gymnastic skill, wins the favour 
of the lovely princess, who becomes his bride. Strengthened by 
Drupada's alliance, the Pindu princes throw off their disguise, 
and the king, Dhritarashtra, is induced to settle all differences by 

MAH 369 

dividing his kingdom between them and his own sons, the Kurus. 
Yudhishthira, however, afterwards stakes and loses his whole 
territory at dice. His brothers then pass twelve years in the woods, 
in disguise, after which the war is again renewed. Krishna, king 
of Dwaraka, in Guzerat (an incarnation of Vishnu), joins the 
Pandavas, as charioteer to Arjuna. The rival armies meet near 
Delhi. The battle, which lasts for eighteen days, terminates in 
favour of the Pandavas, who recover their possessions, and the 
elder brother is elevated to the throne ; Duryodhana and all the 
Kurus being slain in the conflict. 

Thus the undivided kingdom of Hastinapur became the posses- 
sion of the sons of Pandu ; but they were so grieved by the 
dreadful slaughter which their ambition had occasioned, that they 
resigned their power. Their famous ally, Krishna — who previous 
to his founding the city of Dwaraka, had been expelled from 
Mathura (Muttra), the seat of his family — was accidentally killed 
in a thicket, and his sons, driven from their paternal possessions, 
sought refuge beyond the Indus.* Sec Bhagavat Gita, Pandavas, 
Arjuna, &c. 

Mahabhoja — A pious prince, the son of Satwatu. The name 
is sometimes read Mahabh^ga. 

Mahadeva — A Eudra — the name of the eighth manifestation 
of the Rudra— an account which Wilson says is grounded apparently 
on Saiva or Yogi mysticism ; 2, A name of Siva. 

Mahajwala — The name of one of the Karakas, in which tho 
crime of incest is punished. 

Mahamaya— The king of Atala, the first of the seven regions 
of Patala. 

Mahamoha — " Extreme illusion," causing addiction to the 
enjoyments of sense ; one of the five kinds of obstruction to the 
soul's liberation ; or as they are called in the Patanjala philosophy, 
one of the five afflictions— the * five-fold Ignorance' of the Vishnu 

Mahan — One of the eleven Rudras. 

Williams. Indian Epic Poetry. 


370 MAH 

Mahanabha — A daitya of great prowess, one of the sons of 

Mahanada — A river in Orissa. 

Mahanandi — One of the ten Saisuuaga kings of Magadha, the 
son of Nandivarddhana. 

Mahanila — A powerful many-headed serpent. One of the 
progeny of Kadru. 

MahantU — A prince, the son of Dhimat ; he lived during the 

Swayambhuva Manwantara. 

Mahapadma — l, A prince, the son of Mahananda ; his name 
was Nanda, but he was remarkably avaricious. He was born of a 
Sudra woman, and after him the kings of the earth were to be all 
Sudras. Like Parasurama he endeavoured to annihilate the 
Kshatriya race, and brought the whole earth under one umbrella. 
He and his descendants, termed the nine Nandas, reigned a 
hundred years ; when the dynasty was overturned by the Brahman 
Kautilya (also called Chanakya and Chanaki) who placed Chan- 
dragupta on the throne. (See the Mudra Rakshasa, Hindu 
Theatre, Vol. 2.) 

2. The name of one of the progeny of Kadru, a powerful many- 
headed serpent. 

Mahapurusha— Great or supreme spirit ; purusha meaning 
that which abides or is quiescent in body ; incorporated spirit. It 
is a name applied to Vishnu ; who is any form of spiritual being 
acknowledged by different philosophical systems : he is the 
Brahma of the Vedanta, the Iswara of the Patanjala, and the 
Purusha of the Sankhya school. 

Maharashtra — The name in the Pui-anas of the Mahratta 

Mahar-loka — The heaven of celestial spirits, the sphere of 
saints, situated at the distance of ten million-leagues above Dhruva : 
'the inhabitants dwell in it throughout a Kalpa or day of Brahmd; 
Those who are distinguished for piety, abide, at the time of disso- 
lution, in Mahar-loka, with the Pitris, the Manus, the seven Eishis, 
the various orders of celestial spirits, and the gods. Then at the 

MAH 371 

end of a Kalpa, when the heat of the flames that destroy the world 
reaches to Mahar-loka, the inhabitants repair to Janaloka, within 
subtile forms, destined to become re-embodied, in similar capacities 
as their former, when the world is renewed at the beginning of 
the succeeding Kalpa. This continues throughout the life of 
Brahm^ ; at the expiration of his life all are destroyed ; but those 
who have thus attained a residence in the Brahma-loka by having 
identified themselves in spirit with the Supreme, are finally resolved 
into the sole existing Brahma. See Wilson's Notes to V. P., p. 

Mahamagha — The occurrence of the full moon in or about the 
asterism Magha, with other astronomical incidents, which occur 
once in twelve years, and which time is auspicious for bathiug. 
At Khumbakhonam there is a large tank, the water of which is 
supposed to rise once in twelve years, on the above occasion, and 
when people in great numbers assemble from distant places to 
bathe and obtain remission of sins. 

Maharoman — One of the kings of Mithila, the son of Kritardta. 

Mahaswat — A prince, the son of Amarsha, a descendant of 

Mahat — Intellect ; the first product of Pradhaua, sensible to 
divine, though not to merely human organs, is, both according to 
the S£nkhya and Purina doctrines, the principle called Mahat, 
literally the Great, explained as ' the production of the manifes- 
tation of the qualities :' Mahat, the Great principle, is so termed 
from being the first of the created principles, and from its extension 
being greater than that of the rest. Mahat is also called Iswara, 
from its exercising supremacy over all things. The Puruuas 
generally attribute to Mahat, or Intelligence, the act of creating. 
Mahat is therefore the divine mind in creative operation, the 
vovs 6 SiaKofffiMu Tc iravTuv alrios of Auaxagoras ; an ordering and 
disposing mind, which was the cause of all things. See Wilson's 
Notes to V. P., p. 15. 

Mahatala — The fifth of the seven divisions of Patala, with a 
sandy soil, embellished with magnificent palaces, in which dwell 
numerous Danavaet, Daityas Yakshas, and the great suakc-gcds. 

372 MAH 

Mahavichi — The name of one of the Narakas beneath the earth. 

Mahavira — I , One of the sons of Priyavrata, according to the 
Bhagavata ; the one who had Krauncha-dwipa assigned to him ; 
2, A son of Savana, king of the seventh dwipa ; 3, The name of 
a division of Pushkara dwipa. 

Mahavira — The twenty-fourth Tirthankara of the Jains. His 
first birth, which occurred at a period indefinitely remote, was as 
Nayasira, headman of a village in the country of Vijaya. His 
piety and humanity elevated him next to the heaven called 
Saudharma, where he enjoyed happiness for some oceans of years. 
He was next born as Marichi, the grandson of the first Tirthankara 
Rishaba, thence transferred to the BraJimaloka, whence he returned 
to earth as a worldly-minded and sensual brahman, the consequence 
of which was his repeated births in the same caste, each birth being 
separated by an interval passed in one of the Jain heavens, and 
each period of life extending to many lakhs of years. He then 
became Visvabhuta, prince of Rajagriha, and next a Ydsudeva 
named Triprishta (q. v.) then a chakravartti Priyamitra (q. v.) 
then a Nandana leading a life of devotion. 

On the return of the spirit of Nandana to earth it first animated 
the womb of the wife of a brahman, but Mahendra, disapproving 
of the receptacle as of low caste, transferred it to the womb of 
Trisal^ the wife of Siddharta, of the family of Iksvaku, and prince 
of Ravana, in Bharatakshetra. Mahavira was born on the thirteenth 
of the light fortnight of Chaitra : the fifty-six nymphs of the 
universe assisted at his birth, and his consecration was perfonned 
by Sakra and the other sixty-three Indras. The name given by 
his father was Varddhamdna, as causing increase of riches and 
prosperity, but Sakra gave him also the api>ellation of Mahdvira 
as significant of his power and supremacy over men and gods. 

Mahavira married Yasodd, daughter of the prince Samaravira. 
By her he had a daughter Priyadarsana, who was married to 
Jamali, a prince, one of the saint's pupils, and founder of a schism. 
Siddhartha and his wife died when their son was twenty-eight 
years old, on which Mahavira adopted an ascetic life, the 
government dovolviugou his elder brother N^ndivnrddhana. After 

MAH 373 

tea years of abstineuce and self-denial at home he commenced an 
erratic life, and the attainment of the degree of a Jina. 

During the first six years of his peregrinations, Mahavira 
observed frequent fasts of several month's duration, during each 
of which he kept his eyes fixed upon the tip of his nose, and 
maintained perpetual silence. He was invisibly attended by a 
Yaksha named Siddhartha, who, at the command of Indra watched 
ov'er his personal security, and where speech was necessary acted as 
spokesman. In his travels he acquired a singular follower named 
Gosala, a man of low caste who acted as a sort of buffoon. 

It is not the duty of a Jain ascetic to inflict tortures on himself : 
his course of penance is one of self-denial, fasting, and silence ; and 
pain, however meritorious its endurance, must be inflicted by others, 
not himself. Mahav ira voluntarily exposed himself to maltreatmen t 
at the hands of various savage tribes, offering no resistance, but 
rather rejoicing in his sufferings. At the end of the ninth year he 
relinquished his silence in answer to a question put by Gosala, but 
continued engaged in the practice of mortification and in an 
erratic life. 

In the course of twelve years and six months he attained the 
Kevalay or only k7iowledge. This occurred under a Sal tree, on 
the north bank of the Rijupalika. Indra instantly hastened to the 
spot accompanied by thousands of deities, who all did homage to 
the saint. He commenced his instructions on a stage erected for 
the purpose by the deities, a model of which is not uncommonly 
represented in Jain temples. The following is the introductory 
lecture ascribed to Mahavira by his biographer. 

*' The world is without bounds like a formidable ocean ; its 
cause is action {Karma) which is as the seed of the tree. The 
being, (Jiua) invested with body, but devoid of judgment, goes 
like a well-sinker ever downwards, by the acts it performs, whilst 
the embodied being which has attained purity goes ever upwards 
by its own acts, like the builder of a palace. Let not any one 
injure life, whilst bound in the bonds of action ; but be as assiduous 
in cherishing the life of another as his own. Never let any one 
speak falsehood^ but always speak the truth. Let every one who 

374 MAH 

has a bodily form avoid giving pain to others as much as to 
himself. Let no one take property not given to him, for wealth is 
like the external life of men, and he who takes away such wealth 
commits as it were murder. Associate not with women, for it is 
the destruction of life ; let the wise observe continence, which 
binds them to the Supreme. Be not encumbered with a family, for 
by the anxiety it involves the person separated from it falls like an 
ox too heavily laden. If it be not in their power to shun thefec 
more subtle destroyers of life, let those who desire so to do avoid 
at least the commission of all gross offences." 

When Mahavira's fame began to be widely diffused, it attracted 
the notice of the brahmans of Magadha, and several of their most 
eminent teachers undertook to refute his doctrines. Instead of 
effecting their purpose, however, they became converts, and 
constituted his Ganadharas, heads of schools, the disciples of 
Mah^vira, and teachers of his doctrines, both orally and scripturally. 

The period of his liberation having arrived, Mahavira resigned 
his breath, and his body was burned by Sakra and other deities, 
who divided amongst them such parts as were not consumed by 
the flames, as the teeth and bones, which they preserved as relics ; 
the ashes of the pile were distributed amongst the assistants ; the 
gods erected a splendid monument on the spot, and then returned 
to their respective heavens. — Wilson's Works, Vol. /, p. 304. 

Mahavirya — l, A prince, the son of Vrihaduktha, one of the 
kings of Mithila ; 2, A son of Bhavanmanyu, a descendant of 

Mahavishuba — The great equinox when the sun is in the third 
degree of Visakha and the moon is in the head of Krittika. At 
this time offerings are to be presented to the gods and to the manes, 
and gifts are to be made to the Brahmans by serious persons. 
Liberality at the equinoxes is always advantageous to the donor. 
V. P., p. 225. 

Mahayajnas — The great Sacrifices, the great obligations, or as 
Sir W. Jones terms them sacraments, are but five : viz : — 

1 . Bramhayajua, sacred study ; 

2. Pitriyajna, libations to the manes ; 

MAH 375 

3. Devayajna, burnt offerings to the gods ; 

4. Baliyajna, offerings to all creatures ; 

5. Uriyajua, hospitality. 

The Prajapatiyajna, or propagation of offspring, and Satyajna, 
observance of truth, are apparently later additions. — Wilson*s 
Notes to V. P. 

Mahayug^a — The aggregate of four Yugas or ages : viz : — 

Kriti Yuga 4000 

Sandhya 400 

Sandhyansa. 400 


Treta Yuga 3000 

Sandhya 300 

Sandhyansa. 300 


DwaparaYuga 2000 

Sandhya 200 

Sandhyansa. 200 


Kali Yuga 1000 

Sandhya 100 

Sandhyansa. 100 


If these divine years are converted into years of mortals, by 
multiplying them by 360, a year of men being a day of the gods 
we obtain the years of which the Yugas of mortals are respectively 
said to consist : 

2400X360= 864,000 
1200X360= 432,000 

A Mahayuga-4, 320,000 

So that these periods resolve themselves into very simple elements ; 
the notion of four ages in a deteriorating scries expressed by 

376 MAH— MAI 

descending arithmetical progression, as 4, 3, 2, 1 : the conversion 
of units into thousands ; and the mythological fiction that these 
were divine years, each composed of 360 years of men. 

It does not seem necessary to refer the invention to any astro- 
nomical computations, or to any attempt to represent actual 
chronology — Wilsoii's Notes to V. P. 

Mahendra — l, One of the seven main chains of mountains in 
Bharata. Mahendra is the chain of hills that extends from Orissa 
and the northern Circars to Gondwana, part of which, near Ganjam, 
is still called Mahendra Malei, or hills of Mahendra ; 2, The name 
of a star in the tail of the celestial porpoise ; 3, The name of a 
river mentioned in the Puranas. 

Maheswara— A name of Siva, * the great Lord/ 

Maheyas — People living near the Mahi river. 

Mahi — A river, the Mahy of Western Malwa. 

Mahikas, or Mahishas — Supposed to be the ancient name 
for the inhabitants of Mysore. 

Mahinasa — One of the eleven Budras. 

Mahishakas — An ancient name of the people of Mysore. 

Mahishmat— A prince of the Yada race, the son of Sahanji. 

Mahishmati — A city on the road to the south (Mahabharata, 
Udyoga Parva) which is commonly identified with Chuli Mahes- 
war, on the Narmada. 

Mayodaya — The ancient name of the city of Kanouj, q. v. 

Mahyuttaras — A people to the north of the river Mahi. 

Mainaka — A son of Himavat and Mena ; the brother of Gauga 
and Parvati. 

Maitreya — l, A disciple of Pai'isara, to whom the Vishnu 
Pui-ana is related in reply to his inquiries ; he is also one of the 
chief interlocutors in the Bhagavata, and is introduced in the 
Mahibhirata, (Vana Parva, S. 10) as a great Rishi, or sage, who 
denounces Duryodhana's death. In the Bhdgavata he is also 
termed Kausharavi ; 2, A son of Mitrayu, from whom the Maitreya 
Brahmans were descended. 

MAI— MAN :^7 

Maitreyas — A tribe of Brahmans descended from Miti-dyu. 
Maitri — Friendship, daughter of Daksha, wife of Dharma. 

Makara — A huge amphibious monster, usually taken to be the 
shark or crocodile, but depicted in the signs of the zodiac with the 
head and forelegs of an antelope, and the body and tail of a fish. 
It is the ensign of the god of love. Varnna, the god of the sea, 
rides upon it through the waves, showing it to have been Bjish of 
some sort. It is now the name of a shark in many parts of India. 

Makandi — The capital of Southern Panchala, the country 
north of the Ganges as far as to the Chambal. 

Maladas, Malajas, Malas — Tribes of people enumerated in 
the Puranas, but not satisfactorily identified. 

Malavas — An aboriginal tribe dwelling along the Paripatra 

Malaya — One of the seven chief chains of mountains in 
Bharata ; the southern portion of the Western Ghauts. 

Malyavan — One of Siva's principal attendants, who for 
interceding for one of his fellow-servants Pushpadanta (q. v.) 
was sentenced to a similar punishment — namely, to leave the 
paradise of Kailasa and be born as a human being. After a due 
interval Malyavdn was born at Pratishta, under the name of 
Gunadhya. — Wilson's Works, Vol. lll^ p. 152. 

Malyavan — A mountain at the base of Meru, to the east. 

Malayas — The aboriginal tribes of the Southern Ghauts. 

Malina — The son of Tansu, a descendant of Puru. 

Mallarashtra — A name given in the Puranas to the Mahratta 

Mallas — In Bhima's Dig-Vijaya we have two people of this 
name, both in the east, one along the foot of the Himalaya, and 
the other more to the south. 

Manas — Mind ,• that which considers the consequences of acts 
to all ci-eatures, and provides for theii- happiness. It is sometimes 
used as a synonym of Mahat. 


378 MAN 

Manasa — l, A form of Vishnu, when he was born of Sambhuti, 
along with the gods Abhutarajasas, in the Rawala Manwantara ; 
2, One of the four great lakes, the waters of which are partaken 
of by the gods. 

Manasottara — A prodigious rauge of mountains, running in a 
circular direction (forming an outer and an inner circle,) situated 
in Pushkara, the seventh Dwipa. The mountains are represented 
as 50,000 leagues high, and on the eastern face of tlie summit, the 
city of Indra is situated ; that of Yama in the southern face ; that 
of Varuna in the west, and that of Soma in the north. 

Manaswini — The wife of Mikranda, the great Muni. 

Manasya — A prince, the son of Mahanta, who reigned over 
India in the first, or Swayambhuva Manwantara. 

Mancha — A raised platform, with a floor and a roof, ascended 
by a ladder. V. P., p. 553. 

Mandahara — A minor Dwipa ; the Bhagavata and Pddma 
name eight such islands, peopled for the most part by Mlechchhas, 
but who worship Hindu divinities. 

Mandara — The mountain which was used by the gods as a 
churning stick, at the churning of the sea of milk. 

Mandehas — Terrific fiends who attempt every night to devour 
the sun. The night is called Usha, and the day is denominated 
Vyushta, and the interval, between them is called Sandhyd. On 
the occurrence of the awful Sandhya, the Mdndehas do their 
utmost to devour the sun ; for Brahma denounced this curse upon 
these terrific fiends, that without the power to perish they should 
die every day (and revive by night,) and therefore a fierce contest 
occurs daily between them and the sun. V. P. The V^yu says 
the Mandehas are three crores in number. Professor Wilson says 
the story seems to be an ancient legend imperfectly preserved in 
some of the Puranas. 

Mandhatri — A prince, the son of Tuvan^swa, of whose birth 
the Vishnu Purana relates the following extraordinary legend. 
Yuvan^swa had no son, at which he was deeply grieved. The 
Munis instituted a religious rite to procure him progeny, one night 


MAN 379 

during its performance, the sages, having placed a vessel of 
consecrated vi^ater upon the altar, had retired to repose. It was 
past midnight when the king awoke, exceedingly thirsty ; and 
unwilling to disturb any of the holy inmates of the dwelling, he 
looked about for something to drink. In his search he came to 
the water in the jar, which had been endowed with prolific efficacy 
by sacred texts, and he drank it. When the Rishis arose and 
found that the water had been drunk, they inquired who had taken 
it, and said, ' The queen that has drunk this water shall give birth 
to a mighty and valiant son.' * It was I,' exclaimed the Raja 
* that unwittingly drank the water ;' and accordingly, in due 
course, the Raja gave birth to a child from his right side. Indra 
became its nurse ; and hence the boy was named Mandhairi. The 
boy grew up and became a mighty monarch. He married 
Bindumati, and had by her three sous and fifty daughters. The 
latter were all married to the sage Saubhari, q. v. 

Mandukeya— A teacher of the Rig Veda, the son of Indra- 
pramati who imparted his Sanhita to his son, and it thence 
descended through successive generations as well as disciples. 

Mangala — The fiery-bodied Mars, son of the Rudra SArva and 

his wife Vikesi. 

Mani — A powerful serpent, one of the progeny of Kadru. 

Manidhanga — The king of a tract of country near the Vindhya 

Manojava— 1, The son of the Rudra Isana ; 2, (Hanuman.) 
The son of the Vasu Anila (Wind) Manojava means * swift as 
thought ;' 3, The Indra of the sixth Manwantara was called 

Manmatha — A name of the Indian Cupid, the son of Vishnu, 
called also Kama, q. v. He is represented as the cause of sensual 
love both in mortals and celestials, but more especially in the female 
sex : whilst his wife, Rati, inflames the fire in the male sex — like 
Venus of old. 

Mantra — A hymn of invocation or form of prayer in the 
Sanskrit language. Mantras are used in the performance of every 
religious rite. They are of various sorts, invocatory, evocatory, 

380 MAN 

deprecatory, conservatory. They are beneficent or hurtful, salutary 
or pernicious. By means of them it is believed that great and 
various effects may be produced. Some are for casting out evil 
spirits ; some for inspiring love or hatred, for curing diseases or 
bringing them on, for causing death or averting it. Some are of a 
contrary nature to others, and counteract their effect : the stronger 
overcomiug the influence of the weaker. Some are potent enough, 
it is said, to occasion the destruction of a whole army : while there 
are others which the gods themselves are constrained to obey. 

The Purohilas, or domestic chaplains, of all Hindus, understand 
them best. They are indispensably necessary to them for accom- 
panying the ceremonies which it is their office to conduct. But 
Brahmans generally are conversant with these formulas ; and when 
rallied upon the present state of their Mantras, wholly divested as 
they are of their boasted efficacy and power, they answer that this 
loss of their influence is to be attributed to the Kali yuga ; the age 
of the world in which we now live, the iron age, the time of evil 
and misfortune in which everything has degenerated. See Dubois. 

Manu — The head or ruler of an extensive period of time, termed 
a Manwantara. Each Kalpa, or creation of the world, is divided 
into fourteen Manwautaras or intervals, over which a Manu 
presides. Six of these periods have passed ; the first Manu was 
Swayambhuva ; the second Swarochisa, the third Auttami ; the 
fourth Tamasa ; the fifth Raivata ; the sixth Chdkshnsha ; these 
six Mauus have passed away ; the Manu who presides over the 
seventh, which is the present period, is Vaivaswata, the sou of the 
sun, the wise lord of obsequies. The Vishnu Purana contains an 
account of the Manwantaras yet to come ; and the names of 
the Manus who will preside over each. The Jainas have also 
fourteen Manus to whom they give names different to those in the 
Hindu Puranas. 

Manu— The JS'oah of the Hindus. The Satapatha Brahmana 
contains an important legend of the deluge, but speaks of Manu 
simply, without assigning to him any patronymic, such as Vaivas- 
wata, so that it is uncertain which Manu is referred to. O. S. T., 
Vol. r, p- 217. Moiiier Williams write^^ of him as the seventh Manu, 

MAN 381 

or Manu of the preseut period, called Vaivaswata, and regarded as 
one of the progenitors of the human race. He is represented as 
conciliating the favour of the Supreme in an age of universal 
depravity. Dr. Muir gives a translation of the legend in his 
Orig. Sans. Texts, Vol. I, p. 182 ; Prof. Max Miiller has also 
translated it on his An. Sans. Lit., p. 425. The following 
translation is from Prof. M. Williams' Indian Epic Poetry. 

" It happened one morning that they brought water to Manu, as 
usual, for washing his hands. As he was washing a fish came into 
his hands. It spake to him thus : ' Take care of me and I will 
preserve thee.' Manu asked, ' From what wilt thou preserve me.' 
The fish answered, ' A flood will carry away all living beings ; I 
will save thee from that.' He said, 'How is thy preservation to 
be accomplished' ? The fish replied, ' while we are small, we are 
liable to constant destruction, and even one fish devours another ; 
thou must first preserve me in an earthen vessel ; when I grow 
too large for that dig a trench, and keep me in that. When I grow 
too large for that, thou must convey me to the ocean ; I shall then 
be beyond the risk of destruction.' So saying, it rapidly became a 
great fish, and still grew larger and larger. Then it said, ' After 
so many years the deluge will take place ; then construct a ship, 
and pay me homage, and when the waters rise, go into the ship, 
and I will rescue thee.' Manu therefore, after preserving the fish 
as he was directed, bore it to the ocean ; and at the very time the 
fish had declared he built a ship and did homage to the fish. When 
the flood rose he embarked in the ship and the fish swam towards 
him, and he fastened the ship's cable to its horn. By its means he 
passed beyond this northern mountain. The fish then said ' I have 
preserved thee ; now do thou fasten the ship to a tree. But let 
not the water sink from under thee while thou art on the mountain. 
As fast as it sinks do thou go down with it'. He therefore so 
descended ; and this was the manner of Manu's descent from the 
northern mountain. The flood had carried away all living 
creatures. Manu alone was left. Wishing for offspring he 
diligently performed a sacrifice. In a year's time a female was 
produced. She came to Manu. He said to her, ' Who art thou ?' 
She answered, ' Thy daughter.' He asked, ' How lady art thow 

382 MAN 

my daughter?' She replied, *The oblations which thou didst offer 
iu the waters, viz., clarified butter, thick milk, whey and curds ; 
from these hast thou begotten me. I can confer blessings.' With 
her he laboriously performed another sacrifice, desirous of children. 
By her he had offspring, called the offspring of Manu ; and 
whatever blessings he prayed for were all granted to him." 

" From this interesting legend we learn that, according to its 
author's belief, Manu was not the creator of mankind, as some later 
accounts considered him to have been, but himself belonged to an 
earlier race of living beings, which was entirely destroyed by 
the deluge which is described. The legend regards him as a 
representative of his generation, who for some reason, perhaps his 
superior wisdom, or sanctity, or position, w^as selected out of the 
crowd of ordinary mortals to be rescued from the impending 
destruction. That he was regarded as a mere man, and not as a being 
of a superior order, is shown by the fact of his requiring the aid 
of a higher power to preserve him. A supernatural fish, apparently 
some divine person, conceived as taking the form of a creature 
which would be perfectly secure and at home in the midst of the 
raging waters, undertook to deliver him, and guided the ship on 
which he was directed to embark, through all dangers to its 
destined haven. No one but Manu took refuge in the ship, for he 
alone, the story expressly records, was preserved, while all the 
other living beings were overwhelmed. Finding himself the sole 
Burvivoi- when the waters subsided, he became desirous of progeny ; 
und with intense devotion performed certain religious rites in the 
hope of realizing his wish through their efficacy. As a result of 
his oblations, a woman arose from the waters Into which they had 
been cast. A male and a female now existed, the destined parents 
of a new race of men who sprang from their union, — a union the 
fruitfulness of which was assured by their assiduous practice of 
sacred ceremonies. From Manu and Ida, we are expressly told, 
the race known as that of Manu, «. c, the race of men, was 
produced. The legend says nothing whatever of this race being 
originally characterized by any distinction of castes, or about four 
sons, the ancestors of Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras 
beiug born to Manu and Idd. We must therefore suppose that the 

MAN 383 

author of the legend intends to represent the early race of mankind, 
or at least the first inhabitants of Bharatavarsha, as descended 
from one common progenitor without any original varieties of 
caste, however different the professions and social position of their 
descendants afterwards became. We are consequently entitled to 
regard this legend of the Satapatha Brahmana as at variance with 
the common fable regarding the separate origin of the Brahmans, 
Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras." — Muir. 0. 8. 7'., Vol. I^p. 185. 

Manu — The great Hindu law-giver who lived about 800 b. c. 
The institues of Manu, or code of laws still extant, is sometimes 
attributed to Swayambhuva the first Manu. The Manu of the 
present period is sometimes considered the author of the Dharma- 
shastra, the code which bears his name. " The name belongs to 
the Epic and Puranic periods. In the former we may trace in it 
the remains of the tradition of a first man, alike progenitor, or even 
creator, like Prometheus, of his descendants, and law-giver. We 
should conceive its historical value to be the allusion to some 
legendary personage, such as every nation can boast of, who first 
wakes his country-men from barbarism and a wild life, to the light 
of civilization and systematic government." Thomson. Manu 
was " a legislator and saint, a son of Brahma, or a personification 
of Brahm^ himself, the creator of the world and progenitor of 
mankind. Derived from the root man to think, the word means 
originally man, the thinker, and is found in this sense in the Rig 

" Manu as a legislator is identified with the Cretan Minos ; as 
progenitor of mankind with the German Mannus : ' Celebrant 
carminibus antiquis, quod unum apud illos memoriae et anualium 
genus est, Tuisconem deum terra editum, et filium Mannum, 
origiuem gentis conditoresque. Tacitus, Germauia, Cap. II."— 

Manu — 1, The name, according to the Bhagavata of one of 
the eleven Rudras ; 2, A sage, the son of Krisaswa and Dhishana. 

Manwantara — A period equal to seventy-one times the number 
of years contained in the four Yugas, with some additional years : 
this is the duration of the Manu, the (attendant) divinities, and the 

384 MAR 

rest, which is equal to 852,000 divine years, or to 306,720,000 
years of mortals, independent of the additional period. Fourteen 
times this period constitutes a Brahma day, that is a day of Brahma, 
or a Kalpa. 

Margashirsha—The month which comprises the latter half of 
November and the former half of Decemher. " It is otherwise 
called Agrahdyana "the commencement of the year;" and 
although the Hindus now begin their year in the month Vaishdka 
(April, May) we find in Prinsep's Useful Tables, part 11, p. 1 8, 
that in Bentley's opinion, this mouth would have begun the year, 
before the use of a fixed calendar in India, between b. c. 693 
and 451. 

Maricha — A Daitya, the son of Sunda. 

Marichi — l, A Prajapati, one of the nine Brahma rishis, or 
mind-born sons of Brahma ; he was married to Sambhuti (fitness) 
one of the daughters of Daksha. Their son, Kasyapa, had an 
extensive posterity ; 2, The chief of the Maruts, or personified 

Marichigarbhas — A class of deities belonging to the ninth 

Marisha — The daughter of the sage Kandu, and the nymph 
Pramlocha. An account of her birth has been given under Kandu : 
in a previous existence she was the widow of a prince, and left 
childless at her husband's death : she prayed to Vishnu that in 
succeeding births she might have honorable husbands and a son 
equal to a patriarch amongst men. The prayer was granted and 
she was married to the Prachetasas. 

Markandeya — The son of the Rishi Mrikanda. 

Markandeya Purana — This Purana contains an account of 
the nature of Vdsudeva, and an explanation of some of the 
incidents described in the Mah^bharata. It was narrated in the 
first instance by the Muni Markandeya, and in the second place 
by certain fabulous birds, of heavenly descent, profoundly 
versed in the Vedas. It contains a long episodical narrative 
of the actions of the goddess Durga, and furnished the pomp 

MAR 385 

and circumstance of the great festival of Bengal, the Durga 
Puja, or public worship of that goddess. Professor Wilson says 
this Purana has a character different from that of all the 
others ; it contains few precepts, moral or ceremonial. Its 
leading feature is narrative, and it presents a succession of legends, 
most of which, when ancient, are embellished with new circum- 
stances ; and when new, partake so far of the spirit of the old, 
that they are disinterested creations of the imagination, having no 
particular motives. 

Marriage — The forms of marriage are eight, the Brahma, 
Daiva, the Arsha, Prajapatya, Asura, Gandharba, Rakshasaand 
Paisacha. These different modes of marriage are described by 
]\Ianu III, 27, &c. The Vishnu Purana describes the kind of 
maiden that should be selected by the man who has finished his 
studies, and proposes to enter into the married state. She should 
be a third of his own age ; one who has not too much hair, but is 
not without any ; one who is not very black nor yellow com- 
plexioned, and who is not from birth a cripple or deformed : 
he must not marry a girl who is vicious or unhealthy, of low origin 
or labouring under disease ; one who has been ill brought up ; one 
who talks improperly ; one who inherits some malady from father 
or mother ; one who has a beard, or is of a masculine appearance ; 
one who speaks thick or thin, or croaks like a raven ; one who 
keeps her eyes shut, or has the eyes very prominent ; one who has 
hairy legs, or thick ankles ; or one who has dimples in her cheeks 
when she laughs ;* let not a wise and prudent man marry a girl 
of such a description ; nor let a considerate man wed a girl of a 
harsh skin ; or one with white nails ; or one with red eyes ; or 
with very fat hands and feet ; or one who is a dwarf, or who is 
very tall ; or one whose eyebrows meet, or whose teeth are far 
apart and resemble tusks. 

Marshti, Marshtimat— Two of the sons of Sarana of the 
family of Vasudeva. 

• For tho credit of Hindu taste it is to be noticed that the commentator 
observes the hemistich in which this clause occurs is not found in all copies 
of the text.— Prof, Wilson. 


38G MAR 

Marttikavatas — Princes of Mrittikavati. 

Maru — 1, The sou of Sighra, a descendant of Rama. In the 
Vishnu Parana it is stated that Maru is, through the power of 
devotion, (Yoga) still living in the village called Kalapa, and in a 
future age w^ill be the restorer of the Kshatriya race in the solar 
dynasty ; 2, The name of the son of Hariyaswa, king of Mithila. 

Marubhaumas — The inhabitants of Marubhumi, the desert; 
an aboriginal tribe occupying the sandy deserts of Sindh. 

Manideva — A prince, the son of Supratitha, a descendant of 

Marut-loka — The heaven of the winds and Vaisyas. 

MarutS — The winds. The sons of Diti, who having lost her 
children prayed for a son of irresistible prowess who should 
destroy Indra. The Muni Kasyapa granted his wife the great 
boon she solicited, but with one condition ; that she should be 
pregnant a hundred years, and maintain a rigid observance of all 
religious rites during the whole period. Indra watched for an 
opportunity of frustrating her intentions, and in the last year of 
the century, an opportunity occurred. Diti retired one night to 
rest without performing the prescribed ablution of her feet, and 
fell asleep : on which Indra divided the embryo in her womb into 
seven portions. The child, thus mutilated, cried bitterly. Indra 
failing to silence it again divided each of the seven portions into 
seven, and thus formed the swift-moving deities called Marutas 
(winds.) They derived this appellation from the words with 
which Indra had addressed them (Marodih, weep not,) and they 
became forty-nine subordinate divinities, the associates of the 
weilder of the thunderbolt. V. P. This legend, says Professor 
Wilson, occurs in all the Purinas in which the account of Kasyapa's 
family is related. The Vishnu Purana in another place, says the 
winds were the children of Marutwati. The Maruts are said to 
have given Bharata a son named Bharadwaja. q. v. Among the 
lesser gods, an important share of adoration is enjoyed by a group 
avowc<lly subordinate to India, — involving an obvious allegory, — 
iIio Maruts, or Winds, who arc naturally associated with the 

MAR-MAT 387 

firmament. We have, indeed, a god of the wind, in Vayu ; but 
little is said of him, and that chieflj in association with Indra, with 
whom he is identified by scholiasts on the Veda. The Maruts, on 
the contrary, are frequently addressed as the attendants and allies 
of Indra, confederated with him in the battle with Vritra, and 
aiding and encouraging his exertions. They are called the sons 
ofPrisni, or the earth, and also Rudras, or sons of Rudra : the 
meaning of which affiliations is not very clear, although, no doubt, 
it is allegorical. They are also associated, on some occasions, 
with Agui ; an obvious metaphor, expressing the action of wind 
upon fire. It is also intimated that they were, originally, mortal, 
and became immortal in consequence of worshipping Agni, which 
is also easy of explanation. Their share in the production of rain, 
and their fierce and impetuous nature, are figurative representa- 
tions of physical phenomena. — Wilson. 

Marutta — l, A celebrated Chakravartti, or universal monarch, 
the son of Avikshit. A Sanskrit verse thus sets forth the splendour 
of his proceedings : — " There never was beheld on earth a sacrifice, 
equal to the sacrifice of Marutta : all the implements and utensils 
were made of gold. Indra was intoxicated with the libations of 
Soma juice, and the Brahmaus were enraptured with the magnifi- 
cent donations they received. The winds of heaven encompassed 
the rite as guards, and the assembled gods attended to behold it." 
Marutta reigned 85,000 years, according to the Markendaya 
Purana ; 2, A sou of Karandhama, a descendant of Turvasa. 

Marutwati — One of the daughters of Daksha, who was married 
to Dharma. 

Matali — The charioteer of Indra. It was he who was sent to 
convey Yayati to heaven, when Indra invited him thither. The 
Padma Purana relates a philosophical conversation that took place 
between the king and Matali, in which the imperfection of all 
corporeal existence, and the incomplete felicity of every condition 
of life are discussed. These attributes belong, it is said, even to 
the gods themselves, for they are affected with disease, subject to 
death, disgraced by the passions of lust and anger, and are 
consequently instances of imperfection and of misery. Various 

ass MAT 

degrees of vice are then described, and their prevention or 
expiation are declared to be the worship of Siva or Vishnu, 
between whom there is no difference ; they are but one, as is the 
case indeed with Brahma also ; for * Brahma, Vishnu, and 
Maheswara are one form, though three gods ; there is no difference 
between the three : the difference is that of attributes alone.' 
See Yayati. 

Matanga — A bfahman mentioned in the Dasakum^ra who was 
killed while trying to preserve the life of another brahman. On 
reaching the city of souls, Yama said to Chandragupta * This 
man's hour is not yet come. He died in defence of a brahman. 
That one virtuous act effaces all his former sins. Let liim behold 
the penalty paid to the wicked, and then restore him to his former 
body.' Beturning to life his adventures were still more remark- 
able. Aided by a prince whom he met in the forest he penetrated 
the path to Pat^Ja. On arriving near the city, he cast himself 
into the flames of a fire he had prepared and rose again in an 
angelic form. A damsel richly arrayed and numerously attended, 
who said her name was Kalindi, daughter of the king of Asuras, 
and that she had come with the concurrence of her council to offer 
the kingdom and herself, twin wives, to his espousal. Matauga 
married her and became king of Pdtala. — Wilson's Worksy Vol. 
/r,p. 174. 

Mathura — A holy city, founded by Satrughna, (the younger 
brother of R^ma.) It is situated in the banks of the Yamuna, 
where a demon at one time resided, named Madhu. His son the 
Rakshas Lavana, was slain by Satrungha, who afterwards built the 
shrine which obtained celebrity as a purifier from all sin. It was 
in this place that Dhruva's penance was performed. 

Ijjg^^i — Understanding — that which discriminates and distin- 
guishes objects preparatory to their fruition by the soul. It is 
often used to signify mind, intelligence, knowledge, wisdom. 

Matinara — The son of Rikska, the fifteenth in descent from 
Puru. V. P. 

]y[g^^gya— 1, The name of one of the Minor Dwipas ; 2, A 
teacher of the Rig Veda, a disciple of Vedamitra. 

MAT 389 

Matsya, or fish Avatara — The first of the ten Avataras of 
Vishnu. When, at the end of the last mundane age, the Bhaga- 
vata Purana relates, Brahma, the first god of the Trimurti, had 
fallen asleep, a powerful demon, Hayagriva, stole the Vedas 
which had issued from the mouth of Brahma, and lay by his side. 
About that time, a royal saint, Satyavrata, had by his penance 
attained the rank of a Mann, and Vishnu, who had witnessed the 
deed of Hayagriva, and intended to slay him, assumed for this 
purpose the form of a very small fish, and glided into the hands 
of -the saint when the latter made his daily ablutions in the river. 
Manu, about to release the little fish, was addressed and asked by 
it not to expose it to the danger that might arise to it from the 
larger fish in the river, but to place it in his water-jar. The saint 
complied with its wish ; but in one night the fish grew so large, 
that at its request he had to transfer it to a pond. Yet soon the 
pond also becoming iusufiicient to contain the fish, Manu had to 
choose a larger pond for its abode ; and, after successive other 
changes, he took it to the ocean. Satyavrata now understood 
that the fish was no other than Ndrdyana or Vishnu, and, after 
he had paid his adoration to the god, the latter revealed to him 
the imminence of a deluge which would destroy the world, and 
told him that a large vessel would appear to him, in which he was 
to embark together with the seven Rishis, taking with him all the 
plants and all the seeds of created things. Manu obeyed the 
behest of the god : and when the w^ater covered the surface of the 
earth, Vishnu again appeared to him in the shape of a golden fish 
with a single horn, 10,000 miles long; and to this horn Manu 
attached the vessel, by means of Vishnu's serpent serving as a 
cord. While thus floating in the vessel, Manu was instructed by 
the fish-god in the philosophical doctrines and the science of the 
supreme spirit ; and after the deluge had subsided, the fish-god 
killed Hayagriva, restored the Vedas to Brahma, and taught them 
to the Manu Satyavrata, who in the present mundane age was 
born under the name of Siaddhadeva, as the son of Vivasvat. A 
fuller account of this Avatara is given in the Matsya-Furaiia, 
where the instruction imparted to Manu by the fish-god includes 
all the usual detail contained in a Purana (q. v..) that relating to 

390 MAT 

creation, the patriarchs, progenitors, regal dynasties, the duties of 
the different orders, and so forth. In the Mahabharata, where the 
same legend occurs, but without either that portion concerning 
Hayagriva, or the instruction imparted by the fish, there is, besides 
minor variations, that important difference between its story and 
that of the Puranas, that the fish is not a personification of Vishnu, 
but of Brahmd, and that the deluge occurs in the present mundane 
age, under the reign itself of the Mauu, who is the son of 
Vivasvat. The origin of this Avatara is probably a kindred 
legend, which occurs in the Sathapatha hrahmayia^ of the White 
Yajurveda ; but there the fish does not represent any special 
deity, and the purpose of the legend itself is merely to account 
for the performance of certain sacrificial ceremonies. — [ManU.] 

Matsya Purana — This Pumna, after the usual prologue of 
Suta and the Rishis, opens with the account of the Matsya or 
* fish' Avatara of Vishnu, in which he preserves a king named Mauu, 
with the seeds of all things, in an ark, from the waters of that 
inundation which in the season of a Pralaya overspreads the world. 
Whilst the ark floats fastened to the fish (Vishnu) Manu enters 
into conversation with him, and his questions, and the replies of 
Vishnu, forms the main substance of the compilation. The first 
subject is the creation, which is that of Brahma and the patriarchs ; 
the regal dynasties are next described ; and then follow chapters 
on the duties of the different orders, &c. The account of the 
universe is given in the usual strain. Saiva legends ensue ; as 
the destruction of Triparasura ; the war of the gods with Taraka 
and the Daityas, and the consequent birth of Kartikeya, with the 
various circumstances of Uma's birth and marriage, the burning of 
Kamadeva ; the destruction of the Asuras Maya and Andhaka ; 
interspersed with the Vaishnava legends of the Avataras. There 
are also chapters on law and morals, and one which furnishes 
directions for building houses and making images. See Vishnu 
Purina, Preface. 

Matsyas — The people of Dinajpur, Rangpur, and Cooch Behar. 
There are, however, two Matsyas, one of which according to the 
Yantra Samrit, is identifiable with Jaypur. In the Dig Vijaya of 
Nakula the Matsyas are placed farther to the west or in Guzerat. 

MAU— MAY 391 

Maudga — A teacher of the S^ma Veda, aud disciple of 

Maudgalyas — A class of Brahmans descended from Mudgala : 
they, as well as the Kanwas, were all followers or partisans of 

Maunas — A dynasty of kings, consisting of eleven sovereigns ; 
and forming part of the seventy-nine princes mentioned in the 
Vishnu Pui-ana as to reign over the earth for one thousand three 
hundred and ninety years. 

Mauneyas — A name of the Gandharbas, dwelling in the regions 
below the earth, sixty millions in number, who defeated the tribes 
of the Nagas, or snake-gods, seizing upon their most precious 
jewels and usurping their dominion. 

Mauryas — A race of kings of Magadha commencing with 
Chandragupta, whose dynasty lasted for a hundred and thirty- 
seven years. 

Maya — A powerful Danava, of some note as the father of 
Vajrakama and Mahodari. 

Maya — Illusion. " Know that matter is illusion, and the great 
deity the possessor of illusion. The vedantists say that Brahma, the 
self-resplendent, the supremely happy, and the one sole essence, 
assumes, unreally, the form of the world through the influence of 
his own illusion." O. S. T., Vol. Ill, p. 195. " In the spirit of 
theBerkeleyan theory they affii*m that matter exists not independent 
of perception ; and that substances are indebted for their seeming 
reality to the ideas of the mind. All that we see is Maya, 
deception, illusion. There are no two things in existence ; there 
is but one in all. There is no second ; no matter ; there is spirit 
alone. The world is not God, but there is nothing but God in the 
world r— Wilson's Works, Vol. II, p. 98. 

Maya— * Deceit' ; 1, A daughter of Adharma (vice); 2, A 
daughter of Anrita (falsehood). 

Mayadevi — The supposed wife of the Asura Sambara, who 
rescued Pradyumna when he was thrown into the sea as an infant, 
and swallowed by a fish (See Pradyumna.) She had deluded 

392 MED— MER 

Sarabara for the purpose of protecting and rearing Pradyumna to 
whom she was afterwards married, and returned with him to 
Dwaraka to the great joy of Rukmini and Krishna. 

Medha — 'luteHigence' ; 1, One of the three sons of Priyavrata 
who adopted a religious life ; remembering the occurrences of a 
prior existence they did not covet dominion, but diligently 
practised the rites of devotion, in due season, wholly disinterested, 
and looking for no reward. V. P. 2, A daughter of Daksha who 
was married to Dharma. 

Medatithi — One of the sous of Priyavrata who became king of 
Plaksha dwipa. He had seven sous, and the Dwipa was divided 
amongst them, each division being named after the prince to whom 
it was subject, the people enjoyed uninterrupted felicity, being 
sinless, V. P., p. 197. 

Medhavin — A prince, the sou of Suuaya, of the race of Puru. 

Mekala — A RisJii, the father of the river Narmada ; thence 
called Mekala and Mekalakanya : tlie mountain where it rises is 
also called Mekaladri. 

MekalaS — A tribe which according to the Puranas live in the 
Vindhya mountains : this locality is confirmed by mythological 
personations. The Ramayaua places the Mekalas amongst the 
Southern tribes. 

Mena — A daughter of the Pitris, acquainted with theological 
truth and addicted to religious meditation ; accomplished in perfect 
wisdom and adorned with all estimable qualities. She was married 
to Himavat, and was the mother of Mainaka and of Gauga, and of 
Parvati or Uma ; 2, A river. 

Menaka — A divine nymph ; one of the ten Apsarasas who are 
specified as of the Daivika or divine class, and whose principal 
occupation is the interruption of the penances of holy sages. 

Mendicant — See Vanaprastha. 

Jff^QYU — In the earlier Epic period this is probably the name 
given to the high table-land of Tartary, to the north of the 
Himalaya range, from the neighbourhood of which the Aryan race 
may originally have pushed their way southwards into the 

MER 393 

peuiuaula, and thus have preserved the name in their traditions as a 
relic of the old mountain worship.* In the Purinas it is described 
as the golden mountain in the centre of Jambu-dwipa. Its height 
is eighty-four thousand Ydjanas ; and its depth below the surface 
of the earth sixteen thousand. Its diameter at the summit is 
thirty-two thousand Yojanas ; (the yojana is nine miles) and at its 
base sixteen thousand ; so that this mountain is like the seed cup 
of the lotus of the earth. V. P. Prof. Wilson in a note states 
" the shape of Meru according to this description, is that of an 
inverted cone j and by the comparison to the seed cup its form 
should be circular : but there seems to be some uncertainty upon 
this subject amongst the Pauranics. The Padma compares its 
form to the bell-shaped flower of the Dhatura. The Vdyu 
represents it has having four sides of different colours ; or white 
on the east, yellow on the south, black on the west, and red on the 
north : but notices also various opinions of the outline of the 
mountain, which, according to Atri, had a hundred angles : to 
Bhrigu a thousand ; Savarni calls it octangular; Bhaguri quadran- 
gular ; and Varsh^yaui says it has a thousand angles : Gilana 
makes it saucer-shaped ; Garga, twisted, like braided hair : and 
others maintain that it is circular. The Linga makes its eastern 
face of the colour of ruby ; its southern, that of the lotus ; its 
western, golden ; and its southern coral. The Matsya has the 
same colours as the V^yu and both contain this line * Four- 
coloured, golden, four cornered, lofty : but the Vayu compares its 
summit in one place to a saucer ; and observes that its circumference 
must be thrice its diameter. The Matsya also says the measure- 
ment is that of a circular form but it is considered quadrangular. 
According to the Buddhists of Ceylon, Meru is said to be of the 
same diameter throughout. Those of Nepal consider it to be 
shaped like a drum." 

On the summit of Meru is the vast city of Brahma, extending 
fourteen thousand leagues and renowned in heaven ; and around it 
in the cardinal points and the intermediate quarters ; are situated 

* Thomson. 

394 MER— MIM 

the stately cities of Indra and the other regents of the spheres. 
Mount Meru is in short the Olympus of India. 

Merubhutas — See Marubhaumas. 

Merumandara — A mountain to the south of Meru with a large 
Pipal tree on its summit. 

Meru-savarnis — The Manus from the ninth to the twelfth 
Manwautaras ; described in the Vdyu as the mind-engendered sons 
of a daughter of Daksha, by himself and the three gods Brahmd, 
Dharma, and Rudra, to whom he presented her on Mount Meru ; 
whence they are called Meru-s^varnis. They are termed Sivarnis 
from their being of one family. 

Mimansa Darsana— *' The founder of the Mimansi School 
was Jaimi?iif of whose history very little is known. He is 
described as a short young man, of light complexion, wearing the 
dress of a mendicant, and living at Nilavata-Mula. He was born 
at Dwaita-vana. His father, Sdkatayana, was author of a Sanskrit 
dictionary, and his son, Kriti, wrote certain verses in the Devi- 

There are about twenty-six works extant, illustrating the 
Mimansa system, the chief of which are the Sutras of Jaimini ; 
the Bhdshya, by Shavara (and comments thereon by Bhatta, 
Vachaspati Mishra and Ranaka) ; the Satika-Sastra-Dipiki, by 
Soma-Natha ; the Dharma-Dipika ; the Mimansd-Sara ; and the 
Mim^nsd Sangraha. 

From the three last-named works chiefly we gather the following 
abridgment of the system of Jaimini. He taught that God is to 
be worshipped only through the incantations of the Vedas : that 
the Vedas were uncreated, and contained in themselves the proofs 
of their own divinity, the very words of which were unchangeable. 
His reasonings on the nature of material things were similar to 
those of Gautama, insisting that truth is capable of the clearest 
demonstration, without the possibility of mistake. Creation, 
preservation, and destruction, he represented as regulated by the 
merit and demerit of works ; while he rejected the doctrine of the 
total destruction of the universe. He maintained that the images 
of the gods were not real representations of these beings, but only 

MIM: 395 

given to assist the niiud of the worshipper ; that the mere forms 
of worship had neither merit nor demei'it in them ; and that the 
promises of the Sistra to persons who presented so many ofFerings, 
so many prayers, &c., were only given as allurements to duty. 

He directed the person, who sought final emancipation, to 
cherish a firm belief in the Vedas, as well as persuasion of the 
benefits of religion, and the desire of being engaged in the service 
of the gods; and then, by entering upon the duties of religion, 
and by degrees ascending through the states of a student, a secular, 
and a hermit, he would be sure to obtain final absorption in 

Of the three divisions of the Veda, the first, called the Karma 
Kdndaj or " practical part," relates to religious ceremonies 
(including moral and religious obligations.) This portion Jaimini 
has attempted to explain in his Sutras^ and in the Furva Mim^nsa 
(t. e.f former " Mimansa," which is commonly referred to when 
the terra " Mhndtisd' simply is used,) so called in distinction from 
the Uttara (or latter) Mimansi ascribed to Vyasa, which is the 
the same as the Vedanta, and is founded on tlie Jti&na Kdnda (or 
theological part) of the Vedas, treating of the spiritual worship 
of the Supreme Being or soul of the Universe. 

Sound, says Jaimini, in opposition to the Nyaiyikae, who deny 
this, is uncreated and eter?ial, and is of two kinds, viz., simple 
sound, or that which is produced by an impression on the air 
without requiring an agent, as the name of God ; and compound 
(smybolized or audible) sound. Thus, the state of the sea, in a 
perfect calm, represents simple, uncreated sound ; but the sea, in 
a state of agitation, illustrates sound as made known by an agent. 

Symbols, of sounds, or letters, are eternal and uncreated ; as is 
also the meaning of sounds. For instance, when a person has 
pronounced ka, however long he may continue to utter ka, ha, it 
is the same sound, sometimes present and sometimes absent ; but 
sound is never new. Its manifestation alone is new by an impres- 
sion made upon the air. Therefore sound is God (Brahma), and 
the world is nothing but name. 

The Veda has no human origin, but contains in itself the 
evidence of divine authorship, and comes fortli a: the command of 

396 MIM 

a monarch. It is incumbent on men to receive also, as divine, 
those works (of the sages) which are found to agree with the 
Veda, to contain clear definitions of duty, and to be free from 

What is religion ? That which secures happiness. And it is 
the duty of man to attend to the duties of religion, not only on 
this account, but in obedience to the commands of God. The 
divine law is called Vidhi. 

Should any one say, then I have nothing to do with other kinds 
of instruction, since this alone is divine. To that it is replied, 
that forms of praise, motives to duty, and religious observances, 
are auxiliaries to the divine law, and have, therefore, a relative 
sanctity and obligation. 

There are five modes of ascertaining the commands of God, 
viz: (1), the subject to be discussed is brought forward; (2), 
questions respecting it are stated ; (3), objections are started ; (4), 
replies to these objections are given ; and (5), the question is 
decided. He who acts in religion according to the decision thus 
come to, does well ; and so does he who rejects what will not bear 
this examination ; but he who follows rules which have been 
hereby condemned, labours in vain. 

Those actions from which future happiness will arise are called 
religious, or good, because productive of happiness ; and those 
which tend to future misery are called evil, on account of their 
evil fruits. Hence, according to Jaimini, actions of themselves 
have in them neither good nor evil. Their nature can only be 
inferred from the declarations of the Veda respecting them, or 
from future consequences. The Hindus appear to have no just 
idea of moral evil. 

Of all the works on the Civil and Canon Law, that of Mann is 
to be held in the greatest reverence, for Manu composed his work 
after a personal study of the Veda. Other sages have composed 
theirs from mere comments. 

From the evidence of things which God has afforded, especially 
the evidence of the senses, mistakes cannot arise either respecting 
secular or religious affairs. When there may exist error in this 
evidence, it will diminish, but cannot destroy the nature of things. 

MIM 397 

If there be an imperfection in seed, the production may be 
imperfect, but its nature will not be changed. The seat of error 
and inattention is to be found in this reasoning faculty, and not in 
the senses ; error arising from the confused union of present ideas 
(anuhhava) with recollection. 

Some affirm that ideas are received into the understanding 
separately, and never two at the same instant. This is incorrect ; 
for it must be admitted, that while one idea is retained, there is 
an opening left in the understanding for the admission of another. 
Thus, in arithmetical calculations, "one added to one makes two." 

The Veda has, in some parts, forbidden all injury to sentient 
beings, and in others has prescribed the offering of bloody sacrifices 
Jaimiui explains this apparent contradiction by observing that 
some commands are general, and others particular : that the 
former must give way to the latter, as a second knot always 
loosens, in a degree, the first. So, when it is said that Saraswati 
is altogether white, it is to be understood, not literally, but 
generally, for the hair and eyebrows of the goddess are not white. 
Therefore, in cases where general commands are given, they must 
be observed with those limitations which are found in the Sdstra. 

The promises of reward contained in the Sastra upon a minute 
attention to the different parts of duty, have been given rather as 
an incitement to its performance than with the intention of entire 
fulfilment. He who has begun a ceremony, but has, by circum- 
stances, been unable to finish it, shall yet not be unrewarded. 

The benefits resulting from the due performance of civil and 
social duties are confined to this life. Those connected with the 
performance of religious duties are to be enjoyed in a future state, 
while some meritorious actions, or virtues, reap their reward both 
in the present and the future life. 

Works give birth to invisible consequences — either propitious 
or otherwise — according to their nature ; and, besides works, there 
is no other sovereign or judge. These consequences, ever accom- 
panying the individual, as the shadow the body, appear in the next 
birth, in accordance with the time and manner in which those 
actions were performed in the preceding birth. " Works rule, and 
men by them are led or driven, as the ox witJi a honk in its nose.'' 

898 MIN—MIT 

The progress of all actions, whether they originate in the 
commands of the Sastras, or in the customs of a country, are as 
follows : — First, the act is considered and resolved on in the 
mind ; then it is pursued by means of words ; and, lastly, it is 
accomplished by executing the different constituent parts of the 
action. Hence it follows that religion and irreligion refer to 
thoughts, words, and actions. Some actions, however, are purely 
those of the mind, or of the voice, or of the body. The virtue or 
vice of all actions depend on the state of the heart. 

The doctrine that, at a certain period, the whole universe will 
be destroyed at once, is incorrect. The world had no beginning, 
and will have no end. As long as there are works, there must bo 
birth, as well as a world like the present, to form a theatre on 
which they may be performed, and their consequences either 
enjoyed or endured. 

One of the sages of the Mimansa school thus expresses 
himself: — * God is simple sound. To assist the pious in their 
forms of meditation (or incantations). He is represented as light ; 
hut the power of liberation lies in the sound * God— God.' When 
the repeater is perfect, the incantation, or name repeated, appears 
to him in the form of simple light or glory. 

The objects of worship, which are within the cognisance of 
the senses, are to be received ; for without faith religious actions 
are destitute of fruit. Therefore, let no one treat an incantation 
as a mere form of alphabetic signs, nor an image as composed of 
the inanimate material, lest he should be guilty of a serious crime.' 
-^Small, H. S. L. 

Minaratha— A prince, the son of Anenas, a king of Mithila, 
of the family of Janaka. 

Misrakesi— One of the Apsarasas, a Laukika nymph. 

Mithi— A prince, the sou of Nimi, the legend of whose birth is 
thus related in the Vishnu Purana. As Nimi left no successor, 
the Munis, apprehensive of the consequences of the earth being 
without a ruler, agitated the embalmed body of Nimi, and produced 
from it a prince who was called Janaka, from being born without 
a progenitor. In consequence of being produced by agitation. 

MIT 399 

(Mathana) he was further termed Mithi. The Rimiyana places 
a prince named Mithi between Nimi and Janaka, whence comes 
the name Mithila. 

Mithila — The modern Tirhoot. Mithila is celebrated in the 
Parauas as the country over which the descendants of Ikshvuku 
reigned for a long period. Mithi, from whom the country derived 
its name, was the grandson of Ikshvdku. 

Mitra — l, One of the twelve Adityas, the one who presides 
over the organs of excretion ; 2, A sage, one of the seven sons of 
Vasishtha. V. P. 

Mitra is the god of the day. Mitra is said to represent the sun 
by day, and Varuna the setting luminary. " Mitra re-appears in 
the Zendavesta as the well-known Mithra, who is the angel 
presiding over and directing the course of the sun." — Qiiarterly 
Review, July 1 870. 

Mitrasaha — A prince, the son of Sudisa. Having gone into 
the woods to hunt, he fell in with two tigers by whom the forest 
had been cleared of the deer. The prince slew one of these tigers 
with an arrow. At the moment of expiring the form of the 
animal was changed, and it became that of a fiend of a fearful 
figure and hideous aspect. Its companion, threatening the prince 
with its vengeance, disappeared. After some interval Saudasa 
celebrated a sacrifice which was conducted by Vasishtlia. At the 
close of the rite Vasishtha wipnt out ; when the Rakshasa, the 
fellow of the one that had been killed in the figure of a tiger, 
assumed the semblance of Vasishtha, and came and said to the 
king ** now that the sacrifice is ended, you must give me flesh to 
eat ; let it be cooked and I will presently return. Having said 
this he withdrew, and transforming himself into the shape of the 
cook, dressed some human flesh which he brought to the king, 
who, receiving it on a plate of gold, awaited the re-appearance of 
Vasishtha ; as soon as the Muni returned the king offered to him 
the dish. Vasishtha knowing it to be human flesh was surprised 
at such an insult, and in his anger denounced a curse upon the 
Raja, transfoi-ming him into a cannibal. " It was yourself replied 
the Raja to the indignant sage, who commanded this food to be 

400 MIT— MOK 

prepared." Vasishtha, haviug recourse to meditation then detected 
the whole truth : but though the curse was partially withdrawn, 
the Raja became a cannibal every sixth watch of the day for 
twelve years, and in that state wandered through the forests and 
devoured multitudes of men. On one occasion he met with a 
brahman and his wife : seizing the husband, and regardless of the 
wife's reiterated supplications, he ate the brahman as a tiger 
devours a deer. He returned to his wife Madayanti at the expira- 
tion of the period of his curse, but suffered from the imprecation 
of the brahman's wife. V. P. 

Mitravrinda — One of the seven beautiful wives of Krishna. 

Mitraya — l, A scholar of Suta's and teacher of the Puranas 
and legendary lore : he was also a composer of one of the S^nhitas 
afterwards collected into the Vishnu Purana ; 2, The son of 
Divodasa, from whom the Maitreya brahmans were descended. 

Mlechchas — Outcastes. The Vishnu Purana states that 
various Kshatriya races were degraded by Sagara, by beiug 
deprived of established usages and the study of the Vedas ; and 
thus separated from religious rites, and abandoned by the brahmans, 
these different tribes became Mlechchas. 

Moha — 1, ' Duluess' or ' Stupefaction,' a property of sensible 
objects ; a kind of ignorance ; or illusion produced by the notion 
of property or possession, and consequent attachment to objects, 
as children and the like, as being one's own. Moha also occurs in 
the Bhagavata and Matsya Purana amongst a series of Brahma's 
progeny, or virtues and vices ; Moha is there translated by Wilson 
to mean Infatuation. 

Mohini — Vishnu in a female form. The product of Siva's 
union with Mohini was Ayenur, the only male among the Grama- 

Moksha— Absorption into the Deity. The Hindu idea of 
supreme blessedness. It is only those who attain to a full know- 
ledge of the nature of the deity, the soul, the intellect, &c., derived 
from meditation, the teaching of the guru, experience, penance, 
&c., or the exalted ascetic, who, by austerities is said to have 

MON— MRI 401 

annihilated his passions, and freed his soul from earthly desire, 
that is considered ripe for this final emancipation or Moksha. 

Monotheism — In the Vishnu Purana it is said, * the only one 
God, Janarddana takes the designation of Brahma, Vishnu, and 
Siva, accordingly as he creates, preserves or destroys. This, says 
Professor Wilson, is the invariable doctrine of the Puranas, 
diversified only according to the individual divinity to whom they 
ascribe identity w^ith Paramatma or Parameswara. In the Vishnu 
Purina this is Vishnu ; in the Saiva Puranas, as in the Linga, it 
is Siva ; in the Brahma-vaivartta it is Krishna. The identifica- 
tion of one of the hypostases with the common source, the triad, 
was an incongruity not unknown to the other theogonies ; for 
Cneph amongst the Egyptians, appears on the one hand to have 
been identified with the Supreme Being, the indivisible unity, 
whilst on the other he is confounded with both Eureph and Ptha, 
the second and third persons of the triad of hypostases. Cud worth. 
Vol. I, p. 4-18. 

Moon — The Vishnu, Vayu, and Pddma Puranas all relate in 
detail the legend of the churning of the ocean, and state that the 
cool-rayed moon was one of the products of the operation ; it was 
seized by Mahadeva. The Vishnu Purana says that the chariot 
of the moon has three wheels, and is drawn by ten horses, of the 
whiteness of the jasmine, five in the right half of the yoke and five 
in the left. The horses drag the car for a whole Kalpa. During 
the dark half of the month nectar and ambrosia are accumulated 
in the moon, and these are drunk by thirty-six thousand divinities 
during the light fortnight ; the Pitris are nourished by it in the 
dark fortnight ; vegetables with the cool nectary aqueous atoms 
it sheds on them ; and through their development it sustains men, 
animals, and insects ; at the same time gratifying them with its 
radiance. V. P., p. 239. The orb of the Moon, according to the 
Linga Purana is only congealed water. 

Mrigavithi — A division of the lunar mansions, in the southern 

Mrida — A prince, the son of Nripaujaya, of the raceof Puru, 


402 MRI— MUC 

Mrigasiras — A lunar mansion, in Gajavithi of the northern 

Mrigavyadha—Ono of the eleveo Rudras, according to the 
enumeration in the Matsya Purina. 

Mrikanda — The sou of Vidhjitri and Niryati, descendants of 
the daughters of Daksha who were married to the Rishis. 

Mrittikavati — A city in Malwa, near the Parn^sa river, whose 
sovereigns were the Bhojas, descendants of Satwata. 

Mritya — l, * Death,' one of the progeny of Brahma ; he is also 
represented in the same work, the Vishnu Purdna, as the son of 
Bhaya and Maya ; and his children are thus given Vyadhi 
(disease), Jara (decay), Soka (sorrow), Trishna (greediness), and 
Krodha (wrath) ; 2, The name of one of the eleven Rudras, in the 
Vayu list ; 3, A Vyasa in the sixth Dwapara age. 

Muchukunda— One of the sons of Mandhdtri, called the * king 
of men,* who in a battle between the gods and demons, had 
contributed to the defeat of the latter ; and being overcome with 
sleep he solicited of the gods as a boon, that he should enjoy a long 
repose. * Sleep long and soundly, said the gods, and whoever 
disturbs you shall be instantly burnt to ashes by fire emanating 
from your body.' The black king, Kalyavana, met with this fate, 
by a stratagem of Krishna ; and Muchukunda having fallen down 
and worshipped Krishna as the uudecaying, illimitable and 
imperishable being, departed to Gandhamadaua to perform penance, 
and obtain emancipation from all existence. Another account 
states that "Muchukunda carried on war against the Buddhists 
till he was too weary to fight any longer ; whereupon he sought 
the grateful seclusion of the Guttikonda cave. In this peaceful 
and salubrious spot he fell asleep ; it was a sleep of the greatest 
profundity, and lasted for some centuries. In an evil moment for 
the Buddhists they entered the cave in pursnit of Krishna, and 
disturbed the placid slumbers of Muchukunda. After a nap of 
some hundreds of years, he was not a man to be trifled with ; so 
he rose up in the exuberance of his renovated energies and 
extirpated the obnoxious Buddhists." A, Sf M. I. 

MUD 403 

Muda — * Pleasure,' a son of Dharma by one of the daughters of 
Daksha, Santosha (Joy). 

Mudgala — l, A sage mentioned in the Mahdbharata, who had 
lived a life of poverty, piety, and self-restraint, offering hospitality 
to thousands of brahmans, according to his humble means, with the 
grain which he gleaned like a pigeon, and which (like the widow 
of Zarephath's oil) never underwent diminution. At length another 
sage called Durvasas, famous in Hindu tradition for his irascible 
temper, came to prove Mudgala's powers of endurance ; and six 
times devoured all the food which the hospitable saint possessed. 
Finding that the temper of his host was altogether unaffected by 
these trials, Durvasas expressed the highest admiration of his 
virtue, and declared that he would go bodily to heaven. As he 
spoke these words a messenger of the gods arrived in a celestial 
car, and called upon Mudgala to ascend to a state of complete 
perfection. The sage, however desired first to learn the advantages 
and drawbacks of the heavenly state, and the messenger proceeded 
to tell him first what kind of people go there, viz ; those 
who have performed austerities or celebrated great sacrifices, 
the truthful, the orthodox, the righteous, the self-restrained, the 
meek, the liberal, the brave, &c. These celestial abodes were, he 
said, shining, glorious, and filled with all delights. There is seen 
the vast-golden mountain Meru, and the holy garden Nandana, &c., 
where the righteous disport. There hunger, thirst, weariness, 
cold, heat, fear, are unknown ; there is nothing disgusting or 
disagreeable ; the scents are delightful ; the sounds are pleasant to 
the ear and mind ; there is no sorrow, nor lamentation, nor decay, 
nor labour, nor envy, nor jealousy, nor delusion. There the 
blessed are clothed with glorious bodies, which are produced by 
their works, and not generated by any father or mother. Their 
garlands are fragrant and unfading ; they ride in aerial cars. 
Beyond these regions there are, however, others of a higher 
character — those to which the Rishis, who have been purified by 
their works, proceed. Still further on are those where the Ribhus, 
who are gods even to the gods, dwell, and where there is no 
annoyance occasioned by women, or by envy arising from the sight 
of worldly grandeur. The blessed there do not subsist on oblatiou!^, 

404 MUD 

nor do they feed upon ambrosia ; they have celestial and not coarse 
material bodies. These eternal gods of gods do not desire 
pleasure ; they do not change with the revolutions of Kalpas 
(great mundane ages). How can they then be subject either to 
decay or death? They experience neither joy, nor pleasure, nor 
delight, neither happiness nor suffering, neither love nor hatred. 
That highest state, so difficult to attain, and which is beyond the 
reach of those who seek after pleasure, is desired even by the gods. 
This celestial felicity, the messenger says, is now within Mudgala's 
reach, — the fruit of his good deeds. The speaker next, according 
to his promise, explains the drawbacks of the heavenly state. As 
the frnit of works done on earth is enjoyed in heaven, whilst no 
other new works are performed there from which new rewards 
could spring, this enjoyment is cut off from its root, and must 
therefore come to an end. For this world is the place for works, 
while the other is the place for reward. This loss of gratifications 
to which the heart has become devoted, and the dissatisfaction and 
pain which arise in the minds of those who have sunk to a lower 
estate, from beholding the more brilliant prosperity of others, is 
intolerable. To this must be added the consciousness and the 
bewilderment of tho^e who so descend, and the fear of falling which 
they experience when their garlands begin to fade. Such are the 
defects which attach to all existence till it is absorbed in Brahma. 
But the state of those who have fallen from heaven is not 
altogether without compensation. As a result of their previous 
good deeds they are born in a condition of happiness ; though, if 
they are not vigilant, they sink still lower. Having given this 
explanation, the messenger of the gods invites Mudgala to 
accompany him to paradise. The saint, however, after consideration, 
replies that he can have nothing to do with a state of happiness 
which is vitiated by so great defects, and the termination of 
which is followed by so great misery. He has therefore no desire 
for heaven ; and will seek only that eternal abode where there is 
no sorrow, nor distress, nor change. He then asks the celestial 
messenger what other sphere there is which is free from all defects. 
The messenger replies, that above the abode of Brahmi is the pure 
eternal light, the highest sphere of Vishnu who is regarded as the 

MUD— MUL 405 

supreme Brahra^. Thither none can proceed who are devoted to 
objects of sense, or who are the slaves of dishonesty, avarice, 
anger, delusion or malice ; but only the unselfish, the humble, 
those who are indifferent to pain and pleasure, those whose senses 
are under restraint, and those who practice contemplation and fix 
their minds on the deity. The sage then dismissed the messenger 
of the gods, began to practise ascetic virtues, becoming indifferent 
to praise and blame, regarding clouds, stones and gold as alike. 
Pure knowledge led to fixed contemplation ; and that again imparted 
strength and complete comprehension, whereby he attained supreme 
eternal perfection. O. S. T., Vol. V, pp. 324—6. 

Mudgala — 2, A teacher of the Rig Veda ; 3, One of the five 
sons of Hariyaswa, king of Panchala. 

Mudita — One of the five kinds of Bhavana or meditation, in 
which the Buddhist priests are required to engage. The mudita 
is the meditation of joy, but it is not the joy arising from earthly 
possessions. It feels indifferent to individuals, and refers to all 
sentient beings. In the exercise of this mode of meditation, the 
priest must express the wish, *' May the good fortune of the 
prosperous never pass away ; may each one receive his own 
appointed reward." 

Muhurtta — l, A measure of time, thirty Kalas, according to 
the Vishnu Purina. Other Puranas say that a Muhurtta is 
twelve kshanas, and that one kshana contains thirty kalas. The 
Bhdgavata states that two Narikas make one Muhurtta ; 2, The 
name of a daughter of Daksha. 

Muka — A Daitya, the son of Upasanada, famous in Puranic 

Mukhyas — A class of deities to come in the ensuing or eighth 

Mula — The nineteenth lunar mansion, in Ajavithi, of the 
Southern AvashthUna. 

Mulaka — The son of Asmaka. The Vishnu Purina states 
that when the warrior tribe was extirpated upon earth, he was 
surrounded and concealed by a number of females ; whence he was 

406 MUM— MUR 

denominated Nari-kavacha (having women for armour.) Mulaka, 
or * the root* refers also to his being the stem whence the Kshatriya 
races again proceeded. V. P. and note, p. 383. 

Mummies — The Vishnu Purana states that the corpse of Nimi 
was preserved from decay by being embalmed with fragrant oils 
and resins, and it remained entire as if it were immortal. This, 
says Professor Wilson, shows that the Hindus were not unac- 
quainted with the Egyptian art of embalming dead bodies, though 
such a practice would be thought impure in the present day. 

Mundas — A dynasty of kings, consisting of thirteen, who are 
said in the Vishnu Purana to be sovereigns of the earth for 
upwards of two hundred years ; Wilford regards them as Huns, 
the Morunda of Ptolemy. Notes to Vishnu Purdna. 

Muni — 1, Any great sage or Rishi. In Southern India they 
are said to be forty-eight thousand : they are supposed to be holy 
persons who by different' kinds of austerities have acquired great 
gifts, and power to bless and curse most effectually. The accounts 
given of them are rather contradictory ; they are said to need 
neither sleep nor rest, neither food nor drink ; and yet that they 
perform severe penance before God continually ; 2, The name 
of a daughter of Daksha who was married to Kasyapa. 

Munjakesa — A teacher of the Atharva Veda, and founder of a 
school. Sometimes Munjakesa is regarded as another name for 

Mura — A demon of great power who had seven thousand sous. 
He defended Pragjyotisha by surrounding the environs with 
nooses as sharp as razors, but Krishna cut them to pieces by 
throwing his discus, Sudarsana, amongst them. He afterwards 
slew the demon and burnt all his sons, like moths, with the flame 
of the edge of his discus. 

Murdhabhishikta — An anointed Eajah. Hindu rajahs were 
formerly consecrated by having water from a sacred stream mixed 
with honey, ghee, and spirituous liquor, as well as two sorts of 
grass and the spirits of corn, poured on their heads while seated 
on a throne prepared for the purpose. The term applies to the 
Kshatriya as the caste from which kings are taken. 

MUR— MUS 407 

Murtti — ' Form' a daughter of Daksha, married to Dharma. 

Murundas — See Mundas. 

Musala — A club, born of Sambu for the destruction of the 
Yadavas. Ugrasena had the club, which was of iron, ground to 
dust, and thrown into the sea ; but the particles of dust there 
became rushes (erakaj. There was one part of the iron club 
which was like the blade of a lance, and which the Andhakas could 
not break ; this, when thrown into the sea, was swallowed by a 
fish ; the fish was caught, the iron spike was extracted from its 
belly, and was taken by a hunter named Jara, by whom Krishna 
was su*bsequently killed. 

Mushtika — A demon celebrated as a great wrestler. At the 
games of Mathura, when Kansa hoped to destroy Krishna, Bala- 
bhadra wrestled with Mushtika and at last killed him. 


Nabha — A powerful Danava, the son of Viprachitti by Sinhika, 
the sister of Hh'anyakasipu. 

Nabhaga-nedishta — One of the sons of theManu Vaivaswata ; 
his name means * no share,' and in the Aitareya Brahmana he is 
said to have been excluded from all share of his inheritance on the 
plea of his being wholly devoted to a religious life. The Bhagavata 
says that having protracted his period of study beyond the usual 
age, his brothers appropriated his share of the patrimony. On 
his applying for his portion they consigned their father to him, by 
whose advice he assisted the descendants of Angiras in a sacrifice, 
and they presented him with all the wealth that was left at its 
termination. Rudra claimed it as his ; and Nabhaga acquiescing, 
the god confirmed the gift, by which he became possessed of an 
equivalent for the loss of territory. 

Nabhaga — l, The son of the preceding ; he became a Vaisya 
through carrying off and marrying the daughter of a Vaisya ; it 
appears from this that a race of Vaisya princes was recognised by 
early traditions ; 2, A son of Sruta, a descendant of Sagara ; 3, 
A son of Yayati. 

Nabhas, Nabhasya — l, A name of the months, Sravana and 
Bhddra, corresponding to July and August, the names occur in 
the Vedas and belong to a system now obsolete ; 2, The son of 
Nala, a descendant of Kusa. 

Nabaswati — The wife of Antarddhina, a descendant of Pritha. 

Nabhi — One of the nine sons of Agnidhra, to whom the country 
of Himahwa was assigned. 

Nachiketas — A philosopher, the son of Gautama, mentioned 
in the KathaUpanishad, of whom Dr. Roer says, ** the enthusiasm 
and intimate conviction which Nachiketas shows about the infinite 
Buperiority of what is good to the pleasures of the world, and the 

NAG 409 

firmness which he maintains amidst all the allurements which are 
placed before him, bears some resemblance to the energy of mind 
with which Plato, in the first and second books of his ' Republic,* 
shows that justice has an incomparable worth, and ought to be 
preserved under any circumstances/'* In an interview with 
Yama, who promised Nachiketas any boon, the latter requested to 
be instructed in the nature of the soul, Yama objected saying, even 
gods have doubted and disputed on this subject, for it is not easy 
to understand it. But Nachiketas could not be persuaded to think 
any other boon worth asking for.f 

Naga — 1, A mountainous ridge in the north of Meru ; 2, A 
serpent, one of the progeny of Kadru ; 3, Originally the Cobra- 
capella, or Colubernaga. 

Nagadwipa — A division of Bh^rata Varsha. 

Nagas — The * Snake gods,' children of Kadru. In mythology 
these beings have human heads and the bodies of serpents : they 
are one thousand in number and bear jewels in their heads. They 
are the sons of Kasyapa and Kadru, subject to Vishnu's bird, 
Garuda, and inhabiting part of Patala, called Naga-loka, the 
capital of which is Bhogavati. When they were deprived of their 
power by the Gandharbas, they despatched their sister, Narmada, 
to solicit the aid of Purukutsa, and she conducted him to the 
regions below the earth where being filled with the might of the 
deity he destroyed the Gandharbas. The snake gods, in acknow- 
ledgment of Narmadd's services, conferred upon her as a blessing, 
that whoever should think of her and invoke her name, should 
never have any dread of the venom of snakes. 

Nagas — " The Saiva SannyasU who go naked are distinguished 
by this term. They smear their bodies with ashes, allow their 
hair, beards, and whiskers to grow, and wear the projecting braid 
of hair, called the Jdtd ; like the Vairdji Nigas^ they carry arms, 
and wander about in troops, soliciting alms, or levying contribu- 
tions. The Saiva Nig as are chiefly the refuse of the Dandi and 

♦ Bibliotheca Indica, Vol. XV, p. 91. 

t A, and M. I., Vol, I, p. 136. 


410 NAG— NAI 

Atii orders, or men who have no inclination for a life of study or 
business : when weary of the vagrant and violent habits of the 
Ndga^ they re-enter the better disposed classes, which they had 
first quitted. The 8aiva Ndgas are very numerous in many parts 
of India." — Wilson. 

Nagas— The designation of nine kings who reigned in Pad- 

Nagavithi — l, A division of the lunar mansions in the Northern 
Avashthana ; 2, The milky way, daughter of Yami (night). 

Nagna — A Jain mendicant ; a naked ascetic. 

Nagnas— Apostates. The Rig, Yajur, and Sama Vedas, 
constitute the triple covering of the several castes, and the sinner 
who throws this off is said to be naked or apostate. The three 
Vedas are the raiment of all orders of men, and when that is 
discarded they are left bare. (V. P.) Wilson in his notes, adds, 
ascetics whether of the Buddha or Digambara order of Jains, are 
literally Nagnas, "going naked." The qualified application of 
it, however, was rendered necessary by the same practice being 
familiar to ascetics of the orthodox faith. To go naked was not 
necessarily the sign of a heretic, and therefore his nudity was 
understood to be rejecting the raiment of holy writ. Thus the 
Vayu Purina extends the word to all ascetics, including naked 
brahmans, who practice austerities fruitlessly, that is heretically 
or hypocritically. 

Nagnajiti — One of the wives of Krishna, termed in the Vishnu 
Purana the virtuous Nagnajiti. 

Nahusha — 1, The son of Ambarisha ; 2, The eldest of the five 
sons of Ayus, who having attained the rank of Indra, compelled 
the Rishis to bear his litter, and was cursed by them to fall from 
his state and re-appear upon earth as a serpent. From this form 
he was set free by philosophical discussions with Yudhishtira, and 
received final liberation ; 3, The name of one of the progeny of 
Kadru, a powerful many-headed serpent. 

Naigama — A teacher of the Rig Veda, a pupil of Sdkapui-rii. 

Naigameya — One of the sons of Knmdra. 

NAI— NAK 411 

Naikaprishtas — Au aboriginal tribe mentioned in the Puranas, 
so termed probably in derision ; it means having more than one back. 

Naishadha — A tract of country near the Vindhya mountains. 

Nakhis — Religious mendicants who practice various austerities, 
never cut their finger nails, and wear the Saiva marks. 

Nakshatra-Yoginis — The chief stars of the lunar mansions, or 
asterisms in the moon's path : these are fabled to have been the 
twenty-seven daughters of Daksha, who became the virtuous wives 
of the moon. 

There are twenty-seven divisions of the lunar orbit ; each 
marking the motion of the moon in one lunar day. Such is their 
simple reference, astronomically ; but the Hindu astrologers make 
them of great practical consequence, from their assumed good or 
evil influence. They reckon from the first degree of Aries, in the 
old Astronomy. 

1. Asviui, the ram's head good. 

2. Bharini bad. 

3. Critica, Pleiades very bad. 

4. Rohini, hyades good. 

5. Mrigasiras, a triple star good. 

6. Ardra, one star bad. 

7. Punar vasu, four stars.,, good. 

8. Pushya, nebula in Cancer good. 

9. Aslesha, five stars bad. 

10. Magha, cor leonis good. 

11. Purvap'halguni, two stars medium. 

12. Uttara P'halguni, two stars medium. 

13. Hasta, five stars good. 

14. Chitra, one star bad. 

15. Swati, one star good. 

16. Visaka, four stars bad. 

17. Anuradha, four stars good. 

18. Jyeshta, three stars bad. 

19. Mula, eleven stars, cor scorpionis very bad. 

20. Purvashadha, four stars medium. 

21. Uttara shadha, three stars good. 

412 NAK— NAL 

22. Sravana, three stars good. 

23. Dhanishta, four stars bad. 

24. Satabhisha, a hundred stars bad. 

25. Purva bhadrapada, two stars medium. 

26. Uttara bhadrapada, two stars medium. 

27. Revati, thirty-two stars good. 

These influences refer principally to marriages. The Nakshati'as 
are classified as deva, divine ; 7nanushi/a,h\imaTi ; rakshasa, savage ; 
if the two parties to be married are born in the same class, it is 
well : if one asterism be divine, the other human, it may pass ; but 
divine and savage is a cross that may not be permitted. 

An intercalary abliijit, one-fourth of a Nakshatra, is sometimes 
introduced between 21 and 22 for astrological purposes, or to 
make up a complete cycle of the moon's motion. — Taylor. 

Nakta — A prince, the son of Prithu, who reigned over one of 
the divisions of Bharatavarsha in the first or Swayambhuva 

Nakula — One of the sons of P^ndu by his wife Midri, though 
really begotten by the elder of the two Asvinan (see Pandu). 
He is half-brother to Sahadeva, the son of Dasra, by the same 
mother, and nominally brother to the three other Pandavas, He 
is always referred to as one of the wisest of mortals. 

Nala — The king of Nishada, whose histoiy forms part of the 
third book of the Mahabharata and is called the JSalopakhyanam. 
Nala possessed all the noble qualities and acquirements that could 
distinguish an Indian monarch. The king of Berar had an only 
daughter, the most beautiful and accomplished of her sex — the 
gentle Damayanti. Nala and Damayanti became mutually 
enamoured of each other from the mere fame of each other's 
virtues. Damayanti preferred Nala to Indra, Sani, and two other 
demi-gods who became incarnate for the purpose of attending the 
Swayamvara of the princess. Incensed at Damayanti's refusal to 
marry him, Sani, a malevolent being, persecuted the royal couple 
with great hatred, and caused Nala to lose his kingdom by 
gambling, and (o be banished to the wilderness j and as his faithful 

NAL— NAM 413 

consort could not be persuaded to return to her father, he took her 
with him into the forest ; but not being willing to cause her so 
much suffering as a life in the woods involves, he resolved to leave 
her alone when she was sleeping under a tree, thinking she would 
then return to her father's house. But this she did not do ; 
lamenting, she sought her husband, and when she could not find 
him she went to a certain king and became maid of honour to the 
queen ; whilst Nala wandered about and became so black he could 
no longer be recognised as king Nala. Finally he became cook to 
the king at whose court Damayanti lived ; and was such a skilful 
cook that his skill in cooking has become a proverb ; and after all 
he was recognised oy his faithful spouse as king !N'ala ; and having 
soon recovered his former pleasing appearance he also regained his 
throne. See Damayanti ; 2, The name of a prince, the son of 
Yadu ; 3, The name of a river that falls into the Ganges. 

Nalakanakas — A people mentioned in the Pur^nic lists but 
not identified. 

Nalini — The name of one of the five streams formed by the 
Ganges after it escaped from Siva. 

Nama — Literally name : the term applied to the tridental mark 
which the Vaishnavas wear on their forehead, the mark, or figure, 
is called Tirun^ma, * holy name' it is an imitation of Vishnu's 
trident almost like the Hebrew character shin. It consists of 
two white lines, extending from the hair to the eyebrows, and then 
leading to the nose where they meet, and a red perpendicular line 
between them fi-om the nose to the hair. 

Namasivaya — The principal Mantra of the Saivas, called 
Pauch^kshara five characters, and means * O Siva, be praised :' 
or ' Adoration to Siva.' 

Namuchi — A powerful Danava, one of the sons of Viprachitti. 
This Asura was a friend of India ; and taking advantage of his 
friend's confidence, he drank up Indra's strength along with a 
draught of wine and soma. Indra then told the Asvins and 
Sarasvati that Namuchi had drunk up his strength. The Asvins 
and Sarasvati, in consequence gave Indra a thunderbolt in the 

414 NAN 

form of a foam, with which he smote oflf the head of Namuchi. 
The Asvins then drauk the soma mixed with blood and wine, 
from the belly of Namuchi and transferred it pure to Indra ; and 
by transferring it they delivered Indra. 0. S. T., Vol. V, p. 94. 

Nanda — l, The chief of the cowherds, and brother of Eadha. 
He was the foster father of Krishna, as it was to his care the 
infant Krishna was committed when Kansa sought to destroy 
the child ; 2, One of the sons of Vasudeva ; 3, The son of 
Mahananda, and sometimes called Mahapadma, because he was 
avaricious. He brought the whole earth under one umbrella, and 
had eight sons, or descendants rather, according to Professor 
Wilson, who governed for a hundred years ; when the brahman 
Kautilya overthrew the dynasty and placed Chandragupta on the 
throne. The Mudra Rakshasa illustrates this affair. 

Nandana — The grove of Indra, situated to the north of Mount 

Nandayania—A pupil of B^shkali and teacher of the Rig 

Nandi — The snow white bull, the attendant and favourite 
vehicle of Siva. It is represented on a pedestal crouching in 
front of Saiva fanes ; the head turned towards the small door of 
the shrine. On one occasion Nandi, by assuming the likeness of 
Siva, caused a blush on the cheeks of P£rvati, and for this offence, 
Siva sent his vehicle down to earth to do penance ; hence the 
mountain Nandi-durga — (Nandidroog.) Another mission to earth 
was in the person of the elder Basava. 

Nandi — ' Delight,' the wife of Dharraa and mother of Hersha 


Nandimukhas — A class of Pitris : there seems to be some 
uncertainty about the character of the Nandimukhas ; and they 
are addressed both as Pitris and gods ; being in the former case 
either the ancestors prior to the great grand-father, ancestors 
collectively, or a certain class of them ; and in the latter being 
identified with the Viswadevas. The terra Nandimukha is also 
applied to the rite itself, or to the Vriddhi Srddda, and to one 

NAN— NAR 415 

addressed to maternal ancestors. See Wilson's Notes to Vishnu 
Purana, p. 315. 

Nandivardhana— 1, The son of Urdavasu, king of Mithila ; 
2, The sou of Janaka, king of Magadha ; The son of Udayaswa, 
king of Magadha. 

Nara — Paramatma : the waters it is said were the progeny of 
Nara ; that is they were the first productions of God in creation. 

Nara — l, A pious sage, the son of Dharma by Murtti ; 2, A 
prince, the son of Gaya ; 3, A prince, the sou of Sudhriti ; 4, 
One of the sons of Bhavanraanyas of the royal family of Bharata. 

Nara — ' Bodily forms' in which spirit is enshrined ; and of 
which the waters, with Vishnu resting upon them, are a type. 
Waters, the first product of Nara. Vishnu Pui-ino, p. 28. 

Narada — A Praj^pati or divine Rishi, born from the hip of 
Brahma ; the invention of the vena, or Indian lyre, is attributed 
to Narada ; also a code of laws, and one of the eighteen Puranas 
entitled Naradiya Pui-ana. In the Brahma PurAna he is called 
the smooth-speaking Narada, and his likeness to Orpheus is carried 
still further by a descent which he made from heaven to visit 
Pdtala, the nether regions. In Manu and in the Vishnu Purina 
he is called a Prajipati, in the Mahdbharata he is one of the 
Gandharbhas. It was he who dissuaded the sons of Daksha from 
multiplying their race ; they accordingly scattered themselves 
through the regions of the universe to ascertain its extent, &c., 
and the patriarch Daksha finding that all his sons had vanished 
was incensed and denounced an imprecation on Narada. It was 
Narada who informed Kansa that the supporter of the earth 
Vishnu, was going to become incarnate as the eighth child of 
Devaki. When Narada visited Krishna he presented him with 
the flower Parij^ta from the world of the gods. Krishna gave it 
to Rukmini, which so excited the jealousy of one of his favourite 
mistresses Satyabhama, that in order to appease her, Krishna went 
to the heaven of the gods and brought away the tree itself that 
bore the flower. In mythology Narada is often described as 
bearing a resemblance to Hermes or Mercury, being engaged in 

416 NAR 

conveying messages and causing discord among the gods and men. 
He is usually represented as sitting in a fire, having his hands 
folded over his head, and stretching his legs also towards his 
head, his arms and legs being tied together with a girdle. 

Narada Purana — This Purina is related by Ndrada and gives 
an account of the Vrihas Kalpa. It is communicated to the Rishis 
at Naimisharanya, on the Gamati river. Professor Wilson regards 
it as a sectarial and modern compilation intended to support the 
doctrine of Bhakti, or faith in Vishnu. It contains a number of 
prayers addressed to one or other form of that divinity ; a variety 
of observances and holidays connected with his adoration ; and 
different legends, some perhaps of an early, others of a more recent 
date, illustrative of the efficacy of devotion to Hari. There are 
the stories of Dhruva and Prahlada, the latter told in the words of 
the Vishnu Purana ; whilst the second portion of it is occupied 
with a legend of Mohini, the will-born daughter of a king called 
Rukmangada ; beguiled by whom the king offers to perform for 
her whatever she may desire. She calls upon him either to violate 
the rule of fasting on the eleventh day of the fortnight, a day 
sacred to Vishnu, or to put his son to death ; and he kills his son, 
as the lesser sin of the two. This shews the spirit of the work. 
Its date may also be inferred from its tenor, as such monstrous 
extravagancies in praise of Bhakti are certainly of modern origin. 
One limit it furnishes itself, for it refers to Suka and Parikshit, 
the interlocutors of the Bhagavata, and it is consequently 
subsequent to the date of that Purfina : it is probably considerably 
later, for it affords evidence that it was written after India was in 
the hands of the Mohammedans. In the concluding passage it is 
said, "Let not this Purana be repeated in the presence of the 
* killers of cows* and contemners of the gods." It is possibly a 
compilation of the sixteenth or seventeenth century. Vishnu 
Purana. Preface. 

Naraka — Hell ; of which twenty-eight different divisions are 
enumerated, said to be situated beneath the earth, below Patala 
and to be terrific regions of darkness, of deep gloom, of fear, and 
of great terror. lu the Vishnu Purina, Vol. II, c. 6, they are 

NAR 417 

particularly described, with the crimes punished iu them respec- 
tively. The gods in heaven are beheld by the inhabitants of hell as 
they move w^ith their heads inverted ; whilst the gods, as they cast 
their eyes downwards, behold the sufferings of those in hell ; the 
commentator observes that the sight of heavenly bliss is given to 
the lost to exacerbate their sufferings ; whilst the inflictions of hell 
are exhibited to the gods, to teach them disregard of even heavenly 
enjoyments, as they are but of temporary duration. Heaven is that 
which delights the mind ; hell is that which gives it pain ; hence 
vice is called hell ; virtue is called heaven. V. P. 

Naraka— 1, A son of Aurita (falsehood) and Nikriti 
(immorality) ; 2, A Danava, one of the sons of Viprachitti ; 3, A 
son of the Earth who ruled over the city of Pragjyotisha. Indra 
went to Dwaraka and reported to Krishna the tyranny of Naraka* 
Having heard this account, the divine Hari, mounting Garuda, 
flew to. Pragjyotisha ; there a fierce conflict took place with the 
troops of Naraka, in which Govinda destroyed thousands of 
demons ; and when Naraka came into the field, showering upon 
the deity all sorts of weapons, the wielder of the discus cut him in 
two with his celestial missile. Naraka being slain, Earth bearing 
the two earrings of Aditi, approached the lord of the world and 
said, " When I was upheld by thee in the form of a boar, thy contact 
then engendered this my son. He whom thou gavest me has now 
been killed by thee ; take therefore these two earrings and 
cherish his progeny. Forgive the sins whicli Naraka has 
committed." Krishna then proceeded to redeem the various gems 
from the dwelling of Naraka. In the apartments of the women 
he found sixteen thousand and one hundred damsels, who became 
Krishna's wives ; in the palace w^ere six thousand large elephants 
each having four tusks ; twenty-one lakhs of horses of Kdmboja 
and other excellent breeds ; these Govinda dispatched to Dwaraka, 
in charge of the servants of Naraka. The umbrella of Varuna, the 
jewel mountain which he also recovered, he placed upon Garuda ; 
and mounting himself, and taking Satyabhama with him, he set off 
to the heaven of the gods to restore the earrings of Aditi. V. P. 

Narantaka — One of the sons of the giant Ravana who was 
killed at the scige of Lanka. 


418 NAR 

Naras — ' Centaurs,' or beings with the limbs of horses and 
human bodies, created by Brahm^ along -with Kinuaras, Rakshasas, 
&c. V. P., p. 42. 

Narasinha Avatara— The fourth incarnation of Vishnu, in the 
form of a man-lion (Mara a man, and Sinha a lion.) One of the 
two doorkeepers of Vishnu's paradise, (see Varaha) came down to 
earth as a monarch, named Hiranyakasipu. He was cruel, 
tyrannical, unjust ; particularly so towards his son named 
Prahlada. But he had obtained from Bramhi, by severe penance, 
the boon that he should not be slain by any created being ; 
in consequence of which he became very proud, and required all 
persons to honor him by saying. " Om Hiranya" (Adoration to 
Hirauya) ; and those who would not say so he ordered to be 
punished. His son Prahljida, who was a devout worshipper of 
Vishnu, would not obey his father's order, but continued to say 
*' Om namah" (meaning by Om Vishnu). Hiranya remonstrated 
with him because of this, but in vain. Then he attempted to 
punish and kill him, but in vain : Prahlada was struck heavily but 
did not feel the strokes ; he was cast into the fire, but was not 
burnt ; he was trampled on by elephants, but continuing to think 
of Vishnu he was not hurt : he was thrown fettered into the sea, 
but a fish carried him safely to shore. At last, when Prahlada did 
not cease praising Vishnu, and asserted that he was everywhere 
and in everything, Hiranya retorted. " If so why dost thou not 
show him unto me ?" Upon this Prahlada rose and struck a 
column of the hall in which they were assembled ; and behold, 
there issued from it Vishnu, in a form which was half-man and 
half-lion, and tore Hiranya to pieces. V. P. 

Narayana — l, A name of Vishnu, meaning *he whose place 
of abiding was the deep.' The waters are called Nira, because 
they were the ofi'spring of Nara (the supreme spirit) ; and as in 
them his first (Ayana) progress (in the character of Brahma) took 
place, he is thence named Narayana ; 2, A sage, the son of 
Dharma by Murtti ; 3, A prince, the son of Bhumimitra, of the 
Kanwa dynasty. 

Narishyanta — l, One of the sous of the Manu Vaivaswata ; 
2, The son of Marutta, the fourteenth of the posterity ofDishta. 

NAR— NID 419 

Narika — A measure of time, fifteen Laghus. 
Narikavacha — A name of Mtilaka, q. v. 

Narmada — The river Narbadda, the Namadus of Ptolemy. It 
rises in the Vindhya, or in the Riksha mountains, taking its origin 
in Gondwana. Mythologically the personified Narmada was the 
sister of the Nagas, and had a son named Trasadasya. 

Narttaka — A dancer, who also performs extraordinary feats 
of strength and agility. 

Nata — An actor ; in popular acceptation it comprehends 
jugglers, buffoons, and persons practising sleight of hand, and 
exhibiting feats of agility. — Wilson. 

Navala — The daughter of the patriarch Vairaja, and wife of 
the Manu Chakshusha. 

Navaratha — A prince, the son of Bhlmaratha. 

Naya — (Polity) a son of Dharma by Kriya. 

Nedishta — One of the sons of the Manu Vaivaswata. 

Nichakra — A prince, the son of Asima Krishna, who when 
Ilastindpura was washed away by the Ganges, removed the capital 

Nidagha — A son of Pulastya and disciple of Ribhu ; to him 
Ribhu willingly communicated perfect knowledge. The residence 
of Pulastya was at Viranagara, on the banks of the Devika river. 
"In a beautiful grove adjoining to the stream, the pupil of Ribhu, 
Nidagha, conversant with devotional practices, abode. When a 
thousand divine years had elapsed, Ribhu went to the city of 
Pulastya, to visit his disciple. Standing at the doorway, at the 
end of a sacrifice to the Viswadevas, he was seen by his scholar, 
who hastened to present him the usual offering, or Arghya, and 
conducted him into the house ; and when his hands and feet were 
washed, and he was seated, Nidagha invited him respectfully to 
eat, (when the following dialogue ensued) : — 

" Ribhu. * Tell me, illustrious Brahman, what food there is in 
in your house ; for I am not fond of indifferent viai'd^.' 

420 NID 

" Niddgha. * There are cakes of meal, rice, barley, aud pulso 
in the house ; partake, venerable sir, of whichever best pleases you.' 

" Eibhu. * None of these do I like ; give me rice boiled with 
sugar, wheaten cakes, and milk with curds and molasses.' 

" Niddgha. * Ho dame, be quick, and prepare whatever is 
most delicate and sweet in the house, to feed our guest* 

** Having thus spoken, the wife of !N^id4gha, in obedience to her 
husband's commands, prepared sweet and savoury food, and set it 
before the Brahman ; and Nidagha, having stood before him until 
he had eaten of the meal which he hud desired, thus reverentially 
addressed him : — 

" Nidagha. Have you eaten sufficiently, and with pleasure, 
great Brahman ? and has your mind received contentment from 
your food ? Where is your present residence ? Whither do you 
purpose going ? and whence, holy sir, have you now come ? 

" Ribhu. * A hungry man. Brahman, must needs be satisfied 
when he has finished his meal. Why should you inquire if my 
hunger has been appeased ? When the earthly element is parched 
by fire, then hunger is engendered ; and thirst is produced when 
the moisture of the body has been absorbed (by internal or 
digestive heat.) Hunger aud thirst are the functions of the body, 
and satisfaction must always be afforded me by that by which they 
are removed ; for when hunger is no longer sensible, pleasure and 
contentment of mind are faculties of the intellect : ask their condi- 
tion of the mind then, for man is not affected by them. For your 
three other questions. Where I dwell ? Whither I go ? aud whence 
I come ? hear this reply. Man, (the soul of man) goes every- 
where, aud penetrates everywhere, like the ether ; and is it 
rational to inquire where it is ? or whence or whither thou goest ? 
I neither am going nor coming, nor is my dwelling in any one 
place ; nor art thou, thou ; nor are others, others ; nor am 
I, I. If you wonder what reply I should make to your inquiry 
why I made any distinction between sweetened and unsweetened 
food, you shall hear my explanation. What is there that is 
really sweet or not sweet to one eating a meal ? That which 
is sweet, is no Jonger so when it occasions the sense of 

NiD_NlL 421 

repletion ; and that which is not sweet, becomes sweet when a 
man (being very hungry) fancies that it is so. What food is there 
that first, middle, and last is equally grateful. As a house built 
of clay is strengthened by fresh plaster, so is this earthly body 
supported by earthly particles ; and barley, wheat, pulse, butter, 
oil, milk, curds, treacle, fruits, and the like, are composed of atoms 
of earth. This therefore is to be understood by you, that the 
mind which properly judges of what is or is not sweet is impressed 
with the notion of identit}^ and that this effect of identity tends to 

" Having heard these words, conveying the substance of ultimate 
truth, Nidagha feJl at the feet of his visitor, and said, * Shew 
favour unto me, illustrious Brahman, and tell me who it is that 
for my good has come hither, and by whose words the infatuation 
of my mind is dissipated.' To this, Ribhu answered, ' I am Ribhu, 
your preceptor, come hither to communicate to you true wisdom ; 
and having declared to you what that is, I shall depart. Know 
this whole universe to be the one undivided nature of the supreme 
spirit, entitled Vasudeva.' Thus having spoken, and receiving the 
prostrate homage of Nidagha, rendered with fervent faith, Ribhu 
went his way." V. P., p. 53-55. 

Nidra — Sleep ; a form of Brahma. In the Uttara Khanda of 
the Padraa Purana, Nidni is entered as one of the products of 
the churning of the ocean. 

Nighna— The son of Anamitra, and father of Satrajit, to whom 
the divine Aditya, the sun, presented the Syamautaka gem. 

Nikriti— (Immorality.) A daughter of Adharma (vice.) 
Nikumbha — A prince, the son of Haryyasva. 

Nila — Blue. I, A range of mountains in Orissa ; 2, A central 
range to the north of Meru, running east and west ; 3, A son of 
Yadu ; 4, A son of Ajamidha. 

Nilalohita — A name of Rudra, from the Vaishnava Pui-dnas, 
which give only one original form, instead of eight as in the Vishnu 
Purana, and to which the name of Nilalohita, the blue and red or 
purple complexioned, is assigned. 

422 NIL— NIM 

Nilini — The wife of Ajamidha. 

Nimisha— A measure of time— a twinkle of the eye — a second ; 
according to the Bhagavata, three Lavas. 

Nimi — One of the three distinguished sons of Ikshvaku. He 
instituted a sacrifice that was to endure a thousand years, and 
applied to Vasishtha to offer the oblations. Vasishtha in answer 
said, that he had been pre-engaged by Indra for five hundred 
years, but that if the Raja would wait for some time, he would 
come and officiate as superintending priest. The king made no 
answer, and Vasishtha went away, supposing that he had assented. 
When the sage had completed the performance of the ceremonies 
he had conducted for Indra, he returned with all speed to Nimi, 
purposing to render him the like office. When he arrived, 
however, and found that Nimi had retained Gautama and other 
priests to minister at his sacrifice, he was much displeased and 
pronounced upon the king, who was then asleep, a curse to this 
effect, that since he had not intimated his intention, but transfen^ed 
to Gautama the duty he had first entrusted to himself, Vasishtha, 
Kimi should thenceforth cease to exist in a corporeal form. When 
Nimi woke, and knew what had happened, he in return denounced 
as an imprecation upon his unjust preceptor, that he also should 
lose his bodily existence, as the punishment of uttering a curse 
upon him without previously communicating with him. Nimi 
then abandoned his bodily condition. The spirit of Vasishtha also 
leaving his body, was united with the spirits of Mitra and Varuna 
for a season, until, through their passion for the nymph Urvasi, 
the sage was born again in a different shape. The corpse of Nimi 
was preserved from decay by being embalmed with fragrant oils 
and resins, and it remained as entire as if it were immortal. When 
the sacrifice was concluded, the priests applied to the gods, who 
had come to receive their portions, that they would confer a blessing 
upon the author of the sacrifice. The gods were willing to restore 
him to bodily life, but Nimi declined its acceptance, saying, " O 
deities, who are the alleviators of all worldly suffering, there is not 
in the world a deeper cause of distress than the separation of soul 
and body : it is therefore my wish to dwell in the eyes of all 


beings, but never more to resume a corporeal shape !" To this 
desire the gods assented, and Nimi was placed by them in the eyes 
of all living creatures ; in consequence of which their eyelids are 
ever opening and shutting. V. P. 

Nipa — A prince, the son of Para, a descendant of Hastin. 

Niramitra — l, One of the Pandavas, the son of Nakula ; 2, 
The sou of Khandapaui ; 3, The sou of Ayutayus. 

Nirmalas — One of the divisions of the Sjkhs who profess 
to dedicate themselves exclusively to a religious life. They 
lead a life of celibacy, and disregard their personal appearance, 
often going nearly naked. They do uot assemble together in 
colleges, nor do they observe any particular form of Divine service, 
but confine their devotion to speculative meditation on the perusal 
of the writings of Nanak, Kabir, and other unitarian teachers. 
They are always solitary, supported by their disciples, or wealthy 
persons who may happen to favour the sect. The Nirmalas are 
known as able expounders of the Vedanta philosophy^ in which 
Brahmans do not disdain to accept of their instructions. They 
are not a very numerous body on the whole ; but a few are almost 
always to be found at the principal seats of Hindu wealth, and 
particularly at Benares. — Wilson's Worhs, Vol. I. 

Nirmanaratis — A class of deities who belong to the eleventh 

Nirrita — One of the eleven Eudras, according to the Vayu list. 

Nirukta — An Anga of the Vedas, containing a glossarial 

Niruktakrit — The name of the pupil to whom Sakapuriii 
gave his glossary (Nirukta) of the Rig Veda. 

Niruta — A giant ; a regent or guardian of the south-west point 
of the world. He is represented as of a green colour, and is said 
to have been raised to the dignity he enjoys in consequence of his 
severe penance, On his head he wears a crown, and on his 
forehead Siva's sign of sacred ashes. Of his four hands one is 
empty, and in the other three he holds respectively a banner with 
the sign of a fish, a ring, and a wine jug ; his vehicle is a crocodile 

424 NIR 

NifVritti — A prince, the son of Vrishui, a descendant of 

Nirwana — The blowing out. Extinction. The summum- 
bonum of Buddhism. It was long thought that Nirwana simply- 
meant final beatitude, the emancipation of the soul from the body : 
its exemption from further transmigration, and re-union with the 
deity. Some still maintain this view, and regard Nirwana as 
synonymous with Moksha ; the absorption of the individual soul 
into the divine essence ; which the Hindus represent as the 
highest goal of their religion and philosophy. But it has been 
shown by Mr. Spence Hardy, Mr. Max Miiller, and other high 
authorities, that Nirwana means utter annihilation, or the 
destruction of all elements which constitute existence. There are 
four paths, an entrance into any of which secures either 
immediately, or more remotely, the attainment of Nirwana, They 
are ; (1,) Sowdti, w^hich is divided into twenty-four sections, and 
after it has been entered there can be only seven more births 
between that period and the attainment of Nirwana^ which may be 
in any world but the four hells ; (2,) Sakraddgdmi, into which he 
who enters wdll receive one more birth. He may enter this path 
in the world of men, and afterwards be born in dcva-lbka ; or he 
may enter it in a deva-Ibka, and afterwards be born in the w^orld 
of men. It is divided into twelve sections ; (3,) Anitgdmi^ into 
which he who enters will not again be born in a kdma-lbka ; he 
may, by the apparitional birth, enter into a brahma-lbka, and from 
that world attain Nirwdna. This path is divided into forty-eight 
sections ; (4,) Arya or Aryahaty into which he who enters has 
overcome or destroyed all evil desire. It is divided into twelve 

Those who have entered into any of the paths can discern the 
thoughts of all in the same, or preceding paths. Each path is 
divided into two grades ; 1, The perception of the path ; 2, Its 
fruition or enjoyment. The mode in which Nirwana, or the 
destruction of ah the elements of existence, may be reached, is thus 
pointed out by Mr. Spence Hardy, in his ' Eastern Monachism :' 
" The unwise being who has not yet arrived at a state of purity, 
or who is subject to future birth, overcome by the excess of evil 

NIS— NIT 425 

desire, rejoices in the organs of sense, Ayatana, and their relative 
objects, and commends them. The Ayatanas therefore become to 
him like a rapid stream to carry him onward toward the sea of 
repeated existence ; they are not released from old age, decay, 
death, sorrow, &c. But the being who is purified, perceiving the 
evils arising from the sensual organs and their relative objects, 
does not rejoice therein, nor does he commend them, or allow 
himself to be swallowed up by them. By the destruction of the 
108 modes of evil desire he has released himself from birth, as 
from the jaws of an alligator ; he has overcome all attachment to 
outward objects ; he does not regard the unauthorized precepts, 
nor is he a sceptic ; and he knows that there is no ego, no self. 
By overcoming these four errors, he has released himself from the 
cleaving to existing objects. By the destruction of the cleaving to 
existing objects he is released from birth, whether as a brahma, 
man, or any other being. By the destruction of birth he is 
released from old age, decay, death, sorrow, &c. All the afflictions 
connected with the repetition of existence are overcome. Thus 
all the principles of existence are annihilated, and that annihilation 
is Nirwana." 

Nisatha— A son of Balarama by his wife Revati. 

Nischara — One of the seven Rishis in the second Mauwautara. 

Nishadas —Inhabitants of the Vindhya mountains — barbarians. 
Nishadha was the country of Nala, and has consequently attained 
celebrity, but its situation has not been certainly determined ; it 
was not far from Vidarbha (Berar) as that was the country of 

Nishadha — 1, A range of mountains to the south of Meru ; 
one of the central ranges, next to Meru, running east and west, 
and extending one hundred thousand Yojanas ; 2, A prince, the 
son of Atithi, and grandson of Kusa. 

Nisitha — A son of Kalpa ; the name means 'the middle of night.' 

Nisunda — A Daitya, the sou of Hlada. 

Nitala—One of the seven regions of Pat^la. 


426 NIV— NYA 

Nivata-kavachas— Banavas, to the number of thirty millions, 
residing in the depths of the sea. The Mahabharata describes 
their destruction as one of the exploits of Arjuna. The Vishnu 
Purana says they were born in the family of the Daitya Prahlada. 

Niyama— The second stage of Yoga, being self-restraint, of 
■which five kinds are specified : — 

1. Purity of mind and body 

2. Cheerfulness under all circumstances 

3. Religious austerity 

4. The repetition of incantations 

5. The association of all religious ceremonies with the 

Supreme Being. 

These are also designated five duties or obligations, namely 
purity, contentment, devotion, study of the Vedas, and adoration of 
the Supreme. 

Niyama— Precept. A son of Dharma by one of the daughters 
of Daksha. 

Niyati — The daughter of Meru who was married to Vidhdtri. 

Niyat — The wife of Mahan one of the eleven Rudras. 

Niyodhaka — A prize-fighter, either as a wrestler or boxer or a 
swordsman — in some parts of India he also fights with gauntlets 
armed with steel spikes. — Wilson. 

Nrichaksha — A prince, the son of Richa, of the race of Puru. 

Nriga — A son of the Manu Vaivaswata ; the Linga Purana 
relates his transformation to a lizard by the curse of a brahman. 

Nripanjaya — l, A prince, the son of Suvira ; 2, The son of 
Medhavin of the race of Puru. 

Nriyajna — One of the five great obligations or sacrifices, viz., 
that of hospitality ; a duty on which great stress is laid. 

Nyagrodha — One of the sons of Ugrasena. 

Nyaya — Logic. One of the six schools or systems of Philo- 
sophy of the Hindus. 

The Nyaya system was originally taught by Gautama, of whose 
personal history, however, but little is known. From the Rama- 

NYA 427 

yana and the Puranas, wc learn that he was bora at Himalaya, 
about the same time as Ruma, i. e., at the commeucement of the 
T?'ela Yuga (or second age of the world) ; that he married 
Ahalya, the daughter of Brahm^ (q. v.) He is said to have lived 
as a very austere ascetic, first at Pryaga (now Allahabad), then in 
a forest at Mithila (Muttra), and latterly (after the repudiation of 
of his wife) in the Himalayan mountains. His sou, Satanauda, 
w&s priest to Janaka, king of Mithila the father of Sita, the wife 
of Kama. From the above statements we may see how little 
leliance can be placed on the historical veracity of the Purauas. 
These works assure us that Gautama, though he lived in the 
second or silver age, married a daughter of Brahmi ; but they 
meet the anachronism by atfirmiug that all the sages live 
through the four Yugas (the Satya, Treta, Dwapas, and Kali,) 
into which the Hindus divide the whole course of the world's 

*' The Nyaya offers the sensational aspect of Hindu Philosophy. 
In saying this, it is not meant that the Nydya confines itself to 
sensation, excluding emotion and intellection ; nor that the other 
systems ignore the fact of sensation ; but that the arrangement of 
this system has a more pointed regard to the fact of the five senses 
than the others have, and treats the external more frankly as a 
solid reality. 

" The word Nyaya means ' propriety or titncss,' and the system 
undertakes to declare the proper method of arriving at that know- 
ledge of the truth, the fruit of which, it promises, is the chief end 
of man. The name is also used, in a more limited application, to 
denominate the proper method of setting forth argument. This 
has led to the practice of calling the Nyaya the * Hindu Logic,^ a 
name which suggests a very inadequate conception of the scope of 
the system. The Nyaya system was delivered by Gautama in a 
set of aphorisms, so very concise, that they must, from the first, 
have been accompanied by a commentary, oral or written. The 
aphorisms of the several Hindu systems, \n fact, appear designed, 
not so much to communicate the doctrine of the particular schools, 
as to aidf by the briefest possible suggestions, the memory of him 
to whom the doctrine shall have becJi alreadij communicated. To 

428 NYA 

this end they are in general admirably adapted. The sixty 
aphorisms, for example, which constitute the first of Gautama's 
Five Lectures, present a methodical summary of the whole system, 
while the first aphorism, again, of the sixty, presents a summary 
of these sixty. The first aphorism is as follows : — From know- 
ledge of the truth in regard to evidence, the ascertainable, doubt, 
motive, example, dogma, confutation, ascertainment, disquisition, 
controversy, cavil, fallacy, perversion, futility, and occasion for 
rebuke, — there is the attainment of the Sum mum Bo7ium. 

" In the next aphorism, it is declared how knowledge operates 
mediately in producing this result. * Pain, birth, activity, fault, 
false notions, — since, on the successive departure of these in turn, 
there is the departure of the antecedent one, there is Beatitude.' 
That is to say, when knowledge of the truth is attained to, 'false 
notions' depart; on their departure, the * fanW of concerning 
one's-self about any external object ceases ; thereupon the enlight- 
ened sage ceases to * act ;' then, there being no actions that call 
for either reward or punishment, there is no occasion, after his 
death, for his being born again to receive reward or punishment ; 
then, not being born again, so as to be liable to pain, there is 
no room for * pain^ and the absence of pain is the Nyaya concep- 
tion of the Summum Bonum^ 

As to the instruments adapted to the acquisition of a knowledge 
of the truth, Gautama teaches that " proofs" i. e., (instruments 
of right knowledge,) " are the senses, the recognition of signs, the 
recognition of likenesses, and speech (or testimony.") 

The objects in regard to which we have to obtain right know- 
ledge, by means of the appropriate instruments, he enumerates as 
follows : — " Soul, body, sense, sense-object, knowledge, the mind, 
activity, fault, transmigration, fruit, pain, and beatitude, — these 
are the objects regarding which we are to seek for right know- 
ledge." Here it is to be carefully observed that the soul is spoken 
of as an entirely different entity from the mind. Dugald Stewart 
tells us that the mind can attend to only one thought at a time. 
Gautama, recognising the same fact, but speaking of the knoivn 
invariably as the soul, accounts for the fact in question by 
assuming that there is an instritment^ or internal organ, termed 

NYA 429 

the mind, through which alone knowledge can reach the soul, and 
which, admitting only one thought at a tinier the Naiy^yika 
inferred must be no larger than an atom. 

" Pleasure, pain, desire, aversion, volition, and knowledge," 
says Gautama, " are that whereby we recognise the (dtman) ;" 
and, again, " the sign" (whereby we infer the existence) " of the 
mind" (manas) " is the not arising of cognitions" (in the soul) 
*' simultaneously." Thus the soul may be practically regarded as 
corresponding to the thinking principle, and the mind (manas) 
to the faculty of attending to one, and only one, thing at a time ; 
it being further kept iu remembrance that the Naiy^yika reckons 
the mind to be a substance and not a faculty, 

" In the list of the objects regarding which right knowledge is 
to be obtained, the next after mind, is activity. This is defined 
as ' that which originates the [utterance of the] voice, the [cogni- 
tions of the] understanding, and the [gestures of the] body.' This 
activity, we have seen under A ph. II., Gautama regards with an 
evil eye, as the cause of birth, which is the cause of pain, which it 
is the snmmum bonum to get permanently rid of. 

He further holds that it is through our own ' fault' that we are 
active ; and he tells us that faults (or failings) have this charac- 
teristic, that they cause * activity.' These faults are classed under 
the heads of affection, aversion, and stolidity or delusion, each of 
which he regards as a fault or defect, inasmuch as it leads to 
actions, the recompense of which, whether good or evil, must be 
received in some birth, or state of mundane existence, to the 
postponement of the great end of entire emancipation." 

The immediate obstacle to " emancipation" mokshd, or apavarga, 
namely, " transmigration" pretyabhava, he next defines as " the 
arising again" punarutpatti. " Pain," duhka, he defines as " that 
which is characterised by uneasiness," and absolute deliverance 
therefrom is " emancipation." This summum bonam is to be 
obtained by an abnegation of all action, good or bad." — Small, 
H. S. L. 

Oblations — The householder after pouring libations to the 
gods, sages, and progenitors, is to offer oblations with fire, not 
preceded by any other rite, to Brahma. Oblations are made with 
such ceremonies, and in such form, as are adapted to the religious 
rite which is intended to be subsequently performed. The residue 
of oblations to be offered to Indra, Yama, Varuna, and Soma, at the 
four cardinal parts of his dwelling ; and in the north-east quarter 
it is to be presented to Dhanwantari. See V. P., p. 304. 

Obsequies— See Sraddha. 

Ocean — Churning of. See Amrita. 

Odra — The ancient name of Orissa. 

Oghavati — The name of a river in the Purauas, that has not 
been identified. 

Om or Omkara— A combination of letters invested by Hindu 
mysticism with peculiar sanctity. In the Vedas it is said to 
comprehend all the gods ; and in the Puranas it is directed to be 
prefixed to many sacred formulas. The syllable Om, says the 
Padma Puriiua is the leader of all prayers ; and to be employed in 
the beginning of all prayers. According to the same authority one 
of the mystical imports of the term is the collective enunciation of 
Vishnu expressed by A, of Sri, his bride, intimated by U, and of 
their joint worshipper designated by M. A whole chapter of the 
Vayu Puraua is devoted to this term. It is said to typify the 
three spheres of the world, the three holy fires, the three steps of 
Vishnu, &c. It is identified with the supreme uudefinablc deity, 
or Brahma. In the Bhagavat Gita it is said " Repeating Om, the 
monosyllable, which is Brahma, and calling me to mind ;" The 
form or sensible type of Vasudeva, is considered to be tljc 
monosyllable Om. Mr. J. C. Thomson says, a more probable 
origin of the word is that it is composed of the^initials of the three 

OSH— OXY 481 

personifications of the triad of elements, which is a much more 
ancient trinity than that of Brahm^, Vishnu and Siva. The A 
woukl then represent Agni, or fire ; the U Varuna, water ; and the 
M Marut, wind or air. The reverence attached to this monosyllable 
may be inferred from the foct that some transcribers of MSS. 
have been afraid to write the awful word itself, and have 
substituted some other. 

Oshta-karnakas — A nickname or term of derision, or derived 
from some exaggeration of national ugliness, applied to some of the 
aborigines of India. It means having lips extending to their ears. 

Oxydracse — The Sudra people of in the west, or north-west, 
towards the Indus. Pliny has Sudraci for the people who formed 
the limit of Alexander's eastern conquests, or those liitherto 
inaccurately called Oxydracae. 

Padmakalpa — A Maha Kalpa — a day of Brahma already 

Padmanabha — Lotus-navel ; with the addition of Svami, a 
name of Narayana in the Malayalam country. One of the titles of 
the Travancore rajah was ' the slave of Padmanabha/ 

Padmapurana — A very voluminous work containing fifty-five 
thousand slokas. These are divided amongst five books or 
Khaudas ; 1, The Srishti Khanda, or section on Creation ; the 
Bhumi Khanda, a description of the Earth ; the Swarga Khanda, 
a chapter on Heaven ; Patala Khanda, a chapter on the regions 
below the earth ; and 5, Uttara Khanda, the last or supplementary 
chapter There is also current a sixth division, the Kriy^ Yoga 
Sara, a treatise on the practice of devotion. 

The denominations of these divisions of the Padma Purina 
convey but an imperfect and partial notion of their contents. In 
the first, or section which treats of creation, the narrator is Ugras- 
ravas the Suta, the son of Lomaharshana, who is sent by his father 
to the Rishis at Naimisharanya to communicate to them the 
Purana, which, from its containing an account of the lotus (padma), 
in which Brahmi appeared at creation, is termed the Padma or 
Padma Purina. The Suta repeats what was originally communi- 
cated by Brahma to Pulastya, and by him to Bhishma. The 
early chapters narrate the cosmogony, and the genealogy of the 
patriarchal families, much in the same style, and often in the same 
words, as the Vishnu ; and short accounts of the Manwantaras 
and regal dynasties : but these, which are legitimate Pauranik 
matters, soon make way for new and unauthentic inventions, 
illustrative of the virtues of the lake of Pushkara, or Pokher in 
Ajmir, as a place of pilgrimage. 

The Bhumi Khinda, or section of the earth, defers any descrip- 
tion of the earth until near its close, filling up one hundred and 

PAD 483 

twentj'-- seven chapters with legends of a very mixed description, 
some ancient and common to other Puranas, but the greater part 
peculiar to itself, illustrative of Tirthas, either figuratively so 
termed — as a wife, a parent, or a guru, considered as a sacred 
object — or places to which actual pilgrimage should be performed. 

The Swarga Khdnda describes in the first chapters the relative 
positions of the Lokas or spheres above the earth, placing above all 
Vaikuntha, the sphere of Vishnu ; an addition which is not 
warranted by what appears to be the oldest cosmology. Miscella- 
neous notices of some of the most celebrated princes then succeed, 
conformably to the usual narratives ; and these are followed by 
rules of conduct for the several castes, and at different stages of 
life. The rest of the book is occupied by legends of a diversified 
description, introduced without much method or contrivance ; a 
few of which, as Daksha's sacrifice, are of ancient date, but of 
which the most are original and modern. 

The Patala Khanda devotes a brief introduction to the descrip- 
tion of Patala, the regions of the snake-gods ; but the name of 
Rama having been mentioned, Sesha, who has succeeded Pulastya 
as spokesman, proceeds to narrate the history of Rama, his descent 
and his posterity ; in which the compiler seems to have taken the 
poem of Kalidasa, the Raghu Vausa, for his chief authority. An 
originality of addition may be suspected, however, in the adven- 
tures of the horse destined by Rama for an Asvvamedha, which 
form the subject of a great many chapters. When about to be 
sacrificed, the horse turns out to be a Brahman, condemned by an 
imprecation of Durvasas, a sage, to assume the equine nature, and 
who, by having been sanctified by connexion with Rama, is 
released from his metamorphosis, and despatched as a spirit of 
light to heaven. This piece of Vaishnava fiction is followed by 
praises of the Sri Bhagavata, an account of Krishna's juvenilities, 
and the merits of worshipping Vishnu. These accounts are 
communicated through a machinery borrowed from the Tantras : 
they are told by Sadasiva to Parvati, the ordinary interlocutors of 
Tantrika compositions. 

The Uttara Khanda is a most voluminous aggregation of very 
heterogeneous matters, but it is consistent in adoptiug a decidedly 


434 PAD 

Vaishnava tone, and admitting no compromise with any other 
form of faith. The chief subjects are first discussed in a dialogue 
between king Dilipa and the Muni Vasishtha ; such as the merits 
of bathing in the month of Magha, and the potency of the Mantra 
or prayer addressed to Lakshmi Narayana. But the nature of 
Bhakti, faith in Vishnu — the use of Vaishnava marks on the body 
— the legends of Vishnu's Avataras, and especially of Rama — and 
the construction of images of Vishnu — are too important to be left 
to mortal discretion : they are explained by Siva to Parvati, and 
wound up by the adoration of Vishnu by those divinities. The 
dialogue then reverts to the king and the sage ; and the latter 
states why Vishnu is the only one of the triad entitled to respect ; 
Siva being licentious, Brahm^ arrogant, and Vishnu alone pure. 
Vasishtha then repeats, after Siva, the Mahatmya of the Bhagavat 
Gita ; the merit of each book of which is illustrated by legends of 
the good consequences to individuals from perusing or hearing it. 
Other Vaishnava Mahatmyas occupy considerable portions of this 
Khanda, especially the Kartika Mahatmya, or holiness of the 
month Kartika, illustrated as usual by stories, a few of which are 
of an early origin, but the greater part modern, and peculiar to 
this Purana. 

The Kriya Yoga Sara is repeated by Suta to the Rishis, after 
Vyasa's communication of it to Jaimini, in answer to an inquiry 
how religious merit might be secured in the Kali age, in which 
men have become incapable of the penances and abstraction by 
which final liberation was formerly to be attained. The answer 
is, of course, that which is intimated in the last book of the Vishnu 
Purana — personal devotion to Vishnu : thinking of him, repeating 
his names, wearing his marks, worshipping in his temples, are a 
full substitute for all other acts of moral or devotional or contem- 
plative merit. 

The different portions of the Pddma Purana are in all proba- 
bility as many different works, neither of which approaches to the 
original definition of a Purana. There may be some connexion 
between the three first portions, at least as to time ; but there is 
no reason to consider them as of high antiquity. They specify 
the Jains both by name and practices ; they talk of Mlechchhas, 

PAD— PAI 435 

* barbarians,' flourishing in India ; they commend the use of the 
frontal and other Vaishuava marks ; and they notice other subjects 
which, like these, are of no remote origin. The Patala Khanda 
dwells copiously upon the Bhagavata, and is consequently posterior 
to it. The Uttara Khanda is intolerantly Vaishnava, and is there- 
fore unquestionably modern. It enjoins the veneration of the 
Salagram stone and Tulasi plant, the use of the Tapta-mudra, or 
stamping with a hot iron the name of Vishnu on the skin, and a 
variety of practices and observances undoubtedly no part of the 
original system. It speaks of the shrines of Sri-rangam and 
Venkatadri in the Dekhin, temples that have no pretension to 
remote antiquity ; and it names Haripur on the Tungabhadra, 
which is in all likelihood the city of Vijayanagar, founded in the 
middle of the fourteenth century. The Kriya Yoga Sara is 
equally a modern, and apparently a Bengali composition. No 
portion of the Pddma Purana is probably older than the twelfth 
century, and the last parts may be as recent as the fifteenth or 
sixteenth. — Wilson. 

Padmavati — A titular name which may be understood of 
Laks/wii, as seated on a lotus-flower (padma) it is commonly used 
to designate a goddess of the Jainas ; especially at some shrines of 
the eastern and western Chalukyas ; corresponding with the 
northern part of Telingana and the southern Mahratta provinces. 

Padmavati— A city amongst the Vindhya hills. 

Pahlavas — A northern or north-western nation, often men- 
tioned in Hindu writings, in Manu, the Ramayaua, the Puranas, 
&c. They were not a Hindu people, and may have been some of 
the tribes between India and Persia. 

Pahnavas — Probably the same as the Pahlavas. Border tribes 
on the confines of Persia. They were conquered by Sagara, but 
spared on the intercession of Vasishtha, the family priest of Sagara. 

Paila — The compiler of the Rig Veda ; a disciple or co-adjutor 
of Vyasa in arranging the Vedas. Professor Wilson thinks the 
tradition records the first establishment of a school, of which the 
Vyasa was the head, and Paila and the other persons named were 
the teachers. 

436 PAK— PAN 

Pakayajna — A sacrifice, in which food is offered ; one that 
may be made by a Sudra. It implies either the worship of the 
Viswadevas, the rites of hospitality, or occasional oblations, as 
building a house, the birth of a child, or any occasion of rejoicing. 

Paksha— A lunar fortnight ; fifteen days of thirty Muhurttas 

Pakshaja — One of the three classes of clouds ; those which 
were originally the wings of the mountains, and which were cut 
off by Indra. 

Palaka — A protector or ruler ; loka palaka is an epithet 
applied to a king. Dik-palaka is a regent of one of the eight 
points of the heavens : each point being supported by one of the 
ashta dik gajas, or elephant caryatides. The names of the dik- 
palakas are Indra, E., Varuua, W., Kuvera, N., Yama, S., Isdni, 
N.E., Niruta, S.W., Vayu, N.W., Agni, S.E. 

Palaka — The son of Pradyota, king of Magadha. There were 
five kings of the house of Pradyota, who reigned for a hundred 
and thirty-eight years. 

Palasini — A river from the eastern portion of the Himalaya, a 
feeder of the Mahanada. 

Palin — One of the sons of Prithu. 

Palita — A prince, the son of Paravrit : he was the brother of 
Jyamagha, and ruled over Videha. 

Pampa — A river, that rises in Rishyamuka in the Dekkin. 

Panchadasa hymns — A collection of hymns, created along 
with the Yajur Veda from the southern mouth of Brahma. 

Panchajana— A demon in the form of a couch shell, who lived 
in the sea of Prabhasa, and was killed by Krishna, in order that 
the son of Sandipani might be rescued. 

Panchajanya— The name of Krishna's conch. It was made 
of the bones of the giant Panchajaua. When Krishna was getting 
up his military acquirements, the son of his acharya, or tutor, 
Sandipani, was drowned in the sea of Prabhasa, and carried down 

PAN 437 

to the bottom by the said giant. Krishna plunged in, dived down, 
slew the giant, brought up his bones to make a conch of, and 
restored his son to the grieving tutor. 

Panchanga — The Hindu Calendar, Panchanga means five 
members. It contains five principal heads, namely, the days of the 
month, the sign in which the moon is each day to be found, the 
day of the week, the eclipses, and the place of the planets. It 
likewise marks the good days and the evil ; those on which one 
may journey towards any of the four cardinal points ; for each 
point of the compass has its lucky and unlucky days ; and a person 
who might to-day travel very successfully towards the north, 
would expose himself to some grievous danger if he took a south- 
ward course. It farther contains a vast number of predictions of 
all sorts which would be too tedious for this place. 

Panchala — The country north and west of Delhi, between the 
foot of the Himalaya and the Chambal. It was afterwards divided 
into northern and southern Panchala separated by the Ganges. 
The name is derived from the five (pancha) sons of Hariyaswa, 
who were able (alam) to protect the countries ; and hence they 
were termed the Panchalas. 

Pancha-lakshana — An epithet applied to the Puranas, mean- 
ing ' that which has five characteristic topics ;' these are primary 
creation, or cosmogony ; secondary creation, or the destruction and 
renovation of worlds ; including chronology ; 3, Genealogy of 
gods and patriarchs ; 4, Reigns of the Manus, or periods called 
Manwantaras ; and, 5, History, or such particulars as have been 
preserved of the princes of the solar and lunar races, and of their 
descendants to modern times. 

Pancha Tantra — The collection of Fables and stories termed 
Pancha Tantra or Panchopakhyana, is one of the oldest in the 
world. It was translated from Sanskrit into Persian in the sixth 
century ; and from Persian into Arabic in the ninth century ; it 
was afterwards rendered into Hebrew, Greek, Latin and Syriac ; 
from these versions successive translations were made into all the 
languages of modern Europe, until it became universally known 
as Pilpay's Fables. 

438 PAN 

The narrator of the stories is in the Arabic version called Bidpai ; 
iu the Sanscrit original no name similar to this occurs ; but it is 
certain that the name Pilpay, by which the work is known in 
Europe, is a corruption of Bidpai. 

The Arabic translation of the Pancha Tantra is called Kalila 
wa Damna ; it is thus designated in allusion to two jackals which 
act a conspicuous part in the first story of the Arabic version, and 
which we recognise in the Sanskrit and Canarese under the forms 
Karataka and Damanaka. 

The most admired Persian translation is not that which was 
first made, but the one written at the beginning of the sixteenth 
century, and known under the title of Anwar-i-soheili ; which was 
afterwards rendered into Turkish with the designation of Hum^yun 
Nam eh. 

With the exception of the Bible and the Pilgrim's Progress, there 
is probably no work that has been translated into so many lan- 
guages as the Pancha Tantra. In India it has retained its popu- 
larity to the present time, and is found in some form in all the 
spoken dialects of the country. 

The Sanskrit epitome of the Pancha Tantra is termed the 
" Hitopadesa," or " Salutary Instruction." This has been translated 
into English by Sir William Jones and by Sir Charles Wilkins. 

" Its popularity" says Professor Johnson, " through so many 
ages, apaidst such various nations, is evidence of intrinsic merit ; 
and the pictures of domestic manners and human nature which it 
presents, however tinctured by national peculiarities, must have 
been recognised as universally true, as well as diverting ; or they 
would not have been naturalized in the west as well as in the east. 
In the maxims also which the tales serve to illustrate, there must 
have been much which secured the acquiescence of all mankind, 
or the remarks would have been left to enlighten the moralists of 
India alone. These merits, however, were such as admitted of 
transfusion into other languages ; the merits of its composition are 
those which have chiefly recommended its preservation by the 
Press, and its circulation amongst the cultivators of Sanskrit 

PAN 439 

There is a great diversity iu the manuscript copies of the Paiicha 
Tautra. Many differences occur in the various stories. In some 
versions the residence of the king is in Mahilaropya, a city iu the 
south of India, whicli Professor Wilson identifies with St. Thome. 
The Canarese version of the Pancha Tantra follows the Hitopadesa 
in making the residence of the king in Pdtaliputra on the Ganges. 

The king had three sous who were deficient in ability and 
application. He made this known to his counsellors aud sought 
their advice ; asking them "of what use is a son who has neither 
knowledge nor virtue ? of what use is a cow who has no milk with 
her calf, &c. ? A learned brahman who was present offered to 
relieve the king of his anxiety by taking the princes to his house 
and instructing them perfectly. He then composed in their benefit 
these five chapters ; Mitra Bheda, Dissension of friends ; Mitra 
Prapti, acquisition of friends ; Kakolukiya, inveterate enmity ; 
Labda Nashta, loss of advantage ; Asamprekshya karitwa, incon- 
siderateness. Through reading these the princes became in six 
months highly accomplished, and the five tantras were famous 
throughout the world. 

An analytical account of the Pancha Tantra is contained in the 
Works of H. H. Wilson, Vol. IV. 

Pandava — Patronymic from Pandu, applied first to his five 
sons, and then generally to their party or army. Also to Aijuna 
in particular. 

Pandavas — The five sons of the Raja Pandu. After their 
father's death they returned to Hastiuapur, and were kindly 
received by their uucle Dritarashtra ; they were brought up with 
their cousins the Kauravas, in the old palace of Hastinapur ; but 
from the days of their early youth the sons of Dritarashtra were 
ever jealous of the sons of Pandu. Duryodhana, the eldest of the 
Kauravas, attempted to take the life of Bhima. Soon after, a 
famous Brahman preceptor, named Drona, arrived at the city of 
Hastinapur. Their Uncle Bhishma engaged him to instruct the 
Kauravas and Pandavas in arms and sciences. Drona took great 
pains in teaching all the young men, but especially in teaching the 
Pandavas. To Yudhishthira he imparted the use of the spear, but 

440 PAN 

that young prince became more renowned for wisdom and good- 
ness than for deeds of arms. To Arjuna he taught the use of the 
bow, and Arjuna became the most famous archer of his time. To 
Bhima he taught the use of the club, for Bhima was a young man 
of great appetite and enormous strength, and could wield the club 
right lustily. To Nakula he taught the whole art of taming and 
managing horses, and to Sahadeva Astronomy and the use of the 
sword. Drona instructed the Kauravas in like manner, as well as 
his own son Aswatthama. But of all his pupils the most beloved 
was Arjuna, for he was the most perfect of all ; and thus, while 
Duryodhana, the eldest of the Kauravas was jealous of all the 
Pandavas, he was the most jealous of Arjuna. 

This feeling increased and led to many quarrels ; ultimately to 
the exile of the Pandavas, who were sent by Dritarashtra to the 
city of Varanavata. Here Duryodhana plotted their destruction 
by having them invited to a house built of combustible materials, 
with the intention of setting it on fire at night when they were 
all asleep. A retainer of his, Purochana, was the agent sent to 
effect this. The plot was discovered ; an underground passage 
was dug through which they might escape ; and Bhima set on 
fire the house of Purochana ; the flames reached the house of the 
Pandavas, who were conducted by Bhima through the passage 
underground, and went into the jungle with their mother Kunti. 
They afterwards lived as mendicant brahmans in the city of 
Ekachakra (q. v.) Their subsequent history embraces the events 
which led to the Great War in the plain of Kurukshetra ; the 
details of which will be found under the names of the various 
actors in it. The brothers at last assumed the garb of devotees, 
and after passing through many lands, they reached the Himalaya 
mountains, and there died one after the other, and were transported 
to the heaven of Indra. The fine description of the renunciation 
of their kingdom by the five brothers, and their journey towards 
ludra's heaven, has been well translated by Mouier Williams : — 

When the four brothers knew the high resolve of king Yudhishthira, 
Forthwith with Draupadi they issued forth, and after them a dog 
Followed ; the king himself went out the seventh from the royal city, 
And all the citizens and women of the palace walked behind . 

PAN 441 

But none could find it in their heart to say unto the king, 'Return.' 

And so at length the train of citizens went back, bidding adieu. 

Then the high-minded sons of P5,ndu and the noble Draupadi 

Roamed onwards, fasting with their faces towards the east ; their hearts 

Yearning for union with the Infinite ; bent on abandonment 

Of worldly things. They wandered on to many countries, many a sea 

And river. Yudhishthira walked in front, and next to him came Bhima, 

And Arjuna came after him, and then, in order, the twin brothers. 

And last of all came Draupadi, with her dark skin and lotus-eyes — 

The faithful Draupadi, loveliest of woman, best of wives — ^ 

Behind them walked the only living thing that shared their pilgrimage, 

The dog— And by degrees they reached the briny sea. There Arjuna 

Cast in the waves his bow and quivers. Then with souls well-disciplined 

They reached the northern region, and beheld with heaven-aspiring hearts 

The mighty mountain Himavat. Beyond its lofty peak they passed 

Towards the sea of sand, and saw at last the rocky Meru, king 

Of mountains. As with eager steps they hastened on, their souls intent 

On union with the Eternal, Draupadi lost hold of her high hope. 

And faltering fell upon the earth. 

" One by one the others also drop, till only Bhima, Yudhishthira, 
and the dog are left. Still Yudhishthira walks steadily in front, 
calm and unmoved, looking neither to the right hand nor to the 
left, and gathering up his soul in inflexible resolution. Bhima, 
shocked at the fall of his companions, and unable to understand 
how beings so apparently guileless should be struck down by fate, 
appeals to his brother, who without looking back explains that 
death is the consequence of sinful thoughts and too great attach- 
ment to worldly objects ; and that Draupadi's fall was owing to 
her excessive affection for Arjuna ; Sahadeva's (who is supposed to 
be the most humble-minded of the five brothers) to his pride in his 
own knowledge ; Nakula's (who is very handsome) to feelings of 
personal vanity ; and Arjuna's to a boastful confidence in his 
power to destroy his foes. Bhima then feels himself falling, and 
is told that he sufi^ers death for his selfishness, pride, and too great 
love of enjoyment. The sole survivor is now Yudhishthira, who 
still walks steadily forward, followed only by the dog. 

When with a sudden sound that rang through earth and heaven, came the god 

Towards him in a chariot, and he cried, "Ascend, O resolute prince." 

Then did the king look back upon hi.s fallen brothers, and address'd 

These words unto the Thousand-eyed, in anguish—" Let my brothers here , 

€ome with me. Without them, God of Gods, I would not wish to enter - - ^'l- 

E'en heaven ; and yonder tender princess Draupadi, the faithful wife, u^ WAS 

Worthy of happiness, let her too come. In mercy hear my prayer." 

Upon this, Indra informs him that the .si)iiits of Draui^i,id. 


442 PAN 

brothers are already in heaven, and that he alone is permitted to 
ascend there in bodily form. Yudhishthira now stipulates that his 
dog shall be admitted with him. Indra says sternly, " Heaven has 
no place for those who are accompanied by dogs (Swavatdra) ;" 
but Yudhishthira is unshaken in his resolution, and declines 
abandoning the faithful animal. Indra remonstrates — " You have 
abandoued your brothers and Draupadi ; why not forsake the dog ?" 
To this Yudhishthira haughtily replies, " I had no power to bring 
them back to life ; how can there be abandonment of those who no 
longer live ?" 

The dog, it appears, was his own father Dharma in disguise 
(Mahaprasthanika-parva.) Reassuming now his proper form he 
praises Yudhishthira for his constancy, and they enter heaven 
together. There, to his surprise, he finds Duryodhana and his 
cousins, but not his brothers or Draupadi. Hereupon he declines 
remaining in heaven without them. An angel is then sent to 
conduct him across the Indian Styx (Vaitarini) to the hell where 
they are supposed to be. The scene which now follows may be 
compared to the Necyomanteia in the eleventh book of the Odyssey, 
or to parts of Dante. 

" The particular hell to which Yudhishthira is taken is a dense 
wood, whose leaves are sharp swords, and its ground paved with 
razors. The way to it is strewed with foul and mutilated corpses. 
Hideous shapes flit across the air and hover over him. Here there 
is a horror of palpable darkness. There the wicked are burning in 
flames of blazing fire. Suddenly he hears the voices of his brothers 
and companions imploring him to assuage their torments, and not 
desert them. His resolution is taken. Deeply affected, he bids 
the angel leave him to share their miseries. This is his last trial. 
The whole scene now vanishes. It was a mere illusion, to test his 
constancy to the utmost. He is now directed to bathe in the 
heavenly Ganges ; and having plunged into the sacred stream, he 
enters the real heaven, where at length, in company with Draupadi 
and hw brothers, he finds that rest and happiness which were 
unattainable on earth."* 

♦ Indian Epic Poetry, p. 29 to 31. 

PAN 443 

Fandu — The secoDd sou of the Vyasa, Krishna Dvvaipayaua 
and Ambalika one of the widows of R^ja Vichitravirya, — the Pale, 
was the half-brother of Dhritarashtra who was blind. " The 
reason given for these defects is curious. Ambikd, (the mother of 
Dhritarashtra) was so terrified by the swarthy complexion and 
shaggy aspect of the sage Vyisa, that when he visited her she 
closed her eyes, and did not venture to open them while he was 
with her. lu consequence of this assumed blinduess her child was 
born blind. Ambdlika, on the other hand, though she kept her 
eyes open, became so colourless with fright, that her son was born 
with a pale complexion, Pandu seems in other respects to have 
been good looking."* He was the father of the five Pandava priuces 
Yudhishthira, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula, and Sahadeva. He married 
Kunti, or Pritha, and sometime afterwards his uncle Bhishma, 
wishiug him to take a second wife, " made au expedition to 
Salya, king of Madra, and prevailed upon him to bestow his sister 
Madri upon Pandu, in exchange for vast sums of money and 
jewels. "t But as Pandu had incurred a curse from a deer which 
he shot, he was prevented from having progeny himself, and the 
Pandava princes were therefore begotten respectively by the gods 
Dharma, Vayu, Indra, and the twin Aswinau. 

Pandu was carefully educated by his uncle Bhishma, who 
afterwards installed him as Raja of Bharata. The R^ja Pandu was 
a great warrior, and is said to have undertaken a campaign which 
would have extended his empire over all Hindustan, from the 
Punjab to Bengal, and from the slopes of the Himalayas to the 
Vindhya mountains. But he was addicted to hunting, and he went 
with his two wives to the Himalaya mountains ; but his life there 
is filled with mythical details which may be passed over. While 
the five princes were still children, Pandu, forgetting the curse of 
the sage whom he had killed in the form of a deer, ventured one 
day to embrace his wife Madri, and died in her arms. She and 
Kunti then had a dispute for the honour of becoming a sati (suttee) 
which ended with Madri burning herself with her husband's corpse. J 

Fandu or Frana — A son of Dhatri and Ayati, who was 
• Indian Epic Poetry, p. 92. t Ibid. J Ibid. 

444 PAN 

married to Pundarika, aud was the ancestor of Usanas the 
preceptor of the Daityas. 

Panini — " The greatest known grammarian of ancient India, 
whose work on the Sanskrit language has up to the present day 
remained the standard of Sanskrit grammar. Its merits are so 
great, that Pdnini was ranked among the Rishis, or inspired seers, 
and at a later period of Sanskrit literature, was supposed to have 
received the fundamental rules of his work from the god Siva 
himself. Of the personal history of Pinini nothing positive is 
known, except that he was a native of the village Salatura, 
situated north-west of Attock, on the Indus — whence he is also 
surnamed Sdlaturiya — and that his mother was called Dakshi, 
wherefore, on his mother's side, he must have been a descendant 
of the celebrated family of Daksha. A tale-book, the Kathasa- 
ritsdgara (i. e.y the ocean for the rivers of tales,) gives, indeed, 
some circumstantial account of the life and death of Panini ; but 
its narrative is so absurd, and the work itself of so modern a date 
— it was written in Cashmere, at the beginning of the twelfth 
century — that no credit whatever can be attached to the facts 
related by it, or to the inferences which modern scholars have 
drawn from them. According to the views expressed by Gold- 
stUcker {Pdnifiif his place in Sanskrit Literature : London, 
1861,) it is probable that Panini lived before Sakyamuni, the 
founder of the Buddhist religion, whose death took place about 
543 B. c, but that a more definite date of the great grammarian 
has but little chance of ascertainment in the actual condition of 
Sanskrit philosophy. The grammar of Panini consists of eight 
Adhyayas, or books, each book comprising four Padas, or chapters, 
and each chapter a number of Sutras (q. v.,) or aphoristical rules. 
The latter amount in the whole to 3996 ; but three, perhaps four, 
of them did not originally belong to the work of Panini. The 
arrangement of these rules differs completely from what a European 
would expect in a grammatical work, for it is based on the 
principle of tracing linguistic phenomena, and not concerned in 
the classification of the linguistic material, according to the 
so-called parts of speech. A chapter, for instance, treating of a 
prolongation of vowels, will deal with such a fact whenever it 

PAN 445 

occurs, be it iu the formation of bases, or iu conjugation, 
declension, composition, &c. The rules of conjugation, declension, 
&c., are, for the same reason, not to be met with in the same 
chapter or in the same order in which European grammars would 
teach them ; nor would any single book or chapter, however 
apparently more systematically arranged — from a European point 
of view — such as the chapters on affixes or composition, suffice by 
itself to convey the full linguistic material concerned in it, apart 
from the rest of the work. In a general manner, Panini's work 
may therefore be called a natural history of the Sanskrit language, 
in the sense that it has the strict tendency of giving an accurate 
description of facts, instead of making such a description subser- 
vient to the theories according to which the linguistic material 
is usually distributed by European grammarians. Whatever 
objections may be raised against such an arrangement, the 
very fact of its diffisring from that in our grammars makes it 
peculiarly instructive to the European student, as it accustoms his 
mind to survey language from another point of view than that 
usually presented to him, and as it must induce him, too, to 
question the soundness of many linguistic theories now looked 
upon as axiomatic truths. As the method of Panini requires in a 
student the power of combining many rules scattered all over the 
work, and of combining, also, many inferences to be drawn from 
these rules, it exercises, moreover, on the mind of the student an 
effect analogous to that which is supposed to be the peculiar 
advantage of the study of mathematics. The rules of Panini were 
criticised and completed by Katyayana, who, according to all 
probability, was the teacher, and therefore the contemporary of 
Patanjaii ; and he, in his turn, was criticised by Patanjali, (q. v.,) 
who sides frequently with Panini. These three authors arc the 
canonical triad of the grammarians of